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From FEBRUARY 1793 to DECEMBER 1796. 





From FEBRUARY 1793 to DECEMBER 1796. 













The documents in this volume have been copied as carefully as 
possible, and no changes have been made in either the spelling, 
the punctuation, or the use of capital letters. Most of the 
originals are in perfect preservation, but in a few the ink has 
faded, and the corners of a few others have been torn off. This is 
the cause of the omission of words here and there in the corre- 
spondence between Major General Craig and the Court of Justice 
concerning the mode of inflicting capital punishment. 

With regard to the titles of the officials in England, it should 
be remembered that only since the 12th of June 1854 has there 
been a Secretary of State exclusively for the colonies. In 1793 
and during the early months of 1794 the colonies were under the 
direction of the Secretary of State for the Home Department. 
The Eight Honourable Henry Dundas, afterwards Viscount 
Melville, filled that office, and the post of Under Secretary was 
occupied by Mr., subsequently Sir, Evan Nepean. On the 11th of 
July 1794 a new department, that of Secretary of State for War, 
was created, and both the gentlemen here named were transferred 
to it. The direction of the colonies passed over with them, an 
arrangement which was first formally recognised on the 17th of 
March 1801, when Lord Hobart succeeded Mr. Dundas, with the 
title of Secretary of State for the War and Colonial Department. 
In 1795 Mr. Nepean became Secretary of the Admiralty, and was 
succeeded as Under Secretary for War by Mr. William Huskisson, 
previously Chief Clerk in the office. 


August, 1807. 

r • - t 




2 Feb. 

8 Feb, 


12 Feb. 

22 Feb. 

7 March. 

J 2 March. 

13 March. 

22 March, 

29 March. 

30 March, 

9 April. 

23 April. 


23 May. 


16 April. 


4 Jan. 

12 Jan. 

25 Jan. 

1 Fib. 

7 Feb. 

9 Feb. 
16 Feb. 

Extract from a Letter from Lord Grenville to Lord Auckland 
Letter from Lord Auckland to Mr. Fagel .... 
Extract from a Proclamation of General Dumonriez 
Extract from a Letter from Lord Auckland to Lord Grenville 

» »> » 

Extract from the Kesolutions of the States General of the 

Netherlands ........ 

Extract from a Letter from Lord Auckland to Lord Grenville 

Letter from Lord Auckland to Lord Grenville . 

Extract from a Letter from Lord Grenville to Lord Auckland 

Extract from a Letter from Lord Auckland to Lord Grenville 

Kote from Mr. P. J. Guepin to Lord Auckland . 

Extract lrom a Letter from the Embassy at the Hague to the 

Foreign Office, London ...... 

Letter from the Secretary of the Home Department to Lord 

Grenville ........ 

Letter from Lord Grenville to Lord Auckland . 
Note from Mr. P. J. Guepin to Lord Auckland . 

Letter from Mr. William Eliot to Lord Grenville! 

Letter from Sir Francis Baring to the Right Hon. Henry 
Dundas ......... 

» » » 

Letter from Captain John Blankett to Mr. Evan Nepean 
Letter from Lord Grenville to the Duke of York and Albany 
Order from the Prince of Orange to the Governor of the Cape 

of Good Hope. ....... 

Order from the Prince of Orange to the Commanding Officer 

by Sea at the Cape of Good Hope .... 
Extracts from a Memorandum by Captain Blankett 
Instructions from the Horse Guards to Captain Blankett 









Contents, v 


17 Feb. 

21 Feb. 

22 Feb. 

23 Feb. 

25 Feb. 

26 Feb. 
28 Feb. 

11 March. 
14 March. 
21 March. 

4 May. 


12 June. 

13 June. 


14 June. 

15 Juue. 

16 June. 

17 June. 

18 June. 

19 June. 

20 June. 

21 June. 

Letter from Captain Blankett to the Eight Hon. Henry 
Dundas ......... 

Instructions from the Horse Guards to Captain Blankett 

Memorandum by Major-General J. H. Craig 

Letter from the Horse Guards to Major General Craig . 

Letter from Commodore Blankett to the Right Hon. Henry 
Dundas . . . . . 

j> » » 

Extract from a Letter from Commodore Blankett to the 

Right Hon. Henry Dundas 

Extract from a Letter from Major-General Craig to Mr. 

William Huskisson. ...... 

Extracts from a Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the 

Right Hon. Henry Dundas 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Right Hon. Henry 

Dundas ......... 

Instructions from the Horse Guards to General Clarke 

» »> >» 

Letter from Commissioner Sluysken to Admiral Elphinstone 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig to Com- 
missioner Sluysken. ...... 

Letter from Commissioner Sluysken to Admiral Elphinstone 

Letter from Commissioner Slnysken and the Council to 
Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig . . . 

Letter from Colonel Gordon to Admiral Elphinstone . . 

Letter from Lieut.-Col. Mackenzie to General Craig . 

Narrative by Captain Hardy ...... 

Letter from General Craig to General Clarke 

Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to General Clarke . . 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Captain Dekker . . 

Journal kept by Admiral Elphinstone .... 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Right Hon. Henry 
Dundas ......... 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Governor Brooke . 

Declaration by General Craig ...... 

Letter from Commissioner Sluysken and the Council to 
General Craig 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig to Com- 
missioner Sluysken. ...... 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Commissioner Sluysken 

Letter from Commissioner Sluysken and the Council to 
Admiral Elphinstone ...... 
















Contents. ix 



22 June. Letter from Commissioner Sluysken and the Council to 

Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig ... 72 

23 June. Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Commissioner Sluysken 73 

24 June. Address by the British Commanders. .... 74 

25 June. Letter from Commissioner Sluysken and the Council to 

Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig . . .76 
„ Letter from the Burgher Councillors to Admiral Elphinstone 

and General Craig 76 

26 June. Letter from Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig to Com- 

missioner Sluysken and the Council .... 77 

27 June. Letter from Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig to the 

Eight Hon. Henry Dundas ..... 80 

»» » » »> "* 

„ Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 83 

„ Letter from Commissioner Sluysken and the Council to 

Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig ... 83 

„ Letter from Mr. John Pringle to Governor Brooke . . 85 

28 June. Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Right Hon. Henry 

Dundas 86 

Translation of Intercepted Despatches .... 86 

„ Proclamation by Admiral Elphinstone .... 90 

29 June. Letter from Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig to Com- 

missioner Sluysken and the Council . . , .91 

»» »> n n W" 

„ Letter from Commissioner Sluysken and the Council to 

Admiral Elphinstone .97 

30 June. Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Commissioner Sluysken 

and the Council of Policy. ..... 97 

2 July. Letter from Commissioner Sluysken and the Council of 

Policy to Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig. . 98 

3 July. Letter from Major-General Craig to the Right Hun. Henry 

Dundas 99 

n » » » 100 
„ Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Right Hon. Henry 

Dundas 102 

4 July. Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Evan Nepean, Esqre. . 106 

„ Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Right Hon. Henry 

Dundas 108 

12 July. Letter from General Clarke to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 109 

13 July. „ „ „ 110 

Return of Assistance forwarded from St. Helena. . . Ill 
26 July. Letter from General Clarke to the Right Hon. Henry 

Dundas 112 

18 Aug. Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Eight Hon. Henry 

Dundas 113 

Return of Killed and Wounded 117 



9 Sept. 

12 Sept. 


14 Sept. 


16 Sept. 


18 Sept. 

19 Sept. 

19 Sept. 

20 Sept. 

21 Sept. 

22 Sept. 

23 Sept. 

24 Sept. 
26 Sept. 

30 Sept. 

4 Oct. 
7 Oct. 


9 Oct. 
10 Oct. 

Address of the British Commanders to the Inhabitants of the 

Colony . 
Letter from Commissioner Sluysken to the British Com 

manders' ....... 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Right Hon. Henry 

Dundas. ....... 

Journal of Proceedings from 17 June to 14 September. 
Return of Killed and Wounded on 14 September 
Letter from Commissioner Sluysken to General Clarke 
Letter from General Clarke to Commissioner Sluysken 
Terms of the Capitulation of the Colony . . . 

Letter from General Clarke to Commissioner Sluysken. 
Return of Killed and Wounded Seamen . 
Letter from the British Commanders to the Inhabitants of 

Swellendam ....... 

Revenue Returns from 1 Sept. 1793 to 31 August 1795 
Letter from Commodore Blanket t to Admiral Elphinstone 
Description of the Public Buildings at Simonstown 
Account of the Principal Productions of the Colony 
Proclamation by the British Commanders . 
Inventory of Property surrendered ..... 

Letter from General Clarke to Admiral Elphinstone . 
Letter from Major-General Craig to Admiral Elphinstone 
Letter from Major- General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry 

Dundas ........ 

Address of the British Commanders to the Colonists . 
Letter from Major-General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry 

Dimdas. ....... 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Right Hon. Henry 

Dundas. ....... 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Evan Nepean, Esqre. 
Letter from General Clarke to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 

!> » » 

Letter from Major-General Crai^ to General Clarke 
Memorandum on the Condition of the Colony 
Appointment of Major-General Craig as Commandant . 
Proclamation by General Clarke and Admiral Elphinstone 
Return of Probable Civil List from 1 Oct. 1795 to 30 Sept, 


Order issued by Admiral Elphinstone . 
Proclamation by the British Commanders . 

» 5> >> 

Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 
Proclamation by' the British Commanders .... 
Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Right Hon. Henry 
Dundas. . . 


Contents. xi 



11 Oct. • Proclamation by the British Commanders . . . . • 18-7 
„ • Letter from General Clarke to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 189 

12 Oct. Letter from General Clarke and Admiral Elphinstone to the 

Rk'ht Hon. Henry "Dundas . . . . . 191 

„ Schedule of Property belonging to the Dutch East India 

Company ....... 

„ Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Evan Nepean, Esqre. 

15 Oct. • Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Captain Stanhope 
Letter from C. Seward to Captain Spranger 
„ Letter from Captain Stanhope to Admiral Elphinstone 

„ Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Captain Stanhope 

„ Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Evan Nepean, Ksqre. 


„ Letter from the British Commande; s to the several Landdrosts 197 

„ Proclamation by the British Commanders .... 199 

„ Regulations for licensing Winehouses . . . . 201 

16 Oct. Proclamation by General Craig ..... 202 

„ - Letter from the Members of the Council of Justice to 

General Craig ....... 203 

20 Oct. Proclamation by General Craig ..... 206 

» » »> >» 

29 Oct. Letter from the Burghers of Graaff-Reinet to General 

Craig 208 

30 Oct. Letter from the War Office to Major-General Craig . . 211 
„ Letter from the War Office to Vice-Admiral Elphinstone . 212 
„ Proclamation by the British Commanders .... 212 
„ ' Conditions of Auctioneers' Licenses ..... 214 

Return of Requirements for Slaves . . . . .216 
Memorandum relative to the Governor's Salary . . . 217 

Return of Duties on Imports and Exports .... 218 

7 Nov. Letter from General Craig to the President and Members of 

• the Court of Justice 219 

8 Nov. Memorial of Officers to General Clarke . . . .221 
10 Nov". Proclamation by General Craig ..... 222 
12 Nov. Memorial of General Clarke to the King .... 222 

Nov. Letter from General Clarke to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 224 

12 Nov^ Instructions to Commodore Blankett .... 225 
„ Letter from General Clarke to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 228 

13 Nov". Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Evan Nepean, Esqre. . 231 

14 Nov". Letter from General Clarke to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas ' 232 

15 Nov. „ „ „ 233 
23 Nov. Letter from General Craig to C. D. Gerotz and the Burgher 

Officers of Graaff-Reinet ...... 234 

30 Nov. Return of Revenue received to Date . . . . . 237 

3 Dec. Letter from Commodore Blankett to General Craig . . 237 




7 Dec. 

16 Dec. 

18 Dec. 
23 Dec. 

List of Arrival of Ships in Table Bay since 16 September . 
Memorandum by Mr. W. S. van Ryneveld 
Letter from General Craig to Commodore Blankett 
Observations on the Revenue ...... 

Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 

» » « 
Letter from Commodore Blankett to the Right Hon. Henry 

27 Dec. Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 

„ Memorial of General Craig to the King . 

31 Dec. Letter from General Craig to the Bight Hon. Henry Dundas 

» >» n rt 

Census Returns for 1795 ....... 





1 Jan. 

7 Jan. 

12 Jan. 

14 Jan. 

15 Jan. 

16 Jan. 



20 Jan. 

22 Jan. 

23 Jan. 

27 Jan. 

2 Feb. 

4 Feb. 

6 Feb. 

12 Feb. 

14 Feb. 

17 Feb. 

4 March. 

Appointment of Inspector of Public Property . « . 297 
Letter from General Craig to the President and Members of 

the Court of Justice ...... 298 

Letter from Commodore Blankett to Lord Hawkesbury . 300 

Letter from the Court of Justice to General Craig . . 302 

Letter from Captain Stanhope to Evan Nepean, Esqre. . 309 

Letter from the War Office to General Clarke . . . 311 

Letter from the War Office to Admiral Elphinstone . . 313 

Letter from the War Office to General Craig . . . 315 

Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 318 

Letter from the War Office to General Craig . . . 319 

Proclamation by General Craig ..... 319 

Letter from General Craig to the Court of Justice . . 320 

Letter from the Court of Justice to General Craig . . 321 

Letter from General Craig to the Court of Justice . . 324 
Letter from the Governor-General and Council of Bengal to 

General Craig. ....... 325 

Letter from Evan Nepean, Esqre., to Admiral Elphinstone . 325 

Letter from the War Office to General Craig . . . 326 

Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 327 

5» 5> »> oA\) 

Letter from Commodore Blankett to the Right Hon. Henry 

Dundas 331 

Proclamation by General Craig ..... 332 

Letter from Commodore Blaakett to Evan Nepean, Esqre. . 33i£ 




8 March. 

14 March. 
16 March. 
21 March. 

12 April. 

13 April. 

14 April. 

15 April. 

18 April. 

19 April. 

20 April. 

21 April. 
23 April. 

25 April. 

27 April. 

28 April. 


30 April. 

12 May. 

13 May. 

31 May. 

8 June. 
18 June. 

21 June. 

24 June. 

25 June. 

5 July. 

6 July. 
8 July. 




»> »» » » 385 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Right Hon. Henry 

Dundas 386 

Letter from the Rev. S. Cole to Admiral Elphinstone . . 388 

Letter from General Craig to the Burgher Senate and the 

Landdrosts . . . . . . . . 389 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Eight Hon. Henry 

Dundas. 391 

» »> » 393 

Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 396 


Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 

» »> >» 

Letter from Commodore Blaukett to General Craig 
Proclamation by General Craig .... 

Letter from Commodore Blankett to General Craig 
Instructions by Admiral Elphinstone 
Revenue and Expenditure from 1 Oct. 1795 to 31 March 1796 
List of the Arrival of Ships in Table Bay . 
Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 
Letter from Commodure Blankett to the Right Hon. Henry 
Dundas ........ 

Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 
Letter from the War Office to General Craig 

» >» » » 

Letter from Captain Winthrop to Admiral Elphinstone 
Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 
Proclamation by General Craig .... 

Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 

Extract from a Letter from Admiral Pringle to Evan Nepean 

Esqre. ........ 

Letter from General Craig to the Burgher Councillors . 
Letter from the Burgher Councillors to General Craig. 
Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 
Letter from Admiral Pringle to Evan Nepean, Esqre. . 
Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 

Letter from the Burgher Senate to General Craig 
Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Admiral Rainier 
Information obtained from two Seamen 
Information obtained from a French Officer 
Information obtained from four French Seamen 
Letter from the War Office to General Craig 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Right Hon. Henry 
Dundas ......... 





10 July. 

16 July. 

28 July. 

29 July. 

30 July. 

1 Aug. 
3 Aug. 



Letter from 


Letter from 


L-tter from 


Letter from 

4 Aug. 

Letter from 

8 Aug. 

Letter from 

16 Aug. 

Letter from 

17 Aug. 

19 Aug. 

20 Aug. 

29 Aug. 

30 Aug. 
4 Sept. 

6 Sept. 

8 Sept. 

9 Sept. 

21 Sept. 

22 Sept. 

30 Sept. 
1 Oct. 
4 Oct. 

Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 

Letter from Messrs, Fehrszen & Co. to General Craig . 
Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 

» »» >» 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Evan Nepean, Esqre. 
Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 
Letter from General Craig to Admiral Elphinstone 
Letter from the War Office to Major-General Francis Dundas 
Letter from the War Office to Major-General Craig 

General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 
Admiral Elphinstone to Evan Nepean, Esqre. 
Admiral Elphinstone to General Craig 
General Craig to William Huskisson, Esqre. 
Admiral Elphinstone to Evan Nepean, Esqre. 
the War Office to Major-General Craig 
Admiral Elphinstone to Admiral Lucas . 

Letter from Admiral Lucas to Admiral Elphinstone . 

»> » » 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Admiral Lucas . 
Articles of Capitulation of the Fleet under Admiral Lucas 
Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 
Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Evan Nepean, Esqre. 
List of Surrendered Ships ..... 
List of British Ships at Saldanha Bay 
Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Evan Nepean, Esqre. 
Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 

»» » » 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Evan Nepean, Esqre. 
Instructions given by General Craig to Major King 
Letter from General Craig to Major King . 
Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 
Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Right Hon. Henry 

Dundas ........ 

Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 
Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Right Hon. Henry 

Dundas ........ 

Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 
Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Right Hon. Henry 

Dundas ........ 

Returns of Revenue and Expenditure 

Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 


4 Oct. 

5 Oct. 

21 Oct. 
26 Oct. 
31 Oct. - 
1 Nov. 

12 Nov. 

13 Nov. 

14 Nov. 
20 Nov. 

2 Dec. 
11 Dec. 

17 Dec. 

27 Dec. 

28 Dec. 
31 Dec. 

( 'mt ten Is. 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to General Craig 
Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dnndaa 
Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Itear-Admiral Pringle 
Letter from Admiral Pringle to Evan Nepean, Esqre. . 
Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 

»> » >> 

Letter from Admiral Pringle to Evan Nepean, Esqre. . 
Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Evan Nepean, Esqre. 
Letter from some Burghers of Graaff-Reinet to General Craig 
Letter from Admiral Pringle to Evan Nepean, Esqre. . 
Letter from some Burghers of Graaff-Reinet to General Craig 
Letter from General Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 

>> »> 5> 

Letter from the War Office to General Craig 

Letter from Gen. Craig to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas 
Letter from Admiral Pringle to Evan Nepean, Esqre. . 
Proclamation by General Craig .... 

Letter from Captain Blankett to the Right Hon. Henry 

Dundas ........ 

Proclamation by General Craig .... 

Letter from Mr. F. R. Bresler to General Craig . 
Proclamation by General Craig .... 

Letter from General Craig to the Burghers of Agter Bruins- 

hoog;te and Zuurveld ..... 







Extract from a Letter from Lord Gkenville, Secretary of State 
for Foreign Affairs, to Lord Auckland, Ambassador Extra- 
ordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at the Hague. 

Whitehall, February 2nd, 1793. 

I transmit to your Excellency copies of some Papers which have 
been received from the Secret Committee of the Court of Directors 
of the East India Company, in order that you may communicate 
confidentially, and without delay, with the Dutch Ministers on 
this subject, which you will readily conceive to be of the highest 
importance to the interests of our East India Company. It is 
highly probable that means might be found at no very remote 
period to send a number of troops to the Cape from St. Helena, 
where they might be replaced by recruits going out from hence. 
But it would be necessary that the fullest concert should be 
established on this point which may be of the utmost consequence 
to the interests of both countries. 

Confidential Letter from Lord Auckland to tlw 
Greffier Fagel. 

La Hatk, le 8 Fevr., 1793. 

Monsieur, — Dans une depeche en date du 2 de ce mois, Lord 
Grenville me charge d'entrer en communication confidentielle 
avec le Gouvernement de cette Republique, relativement a cer- 
tains points d'une- importance majeure pour les interets des 
Compagnies des Indes Orientales des deux Pays. 

II a ete ecrit a St. Helene et au Cap par des vaisseaux qui ont 


2 Records of the Cape Colony. 

fait voile des Dunes le 27 Decembre et le 20 Janvier, pour 
informer les Gouvernemens respectifs Anglois et Hollandois de 
ces Etablissemens de la situation critique des affaires en Europe, 
pour avertir les vaisseaux qui sont sur leur retour, afin qu'ils 
fussent sur leur garde, et pour prendre d'autres precautions pour 
leur surete. On continue a donner a ces importans objets l'atten- 
tion necessaire, et j'ai lieu de croire qu'on se dispose a prendre des 
mesures ulterieurs. 

Les Directeurs de la Compagnie Angloise ont profite" de cette 
occasion pour exposer aux Ministres de sa Majeste que " dans la 
situation actuelle de l'lnde il ne paroit pas que Ton ait rien a 
craindre si ce n'est d'une force Europeenne, que devroit etre 
prealablement rassamfclee a l'lsle de France, ou a l'lsle Bourbon, 
a moins que la France ne put s'emparer du Cap de Bonne 
Esperance. Ces Isles dependent presque entierement du Cap 
pour leur approvisionnement, et il seroit essentiel de defendre cet 
approvisionnement sans delai. Mais il est a craindre que dans 
l'intervalle le Cap ne puisse etre pris par des Forces tres peu 
considerables, la Compagnie Hollandoise ayant juge apropos de 
diminuer tellement les siennes que le nombre de Troupes au Cap 
n'exceVie gueres, a ce qu'on assure, cent hommes, et il regne aussi 
de grandes dissensions dans cette Colonie. Dans de telles circon- 
stances on desireroit ardemment qu'on prit quelque mesure efficace 
pour la surete du Cap." 

Lord Grenville remarque a ce sujet " qu'on pourroit probable- 
ment trouver moyen, dans un assez court delai, d'envoyer au Cap 
un nombre de Troupes de Ste. Helene, ou elles pourroient etre 
remplacees par des recrues qu'on y enverroit d'Angleterre. Mais 
il seroit necessaire que le plus parfait concert fut etabli sur cet 
article, qui pourra etre de la plus grande consequence pour les 
deux Pays." 

Je vous prie, Monsieur, de communiquer cette lettre confi- 
dentiellement, et sur le champ, de la maniere la plus analogue a ce 
qui en fait le contenu. 

J'ai l'honneur, &c, 

(Signe) Auckland. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 3 

Extract from a Proclamation of General Dumouriez to the 

Fevrier, 1793. 

Peuple Batave : Le Stathouder, qui d'apres les principes 
Bepublicains ne devrait etre que votre Capitaine General, qui 
ne devrait exercer que pour votre bonheur le pouvoir dont vous 
l'avez revetu subordonnement aux volontes et aux decisions de 
votre 1'epublique, vous tient dans l'oppression et dans l'esclavage. 

Nous entrons en Hollande conime amis des Bataves, et comme 
enneinis irreconciliables de la Maison d'Orange. Son joug vous 
parait trop insupportable pour que votre choix soit douteux. Ne 
voyez vous pas que ce Demi-Despote qui vous tirannise, sacrifie 
a son Interet Personnel, les Interets les plus solides de votre 
Eepublique ? Ne vous a-t-il pas engage en 1782 a rompre avec 
une perfidie deshonorante le Traite d'alliance que vous aviez 
conclu avec Nous. Depuis lors n'a-t-il pas toujours favorise le 
Commerce Anglais aux depens du votre ? Ne livre-t-il pas en 
ce moment vos Etablissemens les plus importans, le Cap de 
Bonne Esperance, l'lsle de Ceylon, et tout votre commerce des 
Indes, a la seule nation dont vous avez a craindre l'incessante 
Bivalite ! Croyez vous que les Anglais, insatiables de Puissance 
et d'Or, vous rendent jamais ces Places Importantes, qui achevent 
de leur assurer l'Empire de l'lnde ? Non Bataves, vous ne 
reprendrez votre Eang parmi les Premieres Nations Maritimes, 
que lorsque vous serez Libres. Kenvoyez en Allemagne cette 
Maison Ambitieuse, qui depuis cent ans vous sacrifie a son 

(Signe) Le General en chef de l'armee de la 
Eepublique Franca ise, 


Extract from a Letter from Lord Auckland to 
Lord Grenville. 

Hague, \2th February, 1793. 

The Baron de Nagell has transmitted to the Dutch Ministers a 
copy of the letter which, with your Lordship's approbation, he 
wrote on the 6th instant to the Governor of the Cape. This step is 

b 2 

4 Records of the Cape Colony. 

seen in a right point of view by the Dutch Ministers, as a service 
which may eventually be of great importance. The Directors of 
the East India Company had already been required to assemble 
here, in consequence of my letter of the 8th instant relative to 
the Cape, and for various other considerations resulting from the 
present state of affairs. 

Extract from a Letter from Lord Auckland to 
Lord Grenville. 

Hague, 22nd Feb., 1793. 

This evening a Deputation from the Dutch East India Company 
attended me to say that a general committee was summoned from 
Zeeland and from Amsterdam, to meet here next week, in order to 
submit to His Majesty's Ministers certain propositions respecting 
the convoy of vessels and the security of the Settlements of the 
Eepublic at the Cape of Good Hope and in the East Indies. In 
the course of conversation it appeared that the number of troops 
at the Cape is about eight hundred, which is very considerably 
beyond what had been reported to us. 

Extract uit het Register der Resolutien van de Hoog Mogcndc Hccrcn 
Staaten Generaal der Vereenigde Neederlanden. 

Jovis den 7» Maart 1793. 

Is gehoord het Eapport van de Heeren van Welderen, en 
andere haar Hoog Mogende Gedeputeerden tot de Zaaken van de 
Oost Indische Compagnie, hebbende, in gevolge en tot voldoeninge 
van Derselver Ilesolutie Commissoriaal van den 8 der gepasseerde 
Maand February, geexamineerd een Missive van Lord Auckland, 
Extraordinaris Ambassadeur en Plenipotentiaris van Syne Groot 
Britannische Majesteit, geschreeven alhier in 's Haage ten zelven 
dage, geaddresseerd aan den Griffier Fagel, raakende eenige 
Pointen van het grootste gewigt voor de belangen van de 
wederzydsche Oost Indische Compagnien in de teegenwoordige 
Critique tydsomstandigheden. 

Waarop gedelibereerd en ingenoomen zijnde de Consideration 

Records of the Cape Colon//. 5 

en het Advis van Bewindhebboren van de Generaale Geoctroyeerde 
Oost Indische Compagnie deeser Landen, Is goedgevonden en 
verstaan, dat ten einde alle Voorzorg te neemen, opdat l'lsle de 
France of liet Eiland Bourbon niet werden geproviandeerd van 
Cabo de Goede Hoop, Bewindhebberen van de Oost Indische 
Compagnie ter Preesidiaale Kamer Zeeland zullen worden aange- 
schreeven, om daadelyke en onverwylde Ordres aan het Gouverne- 
ment aldaar te doen afgaan, opdat door hetzelve behoorlyke zorge 
werde gedraagen, en emcacieuselyk werde belet, dat geene Vivrcs 
of eenige andere Middelen van Subsistence van Cabo de Goede 
Hoop voornoemd naar het voorsz. Eiland werden afgescheept of 

Dat wyders, met opzigt tot het neemen van kragtdaadige 
Maatregulen voor de zeekerheid van Cabo de Goede Hoop, aan 
gemelden Lord Auckland, tot antwoord op desselvs voorsz. 
Missive zal worden te kennen gegeeven, dat, ofschoon de 
Militnire Magt, thans aldaar voor handen zynde, op verre na 
niet genoegzaam zoude zyn, om aan eene Europeesche Magt het 
hoofd te bieden, waartoe ten minsten 5 a 6000 man zouden 
vereischt worden, welke de Oost Indische Compagnie deeser 
Landen buiten Staat is aldaar op den duur te kunnen aan- 
houden, het er nogthans zeer verre van daan is dat het teegen- 
woordig Guarnisoen op het voorsz. Etablissement slegts zoude 
bestaan uit honderd persoonen, aangezien in gevolge de laatste 
bepaaling van het Bewind is goedgevonden hetzelve te brengen 
op 400 Artilleristen en 600 Man Infanterie, en dus te zaamen 
op een getal van duizend Militairen, welk getal dan ook, volgens 
de laatst ontvangen berichten, aldaar voorhanden was. 

Dat ook de Compagnie tot nu toe niet geinformeerd is van de 
verregaande Oneenigheden, welke in die Colonie zouden plaats 
hebben, zoo dat de informatien ten dien opzigte aan het Ministerie 
van Syne Groot Britannische Majesteit gegeeven, niet alleszints 
naauwkeurig zyn geweest. 

Dat, aangezien het echter in de teegenwoordige Critique Tyds 
Omstandigheden van de uiterste noodzaakelykheid is, kragt- 
daadige Maatregulen te neemen voor de zeekerheid van Cabo de 
Goede Hoop, waartoe de Neederlandsche Oost Indische Com- 
pagnie, door eenen Zaamenloop van ongelukkige Omstandigheden 
van haaren kant, volstrekt buiten Staat is, aan meergemelden 
Lord Auckland wyders zal worden te kennen gegeeven, dat men 

6 Records of the Cape Colony. 

van deese zyde geneegen is, om in dit opzigt met het Groot 
Britannische Ministerie in het volmaakste Concert te werk te 
gaan, en dienvolgende de daartoe aangebooden hulpe gaarne zal 

Dat men echter niet kan nalaaten, eenigzints in twyffel te 
trekken, of het Voorstel, dien aangaande gedaan, om eenige 
Troupes van St. Helena naar Cabo de Goede Hoop te zenden, wel 
ten eenemaal zoude beantwoorden aan het oogmerk, het behoud 
naamentlyk van dien Uithoek, aangezien er niet alleen een 
geruimen tyd zoude worden vereischt, alvoorens de Ordres daar 
toe uit Engeland naar St. Helena zouden kunnen worden over- 
gebragt, maar ook voor en aleer de Troupes, na het ontvangen 
dier Ordres, in gereedheid zouden kunnen zyn, om van daar 
ingescheept, en naar de plaats hunner destinatie getransporteerd 
te worden, maar dat men ook niet geheel zonder bekommering is, 
dat de Militaire Magt, welke op St. Helena zoude kunnen gemist 
worden, niet genoegzaam zoude bevonden worden, om de Caab in 
volkoomen veiligheid te stellen. 

Dat haar Hoog Mogende dus van gedagten zouden zijn, dat een 
aanzienlyke Zee Magt mogelyk een prompter en geschikter middel 
zoude weezen om het meergemelde Etablissement teegen eenen 
Vyandelyken aanval te dekken: weshalven haar Hoog Mogende 
meergemelden Lord Auckland verzoeken, desselvs Goede Officien, 
waarvan Hoogstdezelve dagelyks de goede Vrugten ondervinden, 
by het Ministerie van Syne Groot Britannische Majesteit te willen 
aanwenden, ten einde met zoo veel Spoed als mogelyk zal zyn, 
zoodanig Secours van Oorlog Scheepen van de Navale Magt van 
Hoogstdezelve Syne Majesteit moge worden afgezonden, en der- 
waards geexpedieerd, als met de Omstandigheeden en andere 
Schikkingen, die het voorsz. Ministerie reeds zoude mogen 
hebben beraamd, of nog zoude willen maaken, meest overeen- 
komstig zal geoordeeld worden ; dog dat, byaldien het meer- 
gemelde Ministerie zulks niet konde bewilligen, haar Hoog 
Mogende als dan de aangebooden Hulp Troupes van St. Helena 
met dankbaarheid zullen aanneemen. 

En zal Extract van deese haar Hoog Mogende Besolutie door 
den Griffier Eagel aan meergemelden Lord Auckland worden ter 
hand gesteld ; zullende gelyk Extract van deese haar Hoog 
Mogende Kesolutie gezonden worden aan den Heere van Nagell, 
haar Hoog Mogende Extraordinaris Envoye en Plenipotentiaris 

Records of the Cape Colony. 7 

aan bet Hov van Syne Groot Britannische Majesteit, om te 
strekken tot desselvs informatie, en het verzoek, aan het 
Ministerie van hoogstgedagte Syne Majesteit in voege voor- 
schreeven te doen, ook van Syne kant, uit den Naam van haar 
Hoog Mogende voor te draagen. 

(Geteekend) W. N. Pesters. 

Accordeert met voorsz. Eegister. 

(Geteekend) H. Fagel. 

Extract from a Despatch from Lord Auckland to 
Lord Grenville. 

Hague, 12th March, 1793. 

Your Lordship will recollect that on the breaking out of the 
war I transmitted to the States General a translation of your 
Instruction to me respecting the measures to be taken for the 
security of the Cape of Good Hope, and for the mutual protection 
to be given by the two countries to the trading vessels from the 
East Indies. The Dutch East India Directors have not given an 
answer as to the first of these Points. 

Despatch from Lord Auckland to Lord Grenville. 

Hague, 13th March, 1793. 

My Lord, — I have the honour to enclose a copy and translation 
of a Resolution of the States General. It may be considered as an 
answer to the letter which I wrote on the 8th February to the 
Greffier Fagel, pursuant to your Lordship's Instructions to me on 
various points connected with the Interests of the two East India 
Companies and of our possessions in the East Indies. I have &c. 

(Signed) Auckland. 

8 Records of the Cafie Colony. 

Extract from a Despatch from Lord Grenville to 
Lord Auckland. 

Whitehall, March 22nd, 1793. 

Whatever can be done for the protection of the Cape will be 
an object of the serious and early attention of His Majesty's 

Extract jrom a Letter from Lord Auckland to 
Lord Grenville. 

Hague, 29th March, 1793. 

A Deputation from the Dutch East India Company called on me 
this evening, to express a strong desire to be aided, either by 
His Majesty's vessels or by the Troops of the East India Company, 
in the important point of keeping possession of the Cape. They 
further entreated me to obtain some answer as to what might be 
expected. They also wish to avail themselves of any convoy that 
may be sailing to the East India Settlements. 

Note from Mr. P. J. Guepin, Chief Advocate of the Dutch East 
India Company, to Lord Auckland. 

La Compagnie des Indes Orientales Hollandoise aiant ete 
informee par un Extrait de la Resolution de Leur Hautes 
Puissance3 Les Etats Generaux des Provinces Unies du 7 de ce 
mois, que ceux ci avoient declare a son Excellence Milord 
Auckland Ambassadeur Extraordinaire et Plenipotentiaire de La 
Cour Britannique, que Leur Hautes Puissances s'etoient trouves 
penetrees de la necessite de prendre dans les circonstances 
actuelles de La Republique des Mesures efficaces pour la surete 
du Cap de Bonne Esperance, que de leur cote Elles etoient tres 
disposees a etablir sur cet article le plus parfait concert avec Le 
Ministere de la dite Cour et qu'elles acceptoient tres volontiers 
l'offre, qui leur avoit ete faite a cet effet dans la note confidentielle 
de Monsieur 1' Ambassadeur. 

Le Soussigne Avocat de La Compagnie des Indes Orientales a 

Records of the Cape Colony. 9 

l'honneur d'informer son Excellence, que cette Compagnie se 
trouvant actuellement dans le cas d'envoier des depeches au susdit 
Cap de Bonne Esperance : elle desireroit ardarament de pouvoir 
communiquer a ses Ministres dans le dit Etablissement quelques 
details relatifs a cet objet. 

Pour cet effet la Compagnie prend la liberte de solliciter 
particulierement Monsieur L'Ambassadeur de bien vouloir lui 
communiquer, s'il y auroit quelqu' apparence que La Cour Bri- 
tannique detachat quelques Vaisseaux de Guerre pour garantir 
Le Cap de Bonne Esperance contre line invasion ennemie, a quel 
Nombre pourroit se monter ce secours et a quel terrae environ 
Ton pourroit compter qu'il y fut expedie, le tout afin d'avertir les 
Ministres au Cap de se preparer a accueillir ces Vaisseaux et a 
leur procurer tout l'assistance possible. 

La Compagnie sollicite en outre de recevoir, s'il etoit possible, 
quelques renseignemens, a quel nombre a peu pres pouroient 
se monter les Troupes de terre, lesquelles Lord Grenville a 
fait esperer que Ton pouroit dans un assez court delai 
envoier de St. Helene au susdit Cap de Bonne Esperance, 
afin de pouvoir donner les ordres necessaires au Ministere de La 
Compagnie, pour les y recevoir et pour leur procurer le Logement 

Et comme enfin Monsieur L'Ambassadeur a bien voulu aussi 
declarer, il y a quelque terns a la Compagnie que lors qu'il y 
auroit un Convoi de Vaisseaux de Guerre Anglois d'arrete pour 
L'Inde, les Vaisseaux de la Compagnie Hollandoise auroient la 
faculte d'en profiter; cette Compagnie a l'honneur d'informer 
Milord Auckland qu'elle se trouve actuellement dans le cas d'avoir 
quelques Navires prets a faire voile, et que par consequent il 
seroit pour elle de la derniere importance d'etre instruite, quand 
il conviendroit a la Cour Britannique de mettre son escadre 
armee en mer, afin que Ton puisse prendre ici ses mesures en 

(Signe) P. J. Guepin. 

La Have, ce 30 Mars 1793. 

10 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Extract from a Letter from the Secretary to the Ambassador 
at the Hague to the Foreign Office, London. 

Hague, 9th April, 1793. 

The Dutch East India Company have directed the four inclosed 
Duplicates of despatches to be confided to Lord Auckland, with a 
request that they may be forwarded by the first occasion from 
England to the respective Governors of the Cape &c. They 
contain orders to the Governors "d'agir du plus parfait concert 
avec l'Angleterre pour garantir les possessions dans l'lnde contre 
l'Ennemi commun." 

Letter from the Right Honourable Henry Dundas, Secretary 
of State for the Rome Department, to Lord Grenville. 

Whitehall, 23rd April, 1793. 

My Lord, — Mr. Nepean has laid before me a Letter from 
Mr. Aust to him, enclosing an Extract of a Letter from Lord 
Auckland to your Lordship, dated Hague 29 March 1793, and 
likewise enclosing a Note from the Dutch East India Company, 
dated 30th March, containing some Propositions respecting the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

The preservation of the Cape of Good Hope is an object of 
so much importance, both to Holland and Great Britain, it is 
impossible for this Country to view with indifference any circum- 
stance that can endanger the safety of that Settlement, and 
therefore, before making any particular Answer to the requisition 
of the Dutch East India Company on that Subject, I would wish 
your Lordship to inform me, by means of Lord Auckland, what is 
the Force now at the Cape, either Naval or Military, what is 
conceived to be sufficient for rendering the Possession of it 
perfectly secure, how far there is reason to confide in a full 
Supply of Provisions and other Stores upon the Island, either for 
Troops or Ships of War, and how far the Dutch are disposed to 
allow a Depot of British Troops to be placed at the Cape, either 
for its own Defence, or for acting offensively from it, if in the 
course of the War any such Measure should be thought expedient. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 11 

On the subject of Convoy, I have had repeated Conversations 
with Lord Chatham. There is every disposition to give aid to the 
Dutch in that respect, and the Commanders of British Vessels 
have direction to give every protection to the Commerce of our 
allies, and I should suppose that in so far as concerns the 
homeward bound Ships from the Cape, or St. Helena, the Dutch 
Trade will find no difficulty in taking the benefit of those Convoys 
which are appropriated for the protection of our own East India 
Trade. It is more difficult to form any precise measure with 
regard to the outward bound Trade, for your Lordship knows that 
as the Trading Vessels of this Country sail often under the 
Convoy of Ships destined ultimately for other Services, and it 
would be impossible in such cases to give long warning to the 
Merchants of the benefit they may derive from Ships of War so 
circumstanced, without at the same time promulgating to every 
Person the destination of our Fleets, than which nothing could be 
more adverse to the Interests of the Country. Upon this subject 
therefore, I can only answer, that if Lord Auckland could with 
some precision inform us from time to time when the Dutch Trade 
to the East Indies was likely to sail, I dare say it might be 
possible with proper attention to give them much aid for taking 
advantage of the Convoys provided for the safety of our own East 
India Ships. At least it occurs to me, that if I was in possession 
of such detail as I have referred to, I might be able in my own 
mind to combine it with the periods of our own Ships sailing, so 
far as to afford much assistance to the East India Trade of the 
Dutch. Erom the reasons I have already stated, it would of course 
be necessary to have it understood that such communication must 
on both sides be perfectly confidential. I have, &c. 

(Signed) Henry Dundas. 

Letter from Lord Grenville to Lord Auckland. 

Whitehall, April 1793. 

My Lord, — I send your Excellency inclosed copy of a letter 
which I have this day received from Mr. Secretary Dundas, 
relative to some Propositions from the Dutch East India Company 

12 Records of the Cape Colony. 

respecting the Cape of Good Hope, which your Excellency 
forwarded to me in your Dispatch of the 29th of March last ; and 
I am to desire that your Excellency will do everything in your 
power to obtain as speedily as possible and to transmit to me the 
several Points of Information stated by Mr. Dundas. I have &c. 

(Signed) Gkenville. 

Note from Mu. P. J. Guepin to Lord Auckland. 

La Compagnie des Indes Orientales Hollandoise a ete informee 
par la traduction d'une lettre officielle adressee par Mr. Dundas 
a Lord Grenville, qu'avant de faire une reponse definitive a la 
Note de la dite Compagnie du 30 Mars dernier, ce Ministre avait 
desire de recevoir preallablement par la voie de son Excellence 
Lord Auckland les renseignemens necessaires sur les questions 
suivantes : — 

1. Quelle est la force, soit navale, soit Militaire, qui se trouve 
actuellement au Cap ? 

2. Quelle force sera jugee suffisante pour en assurer parfaite- 
ment la possession ? 

3. Jusqu'a quel point il y a lieu de compter, que cet Etablisse- 
ment est abondamment pourvu de provisions et d'autres munitions 
pour les Troupes ou pour les Vaisseaux de Guerre ? 

4. Jusqu' a quel point on seroit dispose dans la Republique de 
permettre, qu'un corps de Troupes Angloises soit place au Cap, ou 
pour sa propre defense, ou pour y etre prets a agir offensive- 
ment ailleurs, si pendant la guerre une telle mesure etoit jugee 
necessaire ? 

La Compagnie des Indes Orientales Hollandoise aiant resume 
les differentes questions ci dessus mentionnees, elle a cru neces- 
saire de comparer avec ces questions la reponse que les Etats 
Genereaux des Provinces Unies ont faite a Milord Auckland par 
leur Resolution du 7 Mars dernier sur la Note confidentielle que 
cet Ambassadeur leur avoit adressee le 8 Eevrier de cette annee, 
et d'apres cette comparaison la Compagnie s'est apercue, que dans 
la dite Resolution, laquelle a ete prise en consequence des con- 
siderations suggeres dans le temps par cette meme Compagnie, les 
Etats Genereaux avoient deja anticipe en quelque sorte sur 

Records of the Cape Colony. 13 

quelques lines des questions comprises dans la lettre de Mr. 
Dimdas, que par consequent Ton poura menager l'attention de 
ce Ministre en se referant pour la pluspart au contenu de la 
resolution en reponse du 7 Mars susdit. 

C'est ainsi, que par rapport a la premiere question, " qu'elle 
est la force, soit navale, soit militaire, qui se trouve actuellement 
au Cap," Leurs Hautes Puissances ont deja observe dans leur 
reponse a Milord Auckland, que la Garnison du Cap de Bonne 
Esperance avoit ete reduite a 400 Artilleristes et GOO homines 
d'Infanterie, ou en tout a un nombre de mille Militaires, et que 
ce nombre s'y trouvoit effectivement, d'apres les dernieres lettres 
officielles. La Compagnie n'aiant point recu d'informations 
ulterieures depuis l'epoque du 7 Mars susdit, elle ne se trouve 
point dans le cas de pouvoir rien ajouter pour reponse a cette 
premiere question par rapport a la force Militaire au Cap de Bonne 
Esperance ; quant a la force Navale : comme dans ce moment il ne 
se trouve aucun Vaisseau de Guerre de la Eepublique au susdit 
Cap de Bonne Esperance et que les Yaisseaux de la Com- 
pagnie ne sont point armes en Guerre, elle se trouve obligee de 
declarer que le Cap est entierement depourvu de cette espece 
de defense. 

A l'egard de la seconde question, "quelle force seroit jugee 
suffisante pour assurer parfaitement la possession du Cap de 
Bonne Esperance," il a de meme deja ete remarque par Leurs 
Hautes Puissances, que la force militaire, qui s'y trouve actuelle- 
ment, n'est pas a beaucoup pres suffisante, pour faire face a une 
Puissanse Europeenne, et que pour y etre en pleine surete contre 
une invasion ennemie de ce genre, il y faudroit avoir au moins 
un nombre de cinq a six mille hommes armes, et la Compagnie ne 
trouve aucune raison pour departir de cette reponse, qu'elle avoue 
pour la sienne dans le sens le plus complet, quoiqu'elle soit hors 
d'etat par un concours de circonstances facheuses d'y entretenir 
une force aussi redoutable. 

Pour ce qui concerne la troisieme demande, "jusqu'a quel 
point il y a lieu de compter, que cet Etablissement soit abondam- 
ment pourvu de provisions et d'autres munitions pour les Troupes 
ou pour les Vaisseaux de Guerre," La Compagnie observe, que 
depuis plusieurs annees un nombre assez considerable de Troupes 
a ete abondamment pourvu des subsistances necessaires dans ees 
contrees fertiles ; et que des Vaisseaux de Guerre de plusieurs 

14 Eecords of the Cape Colony. 

Nations Etrangeres y ont aussi trouve pour l'ordinaire" des 
provisions de tout genre ; qu'en outre le Cap de Bonne Esperance 
a meme ete dans le cas d'entretenir pendant un assez long espace 
de temps des Flotes entieres, et qu'il n'y a par consequent aucune 
raison de douter, que la meme chose ne puisse encor avoir lieu 
dans les conjunctures actuelles, par rapport au vivres et autres 
provisions pour une force soit navale, soit Militaire. 

Mais quant au munitions de Guerre, la Compagnie n'aiant 
point recu depuis quelque temps des renseignements officiels du 
susdit Cap de Bonne Esperance, il lui est impossible d'affirmer 
positivement, a quoi se monte actuellement l'etat des appro- 
visionnemens de ce dernier genre : elle ose cependant se flatter, 
d'apres les envois successifs et d'apres les dernieres informations, 
que le Cap se trouve encor abondamment pourvu de toutes sortes 
de Munitions et surtout de poudre de guerre : il est a remarquer 
cependant, qu'elle a constitue, il y a quelque temps des Com- 
missaires Genereaux munis des pouvoirs les plus amples pour 
effectuer tout ce que ces Commissaires trouveroient convenable 
aux interets de la direction generale, et qu'elle ignore jusqu'ici, 
si ces Commissaires n'auront point juges a propos d'envoier une 
partie de ses Munitions vers l'lnde, afin d'en pourvoir les posses- 
sions plus eloignees. 

II a plu au Ministere Britannique de demander en quatrieme 
lieu, "jusqu'a quel point Ton seroit dispose dans la Kepublique 
de permettre, qu'un Corps de Troupes Angloises soit place au 
Cap, ou pour sa propre defense, ou pour y etre pret a agir 
offensivement ailleurs, si pendant la Guerre une telle mesure 
etoit jugee necessaire." Sur ce point Ton prend la liberte 
d'observer que Les Etats Genereaux ont aussi deja declare, dans 
leurs susdit resolution du 7 Mars, qu'il y auroit lieu de douter en 
quelque sorte, si la proposition de la Cour Britannique, pour 
envoier des Troupes au Cap de Bonne Esperance, repondroit 
parfaitement au but, que cette Cour s'etoit proposee, savoir la 
conservation de cette Colonie, ou que non seulement il s'ecouleroit 
une assez long espace de temps, avant que les ordres requis a 
cette fin puissent avoir leur effet, et avant que les Troupes soient 
embarquees et rendues aux lieux de leurs destination ; mais que 
d'ailleurs Ton n'etoit pas sans inquietude, que la force militaire 
dont l'Angleterre pourroit se passer, ne seroit pas suffisante pour 
mettre le Cap de Bonne Esperance en pleine surete. 

Records of the Cafe Colony. 15 

Leurs Hautes Puissances ont ajoute en outre, qu'une force navale 
de quelque consideration seroit, selon leur avis, un moien bien 
plus prompt et bien plus efheace pour mettre cet Etablissement 
a couvert contre une invasion hostile, que l'envoi de Troupes de 
terre, et qu'elles sollicitoient par consequent Milord Auckland 
de bien vouloir emploier ses bons offices, pour que la Cour 
Britannique veuille accorder pour le susdit Cap tel secours de 
Vaisseaux de Guerre de sa force navale, que le Ministere jugeroit 
etre compatible avec les arrangemens qu'il auroit deja faits, ou 
qu'il voudroit faire par la suite. 

La Compagnie aiant pese de nouveau toute l'importance de 
l'objet, dont il s'agit dans cette derniere proposition, savoir la 
conservation d'un de ses Etablissemens les plus essentiels, elle ne 
peut qu'inherer de la faipon la plus formelle la reponse, qui a 
deja ete faite par Les Etats Genereaux ; et connoissant les bonnes 
intentions de la Cour Britannique a son egard, elle ose insister 
une seconde fois, pour tacher d'obtenir de cette Cour un nombre 
suffisant de Vaisseaux de Guerre comme etant, selon son opinion, 
l'unique moyen suffisant pour garantir avec effet cette possession 
si importante contre toute atteinte de l'ennemi : — ce qui l'autorise 
de plus a renouveller ces instances a cet egard, e'est qu'elle 
juge l'assistance d'une force navale non seulement la plus sure 
pour la defensive du susdit Cap de Bonne Esperance, mais qu'en 
outre les Vaisseaux de Guerre, montes par un nombre convenable 
de Troupes, sont le moyen le plus propre pour repondre au double 
but, que l'Angleterre a en vue, savoir pour etre aussi pret a 
agir offensivement ailleurs, si pendant la guerre une telle mesure 
fut jugee necessaire. Apres cette declaration franche et sincere 
de la part de la Compagnie, par laquelle il paroit qu'elle donne 
une preferance tres signalee a la force navale sur les Troupes 
de terre, il sera presqu' inutile de s'expliquer sur le nombre de 
Troupes Angloises qu'on seroit dispose a recevoir au Cap de Bonne 

II est cependant necessaire d'observer, sur ce point que si 
toute fois la Cour Britannique persistoit, contre toute attente, 
dans le dessein d'y envoier des Troupes de Terre, il y auroit 
preallablement des arrangemens a faire par rapport au pied, sur 
lequel ces Troupes y seroient admises : et il est evident, que ces 
arrangemens devroient avoir pour base, que les Troupes Angloises 
seroient entierement libre, par rapport aux operations militaires, 

16 Records of the Cape Colony. 

qu'elles jugeroient a propos d'entreprendre, moiennnant d'etre 
subordonnees a la Direction Generale de la Compagnie Hollandoise, 
tandis qu'elles se trouveroient dans ses Colonies. 

Au reste la Compagnie saisit avec empressement l'occasion, qui 
lui est offerte, pour renouveller les protestations de sa sensibilite 
pour toutes les preuves de bienvueillance que la Cour Britannique 
veut bien lui temoigner, en l'accordant toute espece de protection 
pour preserver les Vaisseaux Marchans, que cette Compagnie 
attend de l'lnde des dangers contre l'ennemi; et elle sollicite 
vivement cette cour, de bien vouloir continuer les marques de 
cette protection, tant pour les Vaisseaux revenant des Indes, que 
pour ceux qui la Compagnie destine vers ces possessions en Asie. 

Quant a ces derniers, la Compagnie sera tres charmee d'etre en 
etat d'informer M. L'Ambassadeur d'Angleterre de l'epoque, a 
laquelle il est vraisemblable que les Navires Hollandois feront 
voile pour les Grandes Indes ; Mais elle ne peut point dissimuler, 
qu'il auroit ete" pour elle de la derniere importance d'etre instruite 
(ainsi qu'elle l'a desire dans la Note du 30 Mars), de l'epoque a 
laquelle la Cour Britannique comptera de mettre son Esquadre 
arme en mer, afin de pouvoir prendre ses mesures en consequence, 
et si la dite Cour vouloit encor lui rendre ce service, La Com- 
pagnie s'engage tres volontiers a garder sur ce point le secret le 
plus profond. 

(Signe) R J. Guepin. 
Middelboubg, ce 23 Mai 1793. 

Letter from Mr. William Eliot, Secretary of the Embassy and 
Acting Minister Plenipotentiary at the Hague, to Lord 

The Hague, April 16th, 1794. 

My Lord, — This Government has received Letters from the 
Cape of Good Hope dated the middle of January last which state 
the Place to be in a very respectable state of defence, and the 
Colonists and Soldiers in good spirits. At the same time they 
speak of a considerable force being collected by the French at the 
Isle of Bourbon, and at the Mauritius capable of inspiring them 
with some uneasiness. There seems to be some solicitude here 
also on account of a French fleet of six ships of the line which 

Records of the Cape Colony. 17 

they suppose to have sailed some months since with an intent of 
making an attack on the Cape. These ships are imagined to have 
been the ships chased by Lord Howe off Brest. I have, &c, 

(Signed) Wm. Eliot. 

Letter from Sir Francis Baring, Director of the East India Com- 
pany, to the Right Honourable Henry Dundas, Secretary 
of State for the War Department. 

Devonshire Square, ith January, 1795. 

Dear Sir, — The present situation of Holland rendering it 
doubtfull whether she may be able to retain her neutrality, or be 
obliged to submit to conditions which cannot be foreseen, nor their 
consequences easily calculated, I beg leave to suggest for your 
consideration how far it may be right to prepare for an attempt on 
the Cape of Good Hope which I conceive may easily be surprised, 
but difficult to conquer if the French shall be suffered to throw a 
garrison into it. The importance of the Cape is in my opinion 
comprised under two heads — as a place of refreshment for our 
ships on their return from India, as St. Helena is unequal to the 
supply, and we should be much distrest for a substitute if the 
Cape is lost to us. Secondly, whoever is Master of the Cape will 
be able to protect, or annoy, our ships out and home, serving at 
the same time as an effectual check upon Mauritius, &c. — but as 
a Colony it would be rather dangerous as there is too much 
encouragement for settlers and we have already too many drains 
upon our own population. I have no positive information of the 
military force at the Cape but a persuasion that it was, and is, 
very small. In the dutch War two regiments of I think about 
1200 men each were sent thither, one of these regiments was 
removed to Ceylon after the peace and I also think the other 
(Meuron's or some such name) was removed not very long since. 
I saw in August 1793 a secret account of the revenue and 
expenditure of the Cape in which the soldiers then at the Cape 
did not exceed 100 or 200 and on making a remark, was told, 
that they could not afford to keep 500 which was justified by the 
defalcation on the account, but I am not certain whether the 


18 Records of the Cctpe Colony. 

regiment to which I have alluded was then at the Cape, or not, 
only that the expence of the regiment was not included in the 
account which I saw. Since that period their poverty has been 
such that they can have done no more than send a very few 
recruits which I mention as you cannot expect any information 
from- a Dutchman on which you can rely in the present crisis. 
Their credit has been, and is, so low that no tradesman will give 
them an additional credit for £100, and there is little doubt that 
money raised for the purpose of the war has been applied to the 
relief of their E. India Company, that I think it is impossible 
they can have sent troops for many years, and still more as they 
have certainly relied upon us for protection. Under these cir- 
cumstances there appears very little to be apprehended from the 
Military, but the inhabitants are very illdisposed towards their 
own government, and very favourably towards the french, which 
will render a force absolutely necessary for any attempt ; perhaps 
2500 or 3000 men from hence, in addition to what may be spared 
from St. Helena. It is reported that reinforcements are going to 
the West Indies, it is therefore submitted that after providing for 
the Security of our possessions in that part including the french 
Islands, whether a view to Conquest may not be turned towards 
the Cape, as more important, and equally probable to succeed. 
The Company's ships so necessary as transports will be getting 
ready, and prepared to receive the men almost immediately after 
those to the West Indies are dispatched, and may be managed in 
a secret manner, at least so much so, that they may rendevous at 
Portsmouth before they can suspect their destination, by which 
means the views of Government may be concealed from the 
Enemy. Some previous arrangement with regard to those ships 
may however be necessary and particularly to keep certain parts 
of their ships clear and unoccupied which cannot be difficult, but 
there is no occasion to make any additional agreement with the 
owners as was the case with the ships to be sent as Transports 
to the West Indies. The exact number of soldiers which St. 
Helena can spare, I do not recollect but perhaps they may 
amount to 300. The present Governor will make a suffi- 
cient defence even with a bare war establishment as he is 
supposed to be better qualified for his military than he is for 
his civil duty. 

As you can obtain every information with as much, or more 

Records of the Cape Colony. 1& 

facility, than I can, I shall forbear every inquiry or any further 
notice on the subject unless you shall think it absolutely 
necessary. I am, &c, 

(Signed) F. Baring. 

Letter from Sir Francis Baring to the Bight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Devonshibe Square, 12 Jany., 1795. 

Dear Sir, — In addition to what I had the honor of writing to 
you the 4th inst. relative to the Cape, I will proceed to state what 
occurs to me about the means for carrying such an expedition into 
effect with the Secrecy which is requisite. I conceive that object 
(Secrecy) will be compleatly answered with the Company & also 
with regard to the public, by announcing & treating the subject 
as a suite to the present embarkation for the West Indies, to sail 
under sealed orders if the officers who may command the ex- 
pedition are not such as you may deem worthy of confidence. At 
all events the destination may be announced to the Company that 
their ships may be in a proper state of preparation to receive 
troops, but the Chairman should be instructed to make a con- 
ditional agreement to be binding in case the ships proceed to the 
West Indies, but to be null & void if they shall proceed to the 
East, there being no reason to pay for the expence of a deviation, 
when no deviation will take place. The ships destined for the 
W. Indies are : 


Depfford .... 784 

Kent 784 

Northumberland . . 784 

E. Cornwallis , . . 774 

W. Hastings . . . 786 
Osterley .... 775 
Gen. Coote .... 787 
E. Howe .... 870 

These ships will take 400 Troops each except the last which 
may take 450 & the number will not be too many for so short a 
voyage ; but it may be prudent to reduce the number in proportion 
to the extent of the voyage, allotting about 300 to a ship of about 
800 Tons and 450 or more to a ship of about 1200 Tons, the exact 
number however may be determined hereafter, observing that the 
Company are accustomed to send only 220 or thereabouts for the 

c 2 

20 Records of the Cape Colony. 

whole of the voyage to India in ships of 800 tons, & the 
mortality is so small, that they are often landed without the loss 
of a man. In other respects the practice of the Company is well 
calculated to preserve the health as well as the lives of the soldiers 
during the voyage. The ships already destined for the West 
Indies I think will not be at Portsmouth before the end of 
february, and at the same time will be ready the following : 


Minerva .... 798 

Hillsborough . . . 764 

Triton 800 

Hy. Dundas ... 802 


E. of Abergavenny . . 1182 

Glutton 1200 

Royal Charlotte . . 1252 
Warley 1175 

which is more tonnage than will be wanted for the troops, as 
there must be much room to spare under the allotment I have 

The end of March another Squad will be ready : 



Pr. William Henry 

. 803 

Hindostan . 

. . 1248 

Beninglon . 

. 816 

New ship . 

. . 1200 

Lord Thurlow . 

. 805 

New ship . 

. . 1200 

. 1180 

The new ships are in reality 1400 Tons that there will be ample 
room on that occasion. 

The end of April the last squad will be ready consisting of no 
less than 14 small ships of course the tonnage being so much more 
than is wanted it is unnecessary for me to trouble you with a list of 
their names. You have therefore three distinct periods for your 
choice, sufficient to enable you to wait the result of the negotiation 
at Paris if necessary, but I apprehend it will be advisable that 
you should make an election 4 or 5 weeks before the ex- 
piration of each, for the purpose, of agreeing with the owners & 
preparing the ships. I have stated these periods later than what 
the arrangement of the Company stipulates for their being ready, 
but so much detention arises in the progress of the service, that I 
think I have been too early, & not too late, in the periods I have 

The service is not a desirable one for the owners, who I believe 
have lent their ships more with a view to accomodate, but an 
obstacle may arise with regard to the large ships on account of 

Records of the Cape Colony, 21 

their very great value. It should be intimated to them that they 
must make their insurance provisionally to return a proportion of 
the premium if they do not proceed to the West Indies which will 
prove a very considerable saving, & a reason may be given that 
it is not impossible but that the business may be abandoned the 
moment before their departure. I do not enter into a calculation 
about the tonnage necessary for the Artillery Stores &c. as I 
have no materials for the purpose, but I have no doubt every 
information may be found on that subject in the papers concerning 
the expedition against the Cape during the Dutch War, under 
Medows & Johnston, it may be necessary only to observe, that 
there will be room to spare on board the ships besides the space 
occupied by the troops ; and that I apprehend the basis of the 
plan is to carry the Cape by surprise, & not by siege which 
would require much more extensive preparations. With regard to 
Secrecy, I think it may be well managed in the City under proper 
precautions ; but I am no judge how far the selection of officers 
& particularly those destined for the command may, or may not, 
prove an indication of the business, the more so as care must be 
taken to supply the men intended to be taken from St. Helena, 
with officers, which they will want. 

I further beg leave to observe that it will require consideration 
in what manner to dispose of these troops if the attack shall 
miscarry, as the Company's large ships cannot return to the 
W. Indies or to Europe, & one of the reasons why the owners are 
so disinclined to the W. India service, is, the fear of their deten- 
tion which must ruin their voyage if too much prolonged. 

As future events are so extremely precarious & uncertain the 
Island of St. Helena ought to be supplied with a very large stock 
of every species of provisions & that without delay. I am, &c, 

(Signed) F. Baring. 

Annexure to above. 

The Government at the Cape which is more properly that of 
the Dutch East India Company, than that of the States, has been 
most tyrannical & oppressive & given the greatest cause for 
dissatisfaction ; it has had in view to provide for hungry depen- 
dents, whose compensation must arise from plunder, and not from 
Salaries which the Company from poverty could not pay. The 

22 Records of the Cape Colony, 

inhabitants are therefore ripe for revolt, but I apprehend such 
a disposition is not to revolt against their country, but against 
the Company; & as there are foreigners of every description 
Germans, Swedes, Danes &c, I apprehend they are very much 
tinged with Jacobin principles. It should be observed also, that 
the Stadholder had no real authority even before he quitted 
Holland ; His title is sufficiently descriptive of his situation, which 
is well known to every Dutchman, & therefore too much stress 
ought not to be laid on the use of the name, further than the 
personal influence of an individual ; as I doubt whether the dutch 
at the Cape would place any confidence in surrendering to the 
Stadholder as Trustee in behalf of their own Country. Whoever 
may be entrusted with the negotiation to obtain a surrender 
should be apprised of this circumstance that he may be prepared 
on the subject. 

The importance of the Cape with regard to ourselves consists 
more from the detriment which would result to us if it was in the 
hands of france, than from any advantage we can possibly derive 
from it as a Colony. It commands the passage to & from India 
as effectually as Gibraltar doth the Mediterranean; & it serves 
as a granary for the Isles of france; whilst it furnishes no 
produce whatsoever for Europe, & the expence of supporting the 
place must be considerable. 

Under these circumstances it is submitted whether any detriment 
can arise by holding out the following encouragement, which it is 
presumed will tempt the inhabitants, if anything can — 

That their laws and customs shall be preserved to them : that 
no taxes whatever shall be imposed, relying on their making 
proper provision for the expence of the internal government of the 
country; that their internal trade shall be perfectly free; that 
they may trade to & from the English East India Company's 
possessions in India free from duty, with the same advantage as 
British subjects, or the subjects of the most favored nation ; that 
they shall enjoy all the advantage of a British Colony in their 
trade to, & communication with Great Britain ; and finally, full 
protection to their persons, religion, & property. 

The freedom of trade is limited internally ; because it may be 
convenient to restrain altogether their intercourse with the Isles 
of france during war, but I have some apprehension they will 
be aware of the circumstance, & that it may occasion difficulty, 

Records of the Cape Colony. 23 

which must be met according to circumstances, and must not be 
yielded to them. 

The priviledges & interest of the English East India Company 
will be compleatly guarded ; for as their trade to & from India 
alone is unlimited, & that they are permitted to trade or com- 
municate with G. Britain as a Colony only; the monopoly of 
the English India Company which relates to the supply of the 
home consumption, is effectually protected. 

The produce consists at present in provisions, particularly 
wheat ; & the great consumption of the surplus produce is at 
the Isles of france & the Company's or other ships touching 
at the Cape in their Voyage to & from India. The permission 
therefore of colonists to introduce their produce for the consump- 
tion of G. Britain cannot clash with any other existing interest 
at this moment. It may merit consideration, if this country 
should obtain possession of the Cape, & be mad enough to 
encourage colonization, but without that circumstance I see no 
great reason to fear for the concessions proposed. 

Letter from Captain John Blankett, E.N., to Mr. Evan 
Nepean, Under Secretary of the War Department. 

No. 34 Mortimer Street, 25th Jan., 1795. 

Dear Nepean, — As I wrote you some time since concerning the 
Cape of Good Hope, I w r ill now endeavour to make you Master of 
that subject, which may perhaps be useful. 

The Dutch never considered the Cape in a commercial view, but 
merely as a place of refreshment necessary for the carrying on 
their Commerce to India, & on this principle formed all their 
Colony arrangements. Considered as an entrepot between Europe 
& Asia, it has every advantage that can be wished, either in 
point of Situation, Climate, Soil, & Productions. The principal 
regulations that affect the Colonists are, The Company claim as a 
priviledge a tenth of all property sold for their use, with a right 
of preference on the purchase, the price of the Commodity to be 
fixed by the Governor & Council. The Cape town to be the only 
market for foreigners, & all goods subject to a duty of entry & 
exit, & on all sales within the town, No goods to be carried 

24 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Coastwise, nor any boats to be allowed but such as were licensed 
by Government. Most articles of general use are farmed, such as 
Wine, Flour, Grain, Eice and all sorts of Cattle, by which means 
the supply to foreigners is a Monopoly under the controul of the 
Governor and Council. These duties and exactions were meant as 
a balance to the Company for the expence of maintaining the 

While the Colony was in its Infancy & the Plantations at no 
great distance, all went well, the farmer brought his Cattle, his 
Wine & his Com to the Cape Town, where it was bought by 
the Company's Agents & put into their Storehouses till the 
arrival of the Ships. By this means the Farmer was sure of his 
Market, & enabled to purchase from the Company's Stores what- 
ever was necessary to continue his Cultivation. But as the Colony 
encreased in Population & Culture, the Market became over- 
stocked, the farmer had no longer vent for his encreased produce, 
& altho the price to him was kept down, it was encreased to 
the Stranger, so that the Colonist had the mortification to know, 
that his own commodity was resold for more than four times the 
value he received for it. This became one cause of the general 
dissatisfaction that at present pervades the Colony, which was 
heightened by the introduction of a Paper Currency within these 
few years, which Paper was of no value out of the Colony, but in 
which the Company made all their payments, in addition to these 
grievances, the Colonists have been lately vexed, by fines levied 
for irregularities, or non compliance with new orders. These 
fines are ad libitum & become the perquisite of the Governor & 

The ill humour of the Colonists has often shown itself at their 
public meetings, where it has sometimes appeared in the most 
serious disposition to revolt, altho hitherto the Government 
have found means to palliate by temporary concessions & 
promises which have been only binding for the moment. The 
Colonists have likewise remonstrated to the States General against 
the Exactions of the Company, who have in that case, sometimes 
recalled the Governor sometimes the Fiscal, but always left the 
ground of the complaint ad referendum. 

On the first settling of the Colony the Government was formed 
on the most Oeconomical plan possible, & for some time it was 
of little or no expense to the Company. Their force consisted of 

Records of the Cape Colony. 25 

about 400 men, who did duty as a Garrison at the Cape Town, 
their further defence was intrusted to a well formed and well 
armed Militia consisting of Burghers & Colonists. The late war 
introduced French troops & a system of fortification. The 
frugality of the Dutch Government gave way to a more lavish 
expenditure, & they constructed some very ill understood lines 
of defence which when I left the Cape were already in want of 
repair. I will not enter into the defence or strength of the Cape, 
it has appeared to me to have been mistaken by all that have 
written or spoken on that subject, & it does not follow that I 
only can be right. If I judge of it at all, it is from having seen it, 
with a view of attack, not led by common opinion which often 
sways on these subjects. 

I shall now speak of its produce, after having stated the little 
encouragement given, for want of export and vent, to encrease 
its Cultivation. It furnishes abundantly all sorts of Cattle, & 
a Variety of Wild Animals, from hence Hides, Tallow, and Skins. 
It produces Wine, Corn, Brandy, Tobacco, Ginger, Cotton, Alloes 
& a variety of Drugs. Its shores are stocked with Whales, Sea 
Horses, Sea Cows & Seals in abundance, besides having a large 
& extensive bank of fine fish, which the Dutch Policy will not 
suffer to be cultivated for fear of introducing an illicit branch of 

We must look at the Cape in two points of view, first how it 
would suit us and then how it would annoy us in other hands, for 
I am clear the Colonists will receive any power that will ensure 
them protection & Commerce altho they might wish to give 
the preference to the English. As it might be considered, as not 
included in the East India Company's Charter, they will naturally 
be jealous of the Interference in their commerce which such a 
possession might introduce, that is altogether a question of Politics 
that Government must decide on, but as the consequences that 
arise from situation will be the same whether it falls to us or to 
France I will touch lightly on that subject. 

The Colony of the Cape is an undefined limit, but may be taken 
to extend to the next European settlements which are those of 
the Portuguese both to the Northward & to the Eastward ; with 
encouragement to the settlers in such an extensive country, we 
should not only supply their wants in providing cloathing, Tools 
& various articles, for themselves & their slaves, but introduce 

26 Records of the Cape Colony. 

our Manufactures into the interior of Africa amongst Nations 
whose names are unknown to us. The produce as well as the 
locality of the Cape, command the Coast of Africa and facilitate 
that Commerce. Madagascar & the Brazils depend on the system 
that may be adopted. The Americans who still persevere in 
their trade to India & China, might be supplied at the Cape 
& be the means of introducing a beneficial trade instead of the 
contraband they now strive to continue. 

All Ships going to or from India make the land about the Cape, 
or strike soundings on its bank, Cruisers on this station therefore 
can only be counteracted by strong Convoys, as our Trade is 
almost periodical, such Convoys will be liable to the risques 
attending long passages, such as separation, accidents, sickness &c. 
The Mauritius now kept quiet for want of means to fit out their 
Cruizers, aided by the Assistance of the Cape, will become a nest 
of Pirates, secure & unattackable amongst their own rocks. 

Whatever tends to give to France the means of obtaining a foot- 
ing in India is of consequence to us to prevent, it would be idle 
in me to say anything more to point out the consequence of the 
Cape than to say that what was a feather in the hands of Holland, 
will become a sword in the hands of France. I have endeavoured 
to be as concise as possible therefore where I have not expatiated 
give me credit, if you want any farther information I am ready to 
give it having been four times there and amongst the latest from 
it. I remain, &c, 

(Signed) J. Blankett. 

Letter from Lord Grenville to the Duke of York and 

Downing Street, 1st February, 1795. 

Sir, — As it appears of the utmost importance, particularly from 
the Letters this day received from Captain Berkeley, that the 
Prince Stadtholder should give to the different officers and 
Commanders of the Forts and Vessels of the Eepublic such orders 
as may distinctly mark the real situation in which His Serene 
Highness is placed, and may authorize them to avail themselves 
of that protection which His Majesty is desirous of holding out 

Mccords of the Cape Colony. 27 

to them, according as circumstances may permit; His Majesty's 
servants have thought that a Proposal of this nature, the urgent 
necessity of which is so apparent, could not in any manner 
be brought forward with so much advantage, as if your Royal 
Highness would have the goodness to charge yourself with it. 

Your Royal Highness is too well acquainted with all the bearing 
of this important point, to make it at all necessary to dwell on the 
arguments which will prove to His Serene Highness, in the most 
indisputable manner, that the line now pointed out is what He 
owes as much to the interests of the Republic, as to those of His 
own House, and of the high dignity with which He is invested. 

There would be no difficulty in giving to His Serene Highness 
any assurance that He might wish, that any Ships of War or Forts, 
surrendered in consequence of such order, would be restored to the 
Republic at the conclusion of a General Peace, by which Her 
Independence and Constitution should be secured. 

I have the Honor to enclose to Your Royal Highness the Draft of 
an order, which has been prepared on this idea ; and it would be 
desirable if His Serene Highness could be persuaded to adopt this 

Enclosure in above. 

Whereas I W. Prince of Orange, Hereditary Stadtholder of the 
States General of the United Provinces, and Hereditary Governor 
of each Province, and Captain General and Admiral of the Forces 
by Land and Sea belonging thereto, have been compelled by the 
Entrance of a Foreign Armed Force into the Territories of the 
same, to withdraw myself therefrom, and to retire into the 
Dominions of the good Friend and Ally of Their High Mighti- 
nesses The King of Great Britain, and whereas I am thereby 
illegally and unjustly prevented from exercising in Person within 
the said Province the Functions of the said High Offices and of all 
other Offices and Powers with which I am legally and con- 
stitutionally invested, I do by This Declaration, subscribed in 
due form and in the presence of lawful Witnesses, notify to all 
Commanders and Governors, Civil and Military of all Forts, 
Castles, Garrisons, Ports, Settlements, Plantations and Colonies 
belonging to the States General and to all Admirals and Com- 
manders of Ships of War belonging to the same, and do strictly 

28 Records of the Cape Colony. 

enjoyn them, that They forthwith deliver up Possession of the said 
Forts, Castles, Garrisons, Ports, Settlements Colonies and Ships of 
War to the King of Great Britain or to such Persons as He shall 
authorize to receive Them, in order that They may be secured from 
falling into the possession of the Enemy ; and under special Trust 
and Confidence solemnly assured on the Part of His Britannick 
Majesty, that the same shall be restored in full Sovereignty and 
Use to Their High Mightinesses, as soon as ever it shall please 
God to restore to my afflicted Country the Blessings of Indepen- 
dance and df it's ancient and established Form of Government. 

Subscribed in the presence of 

(L. S.) 

[Copy translated.] 

Order from the Prince of Orange to the Governor of the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

Kew, February 7, 1795. 

To the Governor of the Cape of Good Hope. 

We have thought it right to write to you by this oppor- 
tunity, and to charge you to admit into the Fort under your 
command such Troops as may be sent thither on the Part of 
His Brit. Majesty, and to receive into Table and False Bays 
and other Harbours and Places where Ships can remain with 
Safety all Ships of War, Frigates or Armed Vessels that may 
be sent from His said Brit. Majesty, and to look upon them 
as Troops & Ships of a Power in Friendship and Alliance with 
Their High Mightiness, & that come to prevent the Colony from 
being invaded by the French. 

(Signed) W. Pr. of Orange. 

By Command of His Highness, In the Absence of the Private 


(Signed) J. W. Boejenk. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 29 

Order from the Prince of Orange to the Commanding Officer 
by Sea at the Cape of Good Hope. 

Kew, February 7, 1795. 

To the Commanding Officer by Sea 
at the Cape of Good Hope. 

We have thought it necessary hereby to write to you and 
order you to admit into the Road of the Cape of Good Hope 
and into False Bay such Ships of War, Fregates or armed Vessels 
as may be sent thither on the part of His Britannic Majesty, 
as Ships of a Power who is in Friendship and Alliance with 
Their High Mightinesses, to prevent the Colony from being 
invaded by the French; and you will put yourself under the 
Orders of the Commanding Officer of the said Ships if he is 
older or higher in rank than yourself, and not oppose him in case 
he should put any Troops on Shore for the Defense of the Forts. 

(Signed) W. Pr. of Orange. 

By His Highness's Command in the Absence of the private 

(Signed) J. W. Boejenk. 

Extracts from a Memorandum drawn up by Captain John 
Blankett, R.N. 

9 Febry. 1795. 

The first Object to be attained, Is the knowledge whether the 
Enemy are arrived at the Cape before us, and if not, the dis- 
position of the Governmt. to receive us. Should we succeed, 
it may be proper to publish some declaration, founded on the 
Prince of Orange's letter, either thro the Dutch Governor, or 
otherwise, as may be judged most prudent. This Declaration 
to hold out to the People, Eeasons for the taking possession & 
such advantages to the Colonists, as our Government may think 
proper to grant them. Should we not succeed, it will then be 
necessary to publish a Manifest, declaratory of the general prin- 
ciples of the Government offered them by the English, inviting 
the Colonists to accede to it, & accept our protection. This 

30 Records of the Cctye Colony. 

Manifest must be distributed by Neutral Vessels & all such 
other means as may suggest themselves. As all officers abroad 
attach much importance to themselves, it is hoped that the 
Prince of Orange's letters, will be flattering personally, to all 
those who assist his Cause, assuring them of his future considera- 
tion and favor. 

The necessity of having a Secretary who can read and write 
Dutch fluently is obvious, perhaps it would not be right to trust 
altogether to one man. 

If ever Venality prevailed in any part of the world, it is in the 
Dutch Colonies abroad. 

Instructions from the Hokse Guards to Captain Blankett. 

Hoese Guards, 16 Febry. 1795. 

Captain Blankett. 

Sir, — I have it in command from His Majesty to desire 
that immediately after your arrival at Portsmouth you will inform 
yourself of the state of the Ships which the Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty have thought fit to place under your orders, 
and to communicate to me for His Majesty's information, at what 
time you are likely, in case of no unforeseen event, to be prepared 
and be able to proceed with the said Ships to the place of your 

The nature of the Service on which you are employed will 
point out to you the necessity of the utmost expedition in your 
proceeding on your Voyage, and in case any unnecessary delays 
should arise in the equipment of your Ships, I desire you will 
report the same to me, in order that the proper measures may 
be taken for removing them in the present instance, and prevent- 
ing similar impediments on any future occasion. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 31 

Instructions from the Horse Guards to Captain Blankett. 

Horse Guards, \Gth February, 1795. 

Captain Blankett. 

Sir, — In case His Majesty's Ship the Sphynx should not 
be at Spithead, or, if there, not in a condition to accompany you, 
when the rest of your Ships are ready ; It is His Majesty's 
pleasure that you should not wait for her, but to leave Orders for 
her Commander to follow you and join you on such Kendezvous 
as you may appoint. 

Letter from Captain John Blankett to the Eight Honourable 

Henry Dundas. 

Portsmouth, 17th Feb. 1795. 

Sir, — I have the honor to inform you that His Maj. Ship 
Ruby arrived here this morning. I have been with the Admiral, 
to arrange the discharge of the Marines and to receive the Troops 
in their room. 

I have seen General Schuyler, who tells me the first division 
of the Eegt. will be in Portsmouth tomorrow & the remainder 
on Thursday, & you may be assured Sir that no time shall be 
lost, on my part, in their embarkation. But in order to render 
your wishes more effectual in taking the greatest number of the 
regiment possible, I beg to propose the discharge of the Boys from 
the different Ships of the Squadron which cannot be done without 
an order from the Admiralty. When these dispositions are made 
the Ships will I trust be as completely filled as all circumstances 
considered is possible to be done. 

The Sphynx is not yet joined. I have already pointed out the 
absolute necessity of two frigates. The Echo sloop will at present 
but badly execute the service of one. Should any delay happen 
to the Sphynx, I understand that the Active, Flora & Boston are 
here in forwardness, and might be soon ready. You will perceive 
Sir that the completion of the circumstances stated will in some 
measure depend on the weather. I can only repeat that no delay 
on my part shall be admitted, being fully apprised of the necessity 

of dispatch. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. Blankett. 

32 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Instructions from the Horse Guaeds to Captain Blankett. 

Horse Guards, 21st Feby. 1795. 

Captain Blankett. 

Sir, — In my letter to you of the 16th Instant you are 
authorized, in case it should happen that Major General Craig 
and you should agree to the landing the Troops at the Cape 
(a measure which it is meant should only take place under the 
conditions of your joint concurrence in the propriety thereof) to 
retain as many of them as may be immediately necessary for the 
service of your Ships ; It is nevertheless to be understood by you 
that in case such a measure should be determined upon, you are 
not, on any account, to retain any part of the Troops exceeding 
in numbers the Detachments of Marines which you may have 
disembarked to make room for them. 

Memorandum drawn up by Major-General James 
Henry Craig. 

22 Feby. 1795. 

Upon an attentive consideration of the service upon which he 
is about to be employed Major-General Craig has found two 
or three circumstances upon which he should be glad to be 
honor'd with further Instructions. 

G. Craig understands that the Garrison consists of three German 
Eegmts. in the pay of the States-General. Would it not be proper 
that G. Craig should be authoris'd to take these Eegiments into 
British pay, in the event of the Governor & Inhabitants con- 
senting to deliver the Colony to His Majesty's Arms. Without 
this measure he and the few troops who will be with him will be 
always at the mercy of the Dutch, and should any Naval superi- 
ority on the part of the Enemy enable them to appear before the 
arrival of General Clarke, Defence will depend upon the Dutch, 
and not upon G. Craig. With these Eegiments, having taken 
the oath of fidelity to His Majesty, and the 78th at his disposal, 
it is possible that he may be able to concert with Commodore 
Blankett a plan of defence which will be almost impossible 
without them or with only the precarious dependance on Dutch 

Records of the Cape Colony. 33 

From every information which he possesses G. Craig believes 
that the period which is likely to elapse before the arrival of 
General Clarke will be very considerable. He shall certainly not 
look for them under two months. Till their arrival he can expect 
no further instructions relative to the interior management of the 
Government. It shall be his endeavour by every means to con- 
ciliate the good will of the Inhabitants. During this interval 
G. Craig understands that the Revenues of the Colony are so 
considerable that they will become an object of importance. He 
would be glad to know in whose hands he is to place them or 
shall he leave them in the hands in which they now are, making 
them responsible to the English instead of the Dutch Government. 

Are the Troops under his command to receive rations of 
Provisions as in the other Colonies belonging to His Majesty. 

To these few questions of a publick nature Genl. Craig begs 
to add one which personally concerns himself only, but which 
he humbly conceives it is in some degree requisite that it should 
be answered, in order that he may regulate himself by the inform- 
ation, particularly in his endeavours, as directed by his instruc- 
tions, by civility & attention to conciliate and gain the good 
will of the officers and Gentlemen of the Colony, which in an 
essential point can only be done in proportion to the means 
afforded him. 

M. G. Craig therefore begs to know if he will be entitled to 
any allowance as Commanding in the Colony exclusive of his 
very slender and incompetent one as Major-General. 

Letter from the Horse Guards to Major-General Craig. 

Horse Guards, 23rd February, 1795. 

Major-General Craig. 

Sir, — According to the Information I have received, it 
appears that the principal force at the Cape consists of the remains 
of two Regiments of Mecklenburgh Strelitz, which have for a 
certain limited time been taken into the Pay of the Republic, and 
it is by no means improbable from the events which have taken 
place that the payment of their subsistence is now in arrear. 
This circumstance however you can easily ascertain upon your 


34 Becoi*ds of the Cape Colony. 

arrival, and if by holding ont to the Officers and Men the liquida- 
tion of such arrears, should any be due to them, and by taking 
them into the pay of Great Britain, you can engage them for the 
service of this country on the terms on which they are now 
employed, it will be highly expedient that it should be done, and 
you will consider yourself at liberty to hold out such conditions 
to them. 

I ain I confess sanguine in my expectation of your succeeding 
in such an offer, for it must be obvious to them that in the present 
state of the Dutch Government, the liquidation of their claims 
stands upon a very precarious tenure. 

Letter from Commodoke John Blankett to the Eight 
Honourable Henry Dundas. 

His Majesty's Ship America, 25th Feby. 1795. 

Sir, — Part of the 78th Eegiment are now embarked on board 

the King's Ships in the number as named in the margin, with 

their Stores, Baggage, & Camp Equipage, having 

discharged a number of Seamen in order to 

make room for the Troops. The ships are 

unavoidably crowded & lumbered, & I did not 

~~~ think I could possibly venture to do more 

than I have done, all circumstances considered. 

I shall lose no time to proceed to sea, in pursuance of those 

directions I have received from you, being fully sensible of the 

necessity of dispatch. I have, &c, 

(Signed) J. Blankett. 

America . 

. 160 

Ruby . 

. 160 


. 160 

Echo . . 

. 35 

Letter from Commodore John Blankett to the Eight 
Honourable Henry Dundas. 

America, Spithead, 26 Feb. 1795. 

Sir, — The ships under my direction are now in readiness & 
will proceed to sea to-morrow morning early if the weather permits. 
I hope you will believe that no time has been lost. I very much 
regret that the Sphynx has not yet joined, I shall leave her a 

Records of the Cape Colony. 3. r > 

rendezvous as you desired, having appointed her as the safest place 
of meeting St. Helena, where she may still be particularly useful, 
in case of any events that may occur. I have now only to hope 
for success, and to assure you that nothing on my part shall be 
wanting to ensure it. I have, &c, 

(Signed) J. Blankett. 

Extract from a Letter from Commodore John Blankett to the 
Eight Honourable Henry Dundas. 

America, St. Hellens, 28</t Feb. 1795. 

I left Spithead yesterday morning, but the Ruby & Stately 
having been detained longer than they expected, could not join me 
in time, & it falling little wind I was obliged to anchor here in 
the evening, since which the wind has come round to the S.W. 
Not a moment shall be lost to avail myself of the first opportunity 
to proceed to sea. 

Extract from a Letter from Major-General James Henry 

Craig to Mr. William Huskisson, Chief Clerk in the War 


America, Falmouth, 11th March, 1795. 

We are now unmooring in the hope of getting out this evening 
to try our fortune once more. The wind is but scant & indeed 
our getting out is rather precarious. 


Extracts from a Letter from Eear- Admiral Sir George Keith 
Elphinstone to the Eight Honourable Henry Dundas. 

London, March 14<ft, 1795. 

Sir, — I have had the honor carefully to peruse the Instructions 
which have been given to General Craig and Captain Blankett, 
and am of opinion that they are sufficiently full for carrying into 
Effect the primary object of the Expedition, with sufficient Latitude 

d 2 

36 Records of the Cape Colony. 

for the Commanding Officers to act eventually under every Change 
that the season of the Year and the time of the arrival of the 
Troops must subject them to. 

In addition to the Proclamation which His Majesty has been 
pleased to order, I beg leave to suggest that were the Commanding 
Officers to offer to the Dutch Troops (who are mostly kidnapp'd 
Germans) permission to enlist into British Eegiments or to be 
taken into the Pay of Great Britain as a Eegiment under such of 
their own Officers as could be trusted, or to enter themselves into 
His Majesty's Naval or Marine Forces and serve in the Fleet 
during the War, the prospect of returning to Europe might produce 
a desirable effect amongst them, and I should beg to be honor'd 
with your Instructions upon this and the following subjects. 

As there arises great doubt in my mind as to the propriety or 
possibility of the King's ships continuing to cruize off the Cape 
of Good Hope during the months of June and July, which is the 
midst of winter, should the French be in possession of the Cape 
or the Dutch hostile, I beg leave to refer to your better judgment 
whether it would not be more proper to repair to St. Helena for 
Water, and thence to St. Salvador for the purpose of uniting the 
whole Force, in preference to risquing a precarious supply of 
Water in any of the Bays upon the Coast of Africa, or exposing 
the ships to be dismasted, which would frustrate the whole Expe- 
dition. At the same time it is my Duty to mention that the 
absence of the Fleet might give an opportunity for the Enemy to 
throw in succour providing they had not already arrived. 

(Concerning a descent upon Trincomalee and treatment of Dutch 
ships encountered at sea. — Omitted.) 

I beg pardon for presuming to offer an opinion where it is my 
duty only to execute, but having weighed all the circumstances 
as they now stand, it seems advisable that if any accident should 
have prevented Captain Blankett's sailing from Falmouth that the 
squadron should proceed conjunctly with the utmost expedition to 
the Cape and on arriving there examine Table Bay, False Bay 
and Saldahana using every possible means to acquire due informa- 
tion or admittance. But should Captain Blankett absolutely have 
sailed, the remainder of the Squadron should use every endeavour 
to get to the Cape as soon as possible with a view of making the 
most speedy junction, and thereby be enabled to carry His 
Majesty's further instructions into execution, fixing on the Cape 

Records of the Cape Colony. 37 

for the first Eendezvous, St. Helena for the second and St. Salva- 
dore for the third in case His Majesty's Ministers should find it 
necessary to send any Dispatch after the Squadron, and any officer 
sent upon this service should be instructed to examine False Bay 
and Saldahana before he quits the Cape Land, and endeavour to 
communicate with an Inhabitant upon the Coast from whom he 
might draw information. I have, &c, 

(Signed) G. K. Elpiiin stone. 


Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Right Honourable 

Henry Dundas. 

London, the 21 March, 1795. 

Sir, — I am given to understand, that some years ago, the Dutch 
India Company were obliged to borrow a considerable sum of 
Money (amounting to £20,000) from Individuals at the Cape, and 
circulated paper on their security to that amount ; now it appears 
to me practicable to bribe the Dutch Settlers, (who are sufficiently 
attached to their property,) with their own money — for example, 
if we are resisted by the Troops, suppose an offer is made to 
guarantee to the Inhabitants this said paper, to be paid out of the 
Funds of the Dutch Company, now in Great Britain, or to admit 
them as Creditors in common with others, — by these means we 
might secure the good Offices of the Inhabitants ; and, if admitted 
by the Troops, even in that case, we should feel greater security, 
when their interest was connected with their allegiance. I have 
taken the liberty to submit this subject to your consideration, that 
you may be pleased to give such directions as you shall judge 
proper. I have, &c, 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

38 Records of the Cape Colony. 


Instructions from the Horse Guards to Major-General 
Alured Clarke. 

Hoese Guards, 4 May, 1795. 

Major-General Alured Clarke. 

Sir, — You are already so fully apprized of the nature and 
circumstances of the expedition which His Majesty has been 
graciously pleased to place under your command, and the inclosed 
copies of my correspondence with Major-General Henry Craig, 
Captain Blankett, and Bear- Admiral Sir George Keith Elphinstone, 
and the officers commanding His Majesty's Land and Sea Forces 
in the Indian Seas enter so explicitly into the particulars of the 
measures which it has been thought expedient to adopt, with 
a view to a similar Service, in consequence of the late events 
in Holland, that it is unnecessary for me to enter into any further 
detail on this subject. I am therefore to signify to you His 
Majesty's pleasure that you are to proceed with the Forces under 
your command, consisting of the Eegiments mentioned in the 
Margin, and a detachment of the Eoyal Artillery, on board such 
78th, 2nd Battalion. Shi P s belonging to the East India Com- 
84th, 2nd Battalion. pany as have been appointed for their recep- 
95th. tion, to the Bay of St. Salvador on the Coast 

98th * of Brasil. On your arrival at this Port you 

will probably find a detachment from the Squadron under the 
command of Bear- Admiral Sir George Keith Elphinstone, or possibly 
the whole of his force, as you will perceive by my Instructions to 
the Admiral waiting there in order to convoy the Indiamen to the 
Cape of Good Hope. The measures to be pursued on your arrival 
off this place must depend on the situation in which you will find 
it. If the Squadron with Major-General Craig and the troops on 
board which also form a part of the force under your command 
shall have met with a favorable reception and have been put 
in possession of the Port and Garrison you will, I conceive, be 
apprized of the fortunate event previously to your departure from 
St. Salvador, but if on the other hand they should not have secured 
a friendly admittance at the Cape, nor have been able to obtain 
possession thereof by force previously to your joining them, you 
are in concert with the officer in command of the Naval Forces 

Records of the Cape Colony. 39 

to make an immediate and vigorous attack on the Cape and 
exert your utmost endeavours to make yourself master thereof, 
and tho', in ease of success, you are under these circumstances 
to take possession of the Colony in His Majesty's name, it is 
however His Majesty's pleasure that you should, in conjunction 
with the Commanding Oificer of the Naval Forces, offer such 
favorable and liberal conditions to the Garrison as may in your 
judgment tend to acquire possession of the place in the most 
expeditious manner, and with the least loss or hazard to the Ships 
and Troops employed in the attack. 

In the event of your finding His Majesty's forces in the 
possession of the Cape, or, in the contrary supposition, of your 
succeeding in the attempt which you are hereby directed to make, 
you are with the utmost diligence to take all necessary measures 
for placing it in the best possible state of security and defence. 
The means of attaining this object must depend on so many 
circumstances, that His Majesty does not think it expedient 
to determine what specific proportion of the forces under your 
command should be allotted to this purpose. On this point 
therefore you will exercise your own discretion, bearing in mind 
however the other important objects of your expedition, for the 
accomplishment of which it will be very desirable that you should 
part with as little of your force as possible consistently with a due 
attention to the secure possession of the Cape, to which I hope a 
proportion not exceeding one half of the Corps will be found fully 

If you should meet with a friendly reception at the Cape, or if 
on the other hand the Enemy should have preceded you with such 
reinforcements as to render any attack imprudent or impracticable 
(an event I trust very little probable) you will, in either of these 
cases, be able to leave the Cape so as to reach Madras before the 
breaking of the Monsoon, &c, &c. (The remainder of the in- 
structions has reference to India.) 

40 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Instructions from the Horse Guards to General Clarke. 

Horse Guabds, 4 May, 1795. 

Major-General Alured Clarke. 

Sir, — In the event of your obtaining possession of the Cape 
of Good Hope, it is the King's pleasure that the Forces which, by 
my letter of this date, you are instructed to leave for its defence, 
should be furnished from the Eegiments named in the Margin, in 
95th. preference to the 2nd Battalions of the 78th and 84th 
98th. Eegiments, which are to proceed with you to India. 
You will however understand that you are at liberty to appropriate 
any part of the two latter to the same Service, in case a competent 
Garrison cannot be formed for this important Colony without this 
addition ; and on the other hand if any Men can be spared from 
either of the two first-mentioned Corps consistent with a due 
attention to the security of the Cape, His Majesty leaves it to your 
discretion to draft them into the two other Eegiments, in order 
to replace any deficiencies which casualties may occasion after 
their departure from Europe, so that they may if possible arrive at 
Madras complete to their present Establishment. 


Letter from Commissioner General Abraham Josias Sluysken 
to Admiral Elphinstone. 

Kape Town, 12th June, 1795. 

Sir, — Being informed by the Eesident at the False Bay, and the 
Gentleman you send me of your desire to communicate to me and 
Collonel Gordon the very important information as well as a letter 
written by His Serene Highness the Prince of Orange, Stadholder 
of the Eepublicq, I am sorry to reply, that it is at present not in 
my power to leave the Cape and neither to deprive me of the 
Commander-in-Chief of our Forces, and I am obliged therefore 
to request you will be so kind to send these dispatches and in- 
formation to me by an Officer having your confidence. I have &c, 

(Signed) A. J. Sluysken, 

Records of the Cape Colon;/. 41 


Letter from Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig 
addressed to the Honble. Governor Sluysken. 

On Board of His Majesty's Ship Monarch, 
13th June, 1795. 

Sir ! — In handing to you the letter, with which we are charged 
from His Serene Highness the Stadtholder, and which the Bearers 
Lieutt.-Colonel McKenzie and Captn Hardy of His Majesty's 
Navy, attended by Mr. Ross Secretary to the Major-General, will 
have the honour to deliver you, we think it may not be inexpedient, 
that we should accompany it with some information of the situation 
of affairs when we left Europe, in so far as relates to the United 
States and of which, it is possible, you may not as yet have 
received intelligence. 

The severity of an uncommon hard winter having rendered of 
no avail those Barriers which could alone give any hopes of the 
Armies of His Britannick Majesty, and of the United States, being 
able to withstand the infinitely superior number of the Enemy; 
the latter succeeded in penetrating into the provinces of Utrecht 
and Guelderland in the latter end of the month of January, and 
the Army of His Majesty having by this means been forced to 
retire across the Ehine into Germany, that of the United States 
incapable of resistance was obliged to submit. In a few days the 
whole of the seven provinces fell into the hands of the Enemy 
without Treaty, Capitulation or agreement of any kind, while the 
Prince of Orange and his Family found themselves under the 
necessity of taking refuge in England. 

The French being thus masters of the Country it is scarcely 
necessary to detail the consequences. In the short space which 
had elapsed before our departure immense contributions were 
ordered in the most arbitrary manner. The Grand Pensionary, 
the Greffier, Count Bentinck and others, were imprisoned; the 
Command of the Fleet was taken from Admiral Kingsbergen and 
given to an Officer sent from France for the purpose, while the 
former was also imprisoned. The magistracy and ancient con- 
stitution of the great Towns were rapidly changing. Amsterdam 
Harlem and many others being already municipalized, Revolu- 
tionary Committees were every where instituting and in short 

42 Records of the Cape Colony. 

french principles and forms of Government were universally- 
shewing themselves and taking place, under the guidance and 
protection of an armed force, which indeed was not to be resisted. 
The States General however still continued their sittings, but 
under the controul of the same armed force, they were directed 
to publish the orders of the Convention only, while their repre- 
sentations on the impossibility of complying with the requisitions 
made on the Country were answered by menaces of Military 

Under these circumstances it is to be supposed that the Enemy 
will use their endeavours to reap the most benefit from their con- 
quest, short lived as they must have every reason to apprehend it 
likely to be, from the extreme improbability of their being able 
to keep in subjection a people who have at all times exhibited the 
most unequivocal demonstration of their love of independence, 
and from the immense preparations making by the Coalesced 
Powers for opening the next Campaign with a force more pro- 
portioned to the extraordinary efforts which the Enemy have been 
able to make this year, but which have been too great for it to be 
possible that they should continue them another. 

His Britannick Majesty sensibly affected with the misfortunes of 
His ancient Allies and Friends, has not failed to concert measures 
with His Serene Highness the Prince of Orange, to prevent if 
possible the total loss and alienation of their valuable possessions 
in the Indies to which the french will naturally turn their 
attention, and which if once in their possession, might be irre- 
trievably so. It is in consequence of this Concert between His 
Britannick Majesty and His Serene Highness, that we have the 
honour now of delivering the letter from the latter, which the 
Bearers will hand to you, and which we make no doubt will meet 
with that attention from you Sir which it demands on account of 
the authority from which it proceeds, as well as from the con- 
sideration of the interests of the Company which you represent 
and those of the People of the Colony over which you preside. 

The necessity of anticipating the designs of the Enemy, if they 
should have formed any such, induced His Majesty to dispatch 
us on this service with such a force only as could be imme- 
diately assembled, and as was likely to effect the passage without 
the delay usually attendant upon large fleets encumbered with 
Transports. We have however the honour to announce to you, 

Records of the Cape Colony. 43 

that such a one, with a land force sufficient to secure the Colony 
from any attempt which may be made upon it, was in such for- 
wardness when we sailed, that it's arrival may be daily looked 
for, and in the mean time, we flatter ourselves that the exertions 
which we feel every inclination to make in case of necessity, will 
enable us even with our present force, in cooperation with the 
internal strength of the Settlement, of whose cordial assistance we 
shall have no doubt, to withstand any desultory attack which is 
what alone can be formed by the enemy with the precipitation 
which would be requisite for it to precede the Armament of the 
arrival of which we are in daily expectation. We have, &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstonb, Commander-in-Chief. 

J. H. Craig, Major-General. 

Letter from Commissioner Sluysken to Admiral Elphinstone. 

Cape Town, 13*A June, 1795. 

Dear Sir, — I had the honour to receive your Note of Yester- 
day and am obliged to you for the news of Teneriffe it conveyed 
to me, it gives me also a great pleasure to be informed that my 
Old Friends Messrs. Hunter and Scott were in good health when 
your Fleet left Europe. 

As my occupations and the situation of this place are such 
that I cannot leave it, I am sorry I cannot make a trip to the 

I am heartily sorry for the fate of my Country. My Unhappy 
Star enduced me to send my wife and family there two Years ago 
and I am alarmed that I do not find she is at present with her 
own family in England. 

The alarm which the appearance of your fleet, by taking it 
through some mistake or other for the Fleet of an Enemy, occa- 
sioned, gives me great concern, we are living in a time that 
the minds of the People are every where in a sort of convulsion 
and the best manner for every man in certain situations is to 
gi\e them a little time for recollection. 

Excuse my bad writing in the English language. I have &c. 

(Signed) A. J. Sluysken, 

44 Records of the Cape Colony. 


Letter from Commissioner Sluysken and the Council of Policy 
to Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig. 

Casteel de Goede Hoop, 14 Junij, 1795. 

Hoog Ed. Gestr. Heeren, — Wij hebben wel ontfangen de 
missive, waarmeede Uwe Excellentien den eerst ondergeteekenden 
commissaris over dit gouvernement, op gisteren hebben gelieven 
te vereeren,.met de daarneevens gevoegde letteren van zijne Doorl. 
Hoogh. den heere prins van Orange aan den eerst-ondergeteekenden 

Wij zullen de nodige ordres stellen dat de vloot door Uwe 
Excellentien gecommandeerd wordende, van de noodige provisien 
en andere gerieflijkheedens word voorzien. 

Dan vermits de omstandigheeden deezer kolonie niet gedoogen 
om gewaapende troupes of volk aan wal te laaten koomen, zoo 
moogen wij niet afzien Uwe Excellentien te verzoeken bij provisie 
geen volk anders als ongewaapend naar land te zenden en in zulke 
kleine getallen als moogelijk zal zijn. 

"Wij moogen voor het overige niet afzien Uwe Excellentien 
onze dankerkentenisse te betuigen voor de blijken van deelneem- 
ing, welke zijn Groot Britannische Majesteit in het behoud deezer 
kolonie heeft gelieven te stellen, door Uwe Excellentien te 
authoriseeren om dezelve te helpen verdeedigen, zullende wij 
bij onverhoopten vijandelijken aanval op deeze kolonie, de vrij- 
heid neemen Uwe Excellentien te solliciteeren om ons met de 
magt, welke Uwe Excellentien commandeeren, te adsisteeren. 

Wij moogen 'er egter tot Uwer Excellentien geruststelling 
bijvoegen, dat wij ons in de gelukkige situatie bevinden om een 
vijandelijke magt het hoofd te kunnen bieden en wij wenschten 
wel, dat Uwe Excellentien ons geliefden te informeeren met welk 
eene magt van militie Uwe Excellentien in zulk een cas ons 
zouden kunnen adsisteeren. Wij hebben de eer enz. 

(Geteekend) A. J. Sluysken, 
J. I. Ehenius, 
E. J. Gordon, 
J. J. le Sueur, 

W. F. van Eeede van Oudtshoorn, 
W. S. VAN Eijneveld. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 45 


Letter from Colonel Robert Jacob Gordon to Admiral 

Cape op Good Hope, the \Uh June, 1795. 

Honourable Sir, — I had the honor to receive by Mr. 
Farquhar, the letter from Mr. D. Scott, as also by Mr. Ross your 
honoured favor, I lament in the highest degree the unhappy 
turn of affairs in holland and wish you heartily welcome in this 
Colonie having read with the greatest satisfaction out of your 
official papers that the basis is, unanimously to repulse an Enemy 
that wants to wrest it from its lawfull Sovereign, the Republic 
of the seven United Provinces with their Hereditary Stadtholder 
the Prince of Orange, according to our ancient constitution (which 
I have sworn to) and Guard it together for them, and be assured 
that I shall use my utmost exertions in fulfilling this my duty. 
I am further very sorry that an impardonable neglectfullness 
of the Officer of our Frigate has been the cause of an allarm 
that has set the whole country in an uproar, which I must add 
is much augmented by bad designing People how think to find 
their ruined finances reestablished by French principles and 
anarchy, and by others how are the endoctrinated dupes, however 
this is the case; and in this moment prudence is necessary to 
bring things to a proper end. 

I am extremely sorry that I could not hitherto come aboard to 
pay my respects to you, being a Subordinate, however Sir George j 
be assured that I shall serve the Common cause with all my 
Exertions, that I abhor French principles, and that if our unhappy 
republic, where I am born in and served these 42 years, should 
surrender (which God forbids) that then I am a Greatbritainer. 

I have the Honor to enclose a letter from Mr. Pringle who 
I am very sorry is not here as he might be very useful — and 
remain with the greatest regard &c. 

(Signed) R. J. Gordon. 

Enclosure in above. 

Cape op Good Hope, 18M March, 1795. 

Circumstances having rendered it necessary that I should leave 
this place, I think it advisable hereby to certify to the Commander- 

46 Records of the Cape Colony. 

in-Chief of any British Force which may arrive here, that I 
solemnly believe the most perfect Confidence may be placed in 
the honor, Loyalty & Principles of Col. Gordon and that he 
may on all occasions be treated with accordingly. 

(Signed) John Pringle 
Agent for the Honble. English East India Com y . 

The Commander-in-Chief of any British 
Force that may arrive at the Cape. 


Letter from Lieutenant-Colonel A. Mackenzie to General 


Cape Town. 

Sir, — Finding that the Governor and Council have not their 
dispatches (at this late hour) for you made up Captain Hardy and 
I have judged it most proper that he should communicate this 
with such other intelligence as he may have acquired since our 
departure and as I am convinced he will be able to satisfy you 
in most points I shall not intrude on your time by giving my 
sentiments in any way at large and shall only take the liberty 
of giving the opinion which two interviews with the Governor 
has enabled me to form of him he appears to me a man possessed 
of the most uncommon sansfroid and received your letter with 
that from the Prince of Orange with the greatest unconcern, he 
expressed great attachment to our nation and the strongest aversion 
to the French and their principles, and after asking for the political 
news of Europe he called the Council together — they sat till a 
late hour, it is composed of six members who are European 
Africans who regulate every thing in the most despotick manner 
and have monopolised all the public Offices, they are held in great 
abhorrence by the people in general who are I think ready to 
serve under any other Masters the Governor has a decided Vote 
in Council, that is he alone can adopt any measures, and has 
of late used his Authority he assured us to-day that all were 
unanimous in the Council but of this Captain Hardy will explain 
I rather think they are not likely suddenly, to coincide with our 

Records of the Cape Colony. 47 

wishes, I am endeavouring to get every information as to their 
Forces, posts, provisions, population &c. and have been much 
indebted to the good Offices of two English Officers of the East 
India Company Service who are here, the works you mentioned 
are by no means in a finished state and I am satisfied that we 
can safely get round behind them from what I have seen and 
learned, it will be unsafe to land in Ealse Bay if not almost 
impracticable, as they are in possession of an uncommonly strong 
pass, at Musemberg or generally called the halfway — there they 
had when I passed about 300 Melitia Troops with some Cavalry, 
which they turned out to receive us, they are totally undisciplined 
as are all the others — the regulars are steady looking troops. You 
will forgive the liberty I take in recommending a survey in some 
way, of the Bay that extends beyond the Half — if Boats can get 
so far up, the Troops can be safely landed under the fire of a Sloop 
of "War or even in boats with some trifling pieces of Ordnance, 
as there is nothing to oppose them of any consequence, the hurry 
I am obliged to write in prevents my giving information correctly, 
but as I shall have the honor of seeing you to-morrow I trust 
I shall be able to satisfy the General and you on some leading 
Points. I beg to mention Camps Bay as worthy of your attention. 
I think if necessary a detachment might be sent round there 
with great effect and it is only three miles distant from this 
Town — about half way on the top of the Hill there is a small 
battery of four guns, but they do not bear so as to prevent the 
landing and if in our possession would command the Town, there 
is a Serjeant and twelve men there, if matters can not be amicably 
settled, I certainly the proclamation being made publicly known 
would be of the greatest service and if the General and you 
approved of adding anything to it regarding the paper currency, 
which now distracts the Inhabitants of the settlement it would 
I think be of the greatest consequence, as they now labour under 
the apprehension of its being destroyed on our getting possession 
and it now solely constitutes their property, as there is no 
specie allowed to circulate, their only security for this money 
is the East India Company and I think if they were assured of 
its being taken by us they would not hesitate to comply with 
our wishes in any way, as far as I can learn the Paper money 
in circulation through the whole settlement amounts only to two 
Million of Rix Dollars, I cannot conclude this too confused 

48 Records of the Cape Colony. 

letter without requesting forgiveness for inaccuracies which were 
in some degree unavoidable. I have &c. 

(Signed) A. Mackenzie, 

Lt.-Col. 2nd 78 Eegt. 

P.S. — I cannot help thinking that their tardiness in not 
desiding proceeds from a wish to protract and get time which 
would be better to prevent as their best and most numerous 
force have not come in being five hundred miles distant, and at 
this moment engaged in a serious quarrel with the members of 
the Council, they have already detained one of them in their 
own Country — I shall remain here till to-morrow at daylight 
in case you might wish to send me further Orders which I shall 
at all times be happy to obey. 

Narrative by Captain Hardy. 

Captain Hardy of His Majesty's Sloop Echo having been sent to 
the Governor on the 13th June, returned on the 15th and 
delivered this Narrative. 

Upon our first arrival we went to the Governor he spoke upon 
common subjects but said little respecting the letters we brought 
him, he observed he was in a very particular situation and that 
he would give no Answer till he had deliberated upon the 
business he seemed to us struck with the situation of Holland, 
but rather inattentive to the Stadtholders letter he talked of 
the alarm our arrival had made but did not immediately attach 
any blame to the British Squadron we endeavoured to clear that 
matter up, he seemed satisfied & said he did not by any means 
suppose there had been an error on our sides, but nevertheless 
still harped upon the alarm it had given to the Country upon 
Mr. Eoss's showing him the proclamation, he shewed great 
astonishment and earnestly enquired if it had been made public 
we assured him it had not, he seemed entirely averse to it, we 
left him with begging to know when we should have the honour of 
calling upon him in the morning, he appointed no time. Mr. Eoss 

Records of the Cape Colony. 49 

having something of a private nature to say to him we left him, 
and Colonel Mackenzie & myself called upon Colonel Gordon 
who upon seeing us shewed us a Standard, saying there is the 
Orange Standard for you, and afterwards said if we were come 
to protect the Cape in favor of the Prince of Orange he was very 
glad to see us, and we should meet with his hearty support, 
but if we came to take possession of it for England he would 
fight against us till his last breath, this he said without any 
previous conversation, we parted perfect friends upon assuring 
him of what he must have seen afterwards by the letter in 

From the Conversation with the few private people we had an 
opportunity of seeing the People labour under many oppressions 
which they do not bear without heavy murmurs. Capt. Cust 
of the East India Company's service declared he had heard an 
Officer of one of the Burgher Regiments mention and I believe 
to him that a man in the Guard Room said he wished the French 
might land, another said either french or english it did not 
signify and in short a change of Government from what little 
we heard seemed not only desirable but wished for by those who 
are not immediately concerned in the Monopoly of the Dutch East 
India Company. The morning after the Governor about \ past 
nine sent for Mr. Ross desiring the person he sent to him to beg 
he would come alone, he seems or pretends to seem in my opinion 
afraid of the Peoples being alarmed with an idea of his entering 
into a negotiation with the English as he says they are all attached 
to the French & that it has been with great trouble he has kept 
them in tranquility for some time past. Colonel Mackenzie & 
myself went to him about eleven 0' Clock and told him thai 
we begged an answer might be given to the letter we had brought 
he said we might be assured no delay was made on his side 
with an idea of prolonging the business that he had to translate 
the letter for some of the Council who did not understand English. 
I told him the Admiral & General would of course expect to hear 
from us & that we must give a reason for our delay therefore I 
meant to return to False Bay directly & that I was authorized 
to say that he might thro' me convey his sentiments to the 
Admiral & General he then said he should in his answer to the 
letter (in which the Council were unanimous) acknowledge his 
obligations for the support oifered, but upon no account whatever 


50 Records of the Cape Colony. 

allow any Troops to be landed at present, that it was necessary 
to temporize, the people were in so great a state of ferment, that 
for his own part he was attached to the Stadtholder & the English, 
but if there was any idea of taking the Cape for the English, he 
should conceive it his duty to repel force by force, he said he 
wished for an interview, as well as the Admiral & General, but 
it was not in his power to go to False Bay, the People would even 
attempt his life he thought was he to go if it was in his power 
however he would send Colonel Gordon, he declared he had not 
any hostile intention, & that he hoped the Admiral & Generals 
orders did not go so far, as to be the means in the end of any 
Blood being spilt between friends and allies, he frequently 
repeated he had given orders for the Fleet to be supplied with 
every thing they wanted. 


Letter from Major-General Craig to Major-General 
Alured Clarke. 

His Majesty's Ship Monarch, 
False Bay, 15th June. 

Dear Sir, — After an uncommonly tedious passage of near 
fifteen weeks, we arrived off of this harbour five days ago, where 
we had the unexpected good fortune of falling in with Sir George 
Elphinstone, with whom we came in together. 

Our Negociations with the Dutch Government is too little 
advanced as yet to be able to form a determinate opinion as to 
what is likely to be the final result, but it stands in that situation 
at present, the Admiral and myself have thought it expedient to 
lose no time in endeavouring to get you here, whose efforts may 
in the end be necessary for our final success. 

I need not say we shall look most anxiously for you r in the 
mean time in order to procure every possible addition to our 
very small force, and to be prepared for every event we have 
written to St. Helena to request that all the men which can 
possibly be spared from the immediate defence of that Island, may 
be sent here without loss of time by this we may expect between 

Records of the Cape Colony. 51 

three and four hundred and as we know that there is a ship there 
ready to bring them, we shall look for them shortly. 

As there is no money to be procured in this Colony where 
nothing but paper is used and as I brought none out with me, it 
is absolutely necessary that you should endeavour to bring a 
sufficient sum with you from St. Salvador. 

Dollars will be the most advantageous specie if you can procure 
them, the next I understand is Portugal gold. 

We do not find that there is any intelligence here from the East 
Indies or indeed any news of any sort, their last accounts from 
Europe previous to our arrival were of 22nd Deer. In the hope 
of soon seeing you I remain, &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 


Letter from General Craig to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

On Board of His Majesty's Ship America in False Bay, 

the 16th June, 1795. 

Sir, — I take the chance opportunity that presents itself by a 
Ship which the Admiral is sending to St. Helena, to inform you, 
that after a tedious passage of near fifteen weeks, we had the 
unexpected good fortune on the 10th Inst, a few leagues off the 
Cape, to fall in with the Squadron under Sir George Keith Elphin- 
stone. It blew too hard to admit of any communication between 
us, till the 12th, when we anchored together in this Bay. 

On going on Board the Admiral, which I immediately did, we 
concerted the letter, a Copy of which I do myself the honour to 
inclose to you, and with which Lt.-Col. McKenzie and Captain 
Hardy of the Echo went to the Cape the following morning. I 
have also the honour to inclose a Copy of the Answer from the 
Council of Eegency with which those Gentlemen returned yesterday 

It appears that by a mistake of an officer of a Dutch Frigate 
lying here, an apparently well grounded apprehension of our being 
a French Squadron, had occasioned a general alarm to be convey'd 
by signals through the Country, in consequence of which the 

E 2 

52 Records of the Cape Colony. 

whole Militia of the Country have been pouring into the Cape 
Town and are now assembled in very considerable numbers ; of 
these with the addition of a few regulars a Camp is formed at a 
pass, which is represented to me as of great strength, about half 
way between this and that place. 

In consequence of the vague answer of the Council of Eegency, 
with respect to the contents of the Prince of Orange's letter, the 
Admiral and I have thought that it would be proper to attempt a 
more perfect communication by a personal conference, and we have 
accordingly written to acquaint the Governor, that if it were agree- 
able to him I would proceed to the Cape Town for that purpose, as 
this letter only went late last night no answer is as yet arrived. 

Upon a mature consideration of our situation we have also 
judged it expedient that no time should be lost in bringing here 
the force under Major General Clarke, and the vessel! which 
carries this to St. Helena is directed to proceed from thence with 
all possible expedition, to the place of rendezvous for that purpose. 
In the mean time I beg leave to assure you Sir, that, actuated by 
the warmest zeal and a due sense of my duty, no exertion will be 
wanting on my part in every endeavour that may appear practicable 
to Sir George Elphinstone and myself, for the carrying into effect 
His Majesty's Instructions in so far as they may depend upon me.- 
Of Sir George Elphinstone's oordial assistance I have every reason 
to be well assured. I have, &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 


Letter from Genekal Ckaig to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

His Majesty's Ship America, \Q(h June, 1795. 

Sir, — Tho the time of the arrival of these letters must be very 
uncertain yet I have thought it my duty not to miss any oppor- 
tunity by which it is possible that you may receive an early 
account of the situation of affairs here. In the publick letter 
which I have done myself the Honour of writing I have avoided 
entering into any detail, which appeared to me to be more proper 
for a more private communication. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 53 

The Colony here has had no communication with Europe of a 
later date than the 22nd December last, so that our arrival gave 
them the first account of the situation of affairs in Holland. It 
has happened rather unfortunately that among so many ships, no 
one, that we can discover, has brought that regular series of news- 
papers which might serve to corroborate the accounts which we 
give & which by that means are open to the insinuations of our 
Enemies (of which the number is not small) that it is possible 
they may be in a great measure of our own fabrication. With 
respect to the Prince of Orange's letter, it appears by the accounts 
of the Gentlemen who delivered it, that nothing could well exceed 
the degree of inattention with which it was received, indeed I 
could almost wish his name had not been made use of, as it seems 
to be far from the best recommendation at this Place. 

By the information which we have been able to procure, it 
appears that the Colony is in a state of considerable ferment, and 
divided into many parties, that of the Dutch Company is in- 
contestably the smallest & consists solely of the few monopolists 
whose Interests necessarily bind them to it. The French Party 
is not inconsiderable, that attach'd to us consists of the principal 
Merchants and Inhabitants of the Cape Town, but by far the most 
numerous Party — consisting almost entirely of the Inhabitants of 
the back Country- — decidedly adverse to their present Government, 
and as it should seem, as little attach'd to the Mother Country — 
have adopted the chimerical idea of existing by themselves as an 
Independent State. The idea existed before our arrival & a 
large tract of the upper Country is at this moment in open revolt 
against the authority of the Company, to whom the Inhabitants 
have determinedly refused to pay the usual taxes, supporting their 
resolution in arms against a Party which has been sent to reduce 
them to obedience. The Servants of the Company stand in the 
utmost dread of this Party, and nothing can exceed their regret, 
except it be their apprehension of the consequence of their having 
been brought together by the accident of the Alarm. With these 
. we have not as yet had any communication, but it is principally 
in the hope of working on the fears of the Council and of their 
Party, by the insinuations of appealing to them, for which oppor- 
tunities may present themselves in a conference, that I have 
proposed to go to the Cape Town. For the present we have 
judged that it will be better to avoid any direct application to 

54 Records of the Cape Colony. 

these people, who in the first tumult of their assembling in a 
force, in which they have not been accustom'd to consider them- 
selves, might feel too strong a predilection for their favourite idea 
of independance to listen to us. They will soon grow tired, indeed 
by our accounts are so already, and will dwindle to a small 
number ; at present it is considerable. The Troops I believe are 
to a man for us, they consist only in Colonel Gordon's Corps & 
that of the Artillery, a nominal thousand men, but I imagine they 
do not exceed eight hundred. We are assured that they talk 
loudly in our favour. No Eegiment of Mecklenburgh has ever 
been here but there is a small depot of Eecruits for that of 
Wirtemberg and a few Sepoys from Ceylon. 

With respect to Individuals, the Governor has confidentially 
sent me word that whatever may be the event, I may be assured 
every step he should take would be for the best but by the 
accounts of the Gentlemen who have been with him, he appears 
to be so much alarmed with the apprehension of the Assembly 
of the Militia, that he hardly knows how to conduct himself. He 
however firmly declares his intention of resisting every attempt 
which may be made to take the Colony from the Dutch East 
India Company. Col. Gordon by all accounts acts the most manly 
& most open part; He declares himself most decidedly for re- 
ceiving us as friends, but with equal resolution to oppose us to 
the last drop of his blood if we mean to take the Colony for 
ourselves, the remainder of the Council by every account is to 
a man against us & in favor of the french, fortunately by what I 
can find there is not one man of any influence or abilities among 

But the most serious consideration with all Parties seems to be 
what is likely to become of the paper currency with which the 
settlement is overrun to a considerable amount. This has been at 
all times a subject of great complaint, & even before our arrival 
it was in such discredit, that it might be procured at the rate of 
two for one of hard cash. In the conversations which Sir Geo. 
Elphinstone & I have had with individuals, we have been very, 
cautious on this head, as the amount appears to be considerable — 
it is not perhaps exactly known, but it is thought to be about 
£250,000. We have however given them to understand that with 
us, they may have a chance of some means being . found out for 
liquidating at least a part of it, especially as property belonging 

Records of the Cape Colony. 55 

to the Company to a vast extent is at this moment in our hands 
in the Torts in England, but from the French they were certain of 
receiving only one paper for another. 

I am sensible Sir that this is but a hasty and imperfect sketch 
of the situation of affairs here, written in too great a hurry to he 
so clear as I could wish, as, if I go to the Cape Town it will be 
very early tomorrow morning, and I must leave this letter, the 
Admiral designing that the Sphynx should sail immediately, for 
we have not only thought it necessary to send for Genl. Clarke 
without loss of time, but Sir George Elphinstone has concurred 
with me also in the propriety of strengthening ourselves as much 
as possible in order to be prepared for every event, and for that 
purpose has directed the Sphynx to call at St. Helena to deliver 
our letters to Governor Brooke by which we have desired him to 
send us here immediately every man who can be spared from what 
is indispensably necessary for the defence of the Island. 

After all Sir, I feel myself little able to give any determinate 
opinion as to the probability of our obtaining possession of the 
Cape before the arrival of General Clarke. By the description, 
such as it is, which I have done myself the Honor to attempt 
conveying to you of the state of the settlement, you will, I dare 
say, see that much might be done by a little negociation and 
intrigue but unfortunately we are very ill situated for such 
purpose, our communication being difficult, and may with ease be 
entirely prevented. At the same time the ferment which by 
every account reigns amongst them, the universal abhorrence in 
which the present Government is held, and the necessity which 
I think must at last be felt by all, of seeking protection some- 
where, gives us good reason not entirely to despair of a successfull 
issue to our attempts. With respect to obtaining it by force, I 
much fear every idea of it is totally out of the question without 
some very favourable turn in our favour. The 78th Eegiment & 
the Marines would together amount to 800 men, besides which the 
Admiral thinks he could land about an equal number of Sailors, 
but we have not a single piece of Artillery or an Artilleryman, 
of these the Dutch are supplied with an exceeding fine train. 
Their regular forces as I have already mentioned amount in all 
to about 1000 men, besides which they would probably in every 
event be able to keep together a considerable number of the 
Militia. It would therefore be difficult for us to force the pass at 

56 Becords of the Cape Colony. 

which their Camp is formed to the attack of which it would be 
impracticable for us to convey even Ship Guns. It would then 
be necessary for us to fight our way from thence to the Cape 
Town and when there the attack of the Fort would after all be 
utterly impossible while under the necessity of keeping up our 
communication with the Ships & receiving every supply from 
them at the distance of twenty miles. This is a difficulty which 
must have a considerable effect even after General Clarke's arrival, 
but which we shall then be more able to encounter. Should 
however every other means fail, and some at present unforeseen 
opening offer itself, with better prospect of success than what 
would now appear in it, I shall trust that the magnitude of the 
object will excuse a little risk, & certain of the cordial cooperation 
of the Navy I shall go every length which may appear possible 
to the exertion of the small force under my command. I have &c, 

(Signed) J. H. Ceaig. 


Letter from General Craig to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dtjndas. 

His Majesty's Ship America, False Bat, 
16th of June, 1795. 

Sir, — Finding that no money is to be procured at this place, 
where paper currency is alone in use, and foreseeing that the 
service on which I am employ'd, may require some on various 
other accounts, as well as for the subsistence of the part of the 
78th Eegiment here, I have taken the opportunity of His Majesty's 
Ship Sphynx going to St. Helena, to write to Governor Brooke at 
that place, to desire that He will draw on the Eight Honble. the 
Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, for any sum 
which he may be able to procure in that Island, not exceeding 
that of £3500 Stg. on my account, and send it here by the first 
safe and convenient opportunity. I have, &c, 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 57 


Letter from Admiral Elpiiinstone to General Clarke 
at St. Salvador. 

His Majesty's Ship Monarch, Simon's Bay, 
Capk of Good Hope, the 1G June, 1795. 

My dear General, — General Craig has already said all that 
can be said — you need not doubt how anxiously on every account 
I wish to see you, as very much depends upon it (setting friend- 
ship out of the question) — it has not been judged prudent to send 
a stronger convoy or to diminish our Naval Force here. 

I must tell you here is in circulation little else but Paper 
Money, therefore you must bring a good supply of Cash, Silver in 
Spanish Dollars is preferable, but if that cannot be procured where 
you are, Gold is the next best, let me therefore intreat you to draw 
on my account for two thousand pounds sterling upon the Treasury. 
Capt. Brisac will receive that, and any sum you bring on account 
of the Army. I write to the Portuguese Governor requesting he 
will send any Ships he may have unemployed to strengthen the 
Convoy to this place, or as far as he thinks proper, I fear he will 
not comply but I do my duty, to you it would be impertinent to 
recommend expedition. I have reason to think we have a strong 
party among the Troops. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elpiiinstone. 


Letter from Admiral Elpiiinstone to Captain Dekker, 
Commander of the Dutch Friyatc Medcnblik. 

His Majesty's Ship Monarch, Simon's Bay, 
16 June, 1795. 

Sir, — I have this instant had the honor of your letter, and con- 
fess after the conversation which passed in the presence of General 
Craig and your officer Baror, that its contents astonished me. 

1 thought 1 had fully explained to you that the object of 
my mission was to give protection to such of the Inhabitants as 

58 Records of the Cape Colony. 

were well disposed to the Constitution of Holland and to assist in 
resisting any attempt that might be made to introduce French 
Troops or French Principles into this Colony and I was happy to 
be assured that you would heartily assist my Endeavours — judge 
then my disappointment on receiving your letter of this day. 

My Instructions however require that all Merchant Ships should 
give Security, but as they are under your Convoy I shall only 
require under your hand & seal a positive declaration that neither 
you nor they will enter any French Port whatever. 

I take my leave with great reluctance and have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 


Journal kept by Eeae-Admiral Sir George Keith 

Wednesday lQtli June 1795. 

At day joined Commodore Blankett off the Cape, it blew 
strong which prevented any communication & our getting into 
the Bay. 

^Thursday 11 June. 

"We got near Simons Bay — at 4 p.m. Capt. Dekker commanding 
the Dutch Frigate Middinblick of 36 Guns, lying in Simons Bay, 
came on board the Monarch, enquired what news, said they had 
none from Holland, but that a Packet had just arrived. I sent on 
shore Mr. Alexander Farquhar with Letters for the Governor & 
Colonel Gordon from Mr. David Scott, it fell calm & became 
dark which obliged us to anchor with the Arrogant & Victorious 
near, the other ships far off, many Signals made, and Guns fired 
ashore in the night. 

Friday 12 June. 

Calm all the morning, the distant Ships under Sail, no Boat 
came off — at 11 a.m. observed a Corps of Men marching towards 
Simons Bay from the Cape with a Field Gun or two and their 

Records of the Cape Colony. 59 

Waggons — sent an Officer to the America to desire to see General 
Craig and Captain Blankett as soon as possible, at noon the 
General came on board, and informed that the Commodore was ill, 
at 2 p.m. Mr. Farquhar returned with Letter No. 1 from the 
Governor, said he thought the People well disposed. 

Saturday IZth June. 

Sent Capt. Hardy and Lieutenant-Colonel Mackenzie to the 
Cape with letters to the Governor and Colonel Gordon, returned 
visit to the Dutch Captain, and delivered him the Prince of 
Orange's letter — he seemed much affected, said he was a man of 
Fortune — that all was now gone but his honor, and that he would 
never desert his Prince, but must go and consult with the 
Governor, and would give me an answer in writing. He feared 
we should have trouble the whole Troops were ordered here. 
General Craig was with me. I replied The situation of your 
Country is dreadful, & truly lamentable, I feel for you — the line 
of Conduct seems clear, consider the liberal offers of the King — 
make them known to your Officers & Men — if any are disinclined 
I will remove them — & in the meantime wait your answer. 
The Captains of Dutch Ships of War have a Controul in the 
Council here. 

Sunday 14 June. 
Nothing material. 

Monday 15 June. 

Capt. Hardy returned from the Cape at 8 a.m. with Letters 
No. 2, 3, 4, 5, & his narrative, informs us the Troops left this 
place this morning by day and are encamped at Mysembourg 
about nine miles off in a strong pass — they have some Militia 
Cavalry & four Guns; Lieutenant Durban of His Majesty's Ship 
Monarch being on shore for Water, gained the information in his 
narrative No. 7. Colonel Mackenzie & Mr. Ross returned with 
letters from the Cape rather unfavorable. General Craig & I 
wrote to desire safe Conduct for the General to meet the Governor, 
sent the letter by Captn. Parkhill & Mr. Farquhar. 

60 Records of the Cape Colony: 

Tuesday 16 June. 

Captain Dekker of the Dutch Frigate signified his intention 
to sail. I was surprised at this change of sentiment in him, 
answered his letter, received letter from Colonel Gordon & 
Capt. Dekker. 


Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

His Majesty's Ship Monarch, Simon's Bat, 

Cape of Good Hope, the 17 June 1795. 

Sir, — I have the honor to inform you that I was fortunate 

enough to join the Squadron under the command of Commodore 

Blankett on the 10th instant off the Cape, and that on the 12 th 

the Squadron under my command consisting of His Majesty's 

Monarch Ships named in the margin anchored in this Bay, — 

America the Rattlesnake came in on the 15th. Upon our 

Ruby anchoring I observed an uncommon Stir & Signals 

ArroJant over a ^ ^e Country, and indeed my ship was fired 

Victorious at, which I have since discovered was owing to the 

Sphynx negligence of a Dutch Officer who was sent on board 

Rattlesnake t ke Monarch, with a Signal Flag concealed in his 


Boat which he was desired to have hoisted, but he 
totally forgot it. 

The accompanying letters journals and narratives contain all 
the information I have in my power to communicate to you at 
this moment, as notwithstanding my endeavours to procure some 
decisive satisfactory intelligence; from the various interests, all 
different in their nature, and the Parties which prevail it is not 
likely that any determination . will be immediately formed on 

The greatest difficulty seems to be the Paper Money in circu- 
lation here amounting to two millions of Eix Dollars which is 
the only payment offered and of which many of the First Men 
have a considerable stock. 

A second idea had prevailed for some time that Holland was 
on the eve of making peace with France at the price of a declara- 

Records of the Cape Colony. 01 

tion o\' War against England ; this occasions a reluctance to declare 
one way or the other until something further is heard of the State 
of Europe. 

A third objection is that the Monopolies are in the hands of the 
Council an advantage they would hesitate extremely to resign, or 
to adopt any measure which might hazard their loosing it, at the 
same time it is a powerful engine with the People who sensibly 
feel the oppression of such a practice. 

In this emergency and in the present situation of circumstances, 
General Craig is of opinion with me that not a moment should be 
lost in sending for the Troops, that it is impossible to diminish our 
present Force, without loosing the Footing already obtained, I have 
therefore directed Captain Brisac to proceed with the Sphynx 
under his command to St. Helena and St. Salvador with letters 
and Orders, copies of which will accompany this, and as the Paper 
Money in circulation here is of little or no value, and no one will 
receive it from us I have boen under the necessity of applying to 
Governor Brooke, and General Clarke for a supply of Cash, if any 
can be procured, as stated in my letters to them, copies of which 
you will also receive herewith, which explain the mode in which 
the money is to be procured and you will be pleased to issue the 
directions necessary thereon to the respective official departments 
in England. 

A large fleet consisting of 17 or 19 Dutch India Ships sailed 
from this place about a month ago under the Convoy of a Frigate 
and Brig of War, I understand they were ordered to avoid St. 
Helena and the Channel by reason of the expectation that Holland 
had made Peace with France upon the terms of the States declaring 
against Britain. I have met with nothing but Chicane & 
Duplicity hitherto where I least expected it and our present 
situation renders it necessary to temporize. 

On the 16th Captain Dekker commanding the Dutch Frigate 
Middenblick of 3C Guns sent me the letter No. 9 of which I enclose 
a Copy, and my answer to it. This affair has given me the deepest 
concern, because it obliges me to depart in some measure from the 
( )rders I have received, and from his frank declaration I did not 
expect it; but I am well convinced it proceeds from an attempt of 
the Council to ascertain whether I would oppose his departure, 
and that on firing one Gun he would have surrendered, which 
would have been turned to our disadvantage with the Country 

62 Records of the Cape Colony. 

People who are assembled, and of whom the Governor and Council 
stand in great awe being detested by them. I could not however 
venture to detain the Frigate in our present distressed situation, 
one Ship having 200 Men confined to Bed by the Scurvy, and 
the others all in a great degree afflicted with this complaint. 

Of Troops, Marines, and disciplined Men I might perhaps be 
able to land 1800, and have no doubt of beating any Force they 
could bring into the Field, & what is still more in our favor, is, 
there being every reason to believe that the Eegular Troops would 
join us, but even then, if a few hundreds retired into the Fort, 
we have not one Gun, Mortar, Artilleryman Engineer or Intrench- 
ing Tool and a Communication of twenty Miles to keep for our 

Under all circumstances it was judged expedient to allow the 
Dutch Frigate to depart, rather than to risque hostilities, which 
might deprive us of our present footing, and thereby afford the 
French an opportunity of introducing themselves. So soon as the 
Men are recovered I shall employ the Ships in cruizing off this 
place from time to time in divisions for the purpose of endeavour- 
ing to intercept any vessel that may attempt to enter or convey 
intelligence, of which I anxiously hope you and His Majesty's other 
Ministers will be pleased to approve. 

It is necessary to observe that both the Governor and Captain 
Dekker mentioned that the Stadtholders letter was ambiguous, if 
not equivocal & by no means correspondent to the Extract of the 
Letter from His Serene Highness to Lord Grenville, with which 
the General was furnished. 

You will observe the General's offer of going to the Cape & 
the Governors answer; but he this morning received a Note 
signifying that Horses could not be procured, I went on shore to 
endeavour to discover whether this difficulty was real or pretended, 
but without effect. I met there a gentleman with an unequivocal 
message from one of Bank among the Troops respecting himself 
and a number of Men. The Captain of the Dutch Frigate came on 
board soon after I returned from the shore & told me he was going 
to the Cape & did not propose sailing so soon. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 63 


Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Governor Brooke, 
St. Helena. 

His Majesty's Ship Monakch, Simon's Bay, 

Cape of Good Hope, the 17 June, 1795. 

Sir, — I have the honor to inform you of our arrival at this 
place on the 11th instant after having had the good fortune to 
join the squadron under the command of Commodore Blankett 
with General Craig on board. 

It is needless to enter into a longer detail than to observe that 
considering the smallness of our present Force the Council here 
seem inclined to delay coming to any immediate determination 
respecting their conduct until they hear further from Europe. 

In conjunction with General Craig I beg leave to represent to 
you that it is of the greatest importance that our numbers here 
should be increased as speedily as possible, & I therefore doubt 
not that you will send us with the utmost dispatch by the Arniston, 
Swallow or any other Ship whether belonging to His Majesty or 
to the East India Company as many men as you can prudently 

The General will communicate to you our total want of Artillery 
& of Men trained to that service with other circumstances of which 
lie is more instructed than I can be. 

At all events if the Swallow should not have sailed for England 
prior to your receiving this, I beg that Vessel may be immedi- 
ately sent to me, as her services are essential, in fact absolutely 

There is another subject which I must beg leave seriously to 
press upon your attention — here is nothing in circulation but 
Taper Money, of which not being sufficiently aware when I left 
England, I came unprovided with Specie, it is therefore a most 
important point also that you should send me a supply of Silver 
if any can possibly be procured either from the Company, or from 
Individuals, fur which I will grant Bills at the usual Exchange. 

Any of the King's Ships, the Sceptre excepted, have orders to 
follow your directions for the purpose of moving any men you 
may be so good as to afford us. I recommend the greatest caution 
in the approach to this place and request you will deliver the 

64 Records of the Cape Colony. 

enclosed Orders to any of the King's or Company's Ships you 
may send hither, & that you -will be pleased to forward the 
Packets sent herewith addressed for Britain by any safe opportu- 
nity. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

Declaration by Major-General James Henry Craig. 

Cape Town, 18th June, 1795. 

The undersigned in conjunction with Admiral Sir George Keith 
Elphinstone has it in charge from His Britannick Majesty to invite 
and propose to the Government and Settlement of the Cape of 
Good Hope, to accept of, and put themselves under the protection 
of Great Britain, until a general pacification of the disturbances 
in Europe shall take place, and that by the blessing of God, the 
ancient and legal constitution of the Government of the United 
States being reestablished, His Majesty may be enabled to restore 
it to it's just and proper owners. 

In order to create as little inconvenience and detriment as 
possible from such a change, the Admiral and General are authorized 
to assure the Government and Inhabitants, that it is His Majesty's 
intention that the Laws, Customs, and usages, of the Inhabitants 
shall suffer no change, alteration, or Infringement whatever. That 
no fresh taxes shall be levied on the Inhabitants, His Majesty 
relying that they will of themselves provide for the expence of 
their internal Government. That all trade with Holland and the 
Dutch Settlements being necessarily at an end, the Inhabitants 
shall be permitted to Trade with the English East India Company's 
Settlements in the same manner as the Subjects of the most 
favoured Nation, and that with respect to all other Commerce they 
shall be allowed to carry it on in the most advantageous manner. 

His Majesty will take upon himself the payment of the Troops 
here, only requiring that they should take a temporary Oath of 
fidelity to Him, till such time as by the restoration of the legal 
constitution of Holland they are able to return to the obedience 
which they owe to their former masters, and that to prevent any 

Records of the Cape Colony. fJ5 

dissatisfaction or disturbance on that head, His Majesty will also 
pay any arrears if any such should be due them. 

And lastly that the Officers of the Government shall be left in 
the enjoyment of their several and respective employments till 
His Majesty's pleasure is known. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig, Major-General. 


Letter from Commissioner Sluysken and the Council of Policy 
to General Craig. 

Casteel de Goede Hoop, den 19 Junij, 1795. 

Hoog Edele Heer, — Wij hebben rijpelijk overwoogen, alles 
wat betrekking heeft tot de uitnoodiging om te accepteeren en 
bet gouvernement, mitsgaders etablissement te stellen onder de 
protectie van zijn majesteit van Groot-Britannien invoegen door 
U Hoog Ed. deezen morgen aan ons gedaan, en wij vinden ons 
in eer en eed verplicht dezelve ten eenemaale te declineeren, 
voorgenoomen hebbende om met de magt die wij aan handen 
hebben ons zelven te verdeedigen teegen ieder, welke een aanval 
teegen deeze kolonie en de wettige constitute van ons vaderland, 
dewelke wij bezwooren hebben, zou tragten te onderneemen. 
Wij hebben de eer enz. 

(Geteekend) A. J. Sluysken, 
J. I. Rhenius, 
R J. Gordon, 
J. J. le Sueur, 

W. F. van Eeede van Oudtshoorn, 
W. S. van Rijneveld. 

C6 Records of the Cape Colony. 


Letter from Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig to 
Commissioner Sluysken. 

Monarch, 20th June, 1795. 

Sir, — Major-General Craig having this instant returned & 
having taken into consideration the paper which he had the 
honor to deliver to you yesterday we have thought that in a 
matter of such infinite importance to the happiness and welfare of 
.thousands of both Nations, it became us that no want of precision 
and formality should be attributed to us, and therefore as that 
Paper was delivered by the Major-General & from the hasty 
manner in which it was drawn up, was not so full and explicit in 
many respects, as what we proposed offering to your consideration, 
We have now the Honor of inclosing you one on the subject 
which we hope will fully answer every purpose of making His 
Britannick Majesty's intentions known, and we have only to add 
that we trust that from the considerations of justice humanity and 
attention to the happiness of the People over whom you preside 
you will be pleased to make the contents publick among them. 
We have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone, 
J. H. Craig. 

[Enclosure in above.] 

Whereas an armed force acting under the pretended authority 
of the persons now exercising the powers of Government in France 
lias entered into the territories of His Majesty's ancient allies 
Their High Mightinesses the States General of the United 
Provinces and whereas by the intervention of this armed force the 
established Constitution' and Government of the Country has been 
overthrown, The Stadholder has been forced to leave the Country 
and take refuge in England, The ancient Magistrature and 
Government of the great Towns has been annihilated and an 
entire new form has been introduced, the Officers of the States 
in general have been deposed and imprisoned, the Public Property 
has been seized in the name of the French Convention, the army 
disbanded and the Fleet put under the command of a French 

Records of the Cape Colony. 67. 

Officer ; and whereas by these acts the united Provinces of the 
Netherlands can no longer be considered as enjoying a Government 
of their own but as being subject to the National Convention of 
France who in fact now govern them in the most arbitrary and 
oppressive manner and have demanded contributions of Cloaths, 
Provisions, & Money beyond the possibility of compliance, the 
representations of which have only been answered by menace of 
Military Execution. 

And whereas among the other consequences attending this 
assumption of the Government by the authority of the pretended 
Government of France and the seizure of all Public property as 
well as by the known principles now prevailing in France, it is 
apparent that the Dutch East India Company can no longer be 
said to exist but that their Settlements & Possessions will be 
considered as belonging to the property of France and will be 
seized upon as such, We therefore do by this proclamation issued 
by Virtue of His Majesty's Command hereby invite and require 
the Government and Inhabitants of the Settlement of the Cape of 
Good Hope to accept of & put themselves under the protection of 
His said Majesty by delivering up the said Settlement with its 
dependencies to the forces under our respective command in order 
to prevent its falling into the hands of the Enemy and to be held 
for the purpose aforesaid until a general pacification shall have 
composed the differences now subsisting in Europe and until it 
shall please God that by the re-establishment of the ancient Con- 
stitution & Government of the United States His Majesty may be 
enabled to return it to the legal & just owners. 

And as it is the intention and wish of His Majesty that the 
Inhabitants of the Settlement instead of suffering any incon- 
venience or detriment by accepting of the proposition and requisi- 
tion hereby made to them should on the contrary be benefited 
thereby as far as the circumstances and situation of the Settlement 
will admit, We do therefore make known that we are authorized 
and commanded to assure the inhabitants aforesaid that while they 
may remain under the Protection and Government of His Majesty, 
no change or alteration or infringement will be made in their Laws 
& Customs other than any which may be desired by themselves, 
that no fresh taxes shall be imposed, His Majesty relying that 
.provision will be made by the Inhabitants themselves for defraying 
the expense of the internal Government of the Colony. 

F 2 

68 Records of the Cape Colony. 

That the internal Trade shall be free. 

That permission will be granted to them to trade to & from the 
East India Company's possessions with the same advantages as are 
enjoyed by the most favoured Nation. And that in general the 
Inhabitants shall be admitted to a full and free use of all the 
Commercial Advantages which their Situation and Circumstances 
will admit, while every endeavour shall be used to promote in 
their behalf the improvement and extension of these advantages 
in the most liberal manner. And as from the situation of the 
Dutch East India Company it is evident that it will not be any 
longer in the power of their Servants here to procure the necessary 
pay for the troops raised for the Service of the Settlement, We do 
hereby promise that we will not only take into His Majesty's Pay 
the whole or such parts of the troops as may be willing to take 
a temporary oath of fidelity to His Majesty for the time that the 
Settlement may remain in his possession but that we will also pay 
the said troops the arrears of pay which from the same circum- 
stances may now appear to be due to them. 

We do also further inform the Officers of Government that in 
order to introduce as little change and to subject them to as little 
inconvenience as possible we will leave them in the enjoyment 
of their several & respective employments until His Majesty's 
pleasure be known. And altho' we should think any assurance 
unnecessary, yet having been informed that some ill disposed 
persons have thought proper to spread insinuations and reports to 
the contrary, We do therefore hereby assure & pledge our several 
words & honours that private property shall be by us held most 
sacred, and secured and protected where necessary by every 
exertion in the power of the forces under our command who shall 
be enjoined and by the utmost attention shall be made to observe 
the strictest discipline. 

And lastly to let the Government and Inhabitants fully into 
the intentions of His Majesty towards them with respect to their 
protection, we do inform them that though the wish to dispatch 
us with the least delay possible has induced His Majesty to direct 
us to proceed on this service with such Troops only as could be 
brought on board the Ships of War, a considerable force of Troops 
fully adequate to the purpose was ready to follow us, and the 
arrival of which we pledge our word may shortly be expected. 
To these declarations and assurances we have only to add that, 

Records of the Cape Colony. G9 

as it appears that a considerable sum of paper money is in circu- 
lation in the Colony, the security of which resting only on the 
Dutch East India Company must now be annihilated with it 
whereby great loss & detriment must fall on the Inhabitants, we 
have maturely considered this circumstance; and as the extent 
and nature of this Money is unknown in England we have no 
instructions on that head, and therefore being willing to avoid 
every imputation of seduction on our side we do not think our- 
selves at liberty to enter into any special and proper assurances on 
that head. Yet being sensible of the importance it must have in 
regard to the welfare and prosperity of the Colony we promise 
that we will receive and take to heart every plan which such 
persons may point out to us as are therein interested, and that we 
shall send them to England, where we should hope some measure 
will be fallen upon to diminish the loss, if not totally to liquidate 
it. And we hope it the more as we know that there is at this 
present time property to a considerable amount belonging to the 
Dutch East India Company detained and preserved in sundry 
Ports of England in order to prevent its falling into the hands 
of the Enemy, which property it may appear fit and we shall 
recommend it as much as depends on us that it may be applied 
to the purpose of liquidating the debts & claims of such settle- 
ments as may be entitled to the attention of Great Britain by 
their putting themselves under His Majesty's protection. 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Commissioner Sluysken. 

His Britannick Majesty's Ship Monabch, 
the 2Ut June 1795. 

Sir, — I am not a little grieved, nor less astonished at the 
sudden alteration of affairs at this Place, after you had so recently 
assured me that Supplies of every kind should be afforded the 
Ships, that the Sick should be landed and men without arms 
permitted to walk on shore. 

Yesterday morning I was surprised at hearing, without the 
least provocation on my part, that the Troops had marched in the 

70 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Night & all the inhabitants fled, that my supplies were cut off and 
no Guard left over the Hospital, wherefore I find myself obliged 
to embark men in a dying state and even such as are convalescent, 
to prevent their depredations on the deserted houses & gardens 
left unprotected, not daring to take the liberty, without your 
permission, to land Guards for their protection. 

Captain Cust, an Officer of the English East India Company's 
service, altho' in a bad state of health, informs me he has been 
ordered out of the Town, and now seeks the protection here which 
you have denied him. 

I have applied to Mr. Brand to know the reason of all these 
proceedings & he can give me no information. 

Many of the Inhabitants have sent to inform me that reports 
are circulated that we are here for the purpose of seizing the 
Colony by Force, to send the Inhabitants to New Holland after 
confiscating their property, and when I assured them of the 
contrary, and told them that the General & I had fully explained 
our intentions to the Governor and Council, they replied they 
were kept in the dark, and had not been shewn a paper of any 
sort on the Subject, and that they thought themselves entitled to 
be considered and consulted, when their interests ware more 
deeply concerned than the Servants of the India Company. 

Hitherto the General & I have been extreamly delicate in 
holding any communication with the Colony, excepting through 
the Governor and Council, and I have declined answering, or 
given evasive answers to such of the Troops & Inhabitants as have 
applied to us, but as we find that the people are kept in the dark 
and our intentions misrepresented, we must in justice to ourselves 
take the most effectual methods in our power, to make known 
His Majesty's friendly intentions towards the Inhabitants at large, 
however the interests of a few individuals may suffer for the 
public good. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

Record* of tin Cope Colony. 71 

(Copy of translation.] 

Letter from Commissioner Sluysken and the Council of 
Policy to Admiral Elphinstonk. 

In the Castle of Good Hope 21 June 1795. 

HONBLE. Sir, — Having received this Evening the letter of this 
day with which your Excellency has been pleased to honour the 
first undersigned, and having deliberated upon it in our Council, 
we embrace this opportunity to answer to it, that the want of 
Provisions whereof you complain & whereof we have had no 
information, as well as the Elight of the Inhabitants, is a con- 
sequence of the Declaration & Invitation which Major General 
( V.iig has done the day before yesterday in our Council & which 
has been made known to the Inhabitants, whilst by us nor with 
our knowledge anything has been ordered or done, what can be 
thought contrary to the contents of our first letter of the 14th 

And whereas we in no manner can doubt but your Excellency 
shall well allow to us the authority to make such use of the 
Troops of our lawful Sovereign as we judge for Him & the 
Constitution necessary, we may inform your Excellency that there 
are yet in Simons Bay so many military Men as is necessary to 
guard the Hospital & the other Posts where it is necessary, whilst 
we beg leave to take notice that it has only depended of your 
Excellency's Commands, to put your Sick Men & Convalescents 
under such Inspection as was necessary to keep them in good 
order & to preserve them from drunkenness. We have &c. 

(Signed) A. J. Sluysken, 
J. I. Rhenius, 
R. J. Gordon, 
J. J. le Sueur, 

W. F. van Reede van Oudtshoorn, 
W. S. VAN Rijneveld, 
E. Bergh. 

72 Records of the Cape Colony. 


Letter from Commissioner Sluysken arid the Council of Policy 
to Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig. 

In't kasteel de Goede Hoop, den 22 Junij, 1795. 

Hoog Ed. Gestr. Heeren, — Wij hebben de eer gehad te 
Ontfangen U Hoog Ed. Gestr. missive van gisteren en wij 
kunnen ons niet genoegzaam verwonderen dat U Hoog Ed. Gestr. 
zoo eensklaps aftreeden van de gevoelens welke wij in dezelve 
hebben verondersteld, namentlijk dat U Hoog Ed. Gestr. door 
zijn Groot-Brittanische Majesteit in de qualiteit als geallieerde 
en bondgenoot van den staat der vereenigde Nederlanden in 
overleg met zijne Doorl. Hoogh. den heere prins van Orange, 
stadhouder der Bepublicq, herwaards waren gezonden om deeze 
kolonie, ingevalle dezelve door eenen vijand wierd aangevallen, te 
helpen beschermen en die wij U Hoog Ed. Gestr. gemeld hebben, 
te zullen accepteeren, indien wij door eenen vijand mogten worden 
aangevallen en de nood zulks kwam te vereischen. Inmiddels 
dat wij ordres hebben gegeeven dat U Hoog Ed. Gestr. gelegen- 
heid zouden vinden om haare vloot van het noodige te voorzien 
en haare zieken aan wal te plaatzen, buiten gewaapend volk, in 
welke ordie dan ook door ons tot nu toe geene alteratie is 
toegebragt, en ons thans beneevens de kolonie, eerst inviteeren en 
nu requireeren in voegen als bij U Hoog Ed. Gestr. geschrift 
vermeld staat. 

Daar wij bereids bij onze voorige missive van den 19 deezer 
hebben verklaard, dat wij voorgenoomen hebben, met de magt 
die wij aan handen hebben, ons zelven te verdeedigen teegens 
ieder een, welke een aanval teegens deze kolonie en de wettige 
constitutie van ons vaderland die wij bezwooren hebben, zou 
trachten te onderneemen, zoo konnen wij niets anders doen als 
deeze onze verklaaring te herhaalen, onder bijvoeging dat zulks 
niet geschied door ons alleen, maar op de unanime instantie van 
de geheele kolonie. 

En daar de proclamatie, welke U Hoog Ed. Gestr. hebben 
kunnen goedvinden alomme rond te doen brengen, niets anders 
kan veroorzaaken dan eene werwijdering tusschen de onze en de 
geene die wij als onze vrienden en geallieerden hebben gehouden, 
zoo willen wij voor het Opperweezen, dat onze harten kent en 

Records of the Cape Colony. 73 

onze daaden beoordeelt, onschuldig zijn aan de funeste gevolgen, 
die dit zou kunnen te weeg brengen, dezelve alle laatende ter 
verantwoording van die geene welke daartoe aanleiding hebben 
gegeeven en verders zouden geeven. Wij hebben de eer enz. 

(Geteekend) A. J. Sluysken, 
J. I. Ehenius, 
E. J. Gordon, 
J. J. le Sueur, 


E. Bergh. 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Commissioner Sluysken. 

His Bbitannic Majesty's Ship Monarch, 
the 23rd June 1795. 

Sir, — I have the Honour of a Letter signed by your Excellency 
& Council on the 21st in answer to mine of the same day to you. 
It certainly was never my intention to interfere in the distribution 
of the Military under your command. I had only to lament their 
being removed as it gave an opportunity to the Idle at the 
Hospital to injure the inhabitants, a circumstance which could 
not fail of giving me much uneasiness, as it was my duty and 
inclination to be on friendly terms with our allies, and I am 
happy to find that a number of Soldiers have since returned to 
Simon's Bay, whereby order is established. As the Contractor 
had hitherto been permitted to remain we have little reason to 
complain : and I hope he or one of his partners may be permitted 
to continue. As to the alarm of the Inhabitants having been 
occasioned by a declaration of Genl. Craig's I beg leave to assure 
you that any declaration made by the General was not intended to 
offend, but in consequence of repeated applications on the part of 
the Inhabitants who did not fail to represent that they were kept 
in the dark and considered themselves as neglected by us. 

I have only to add that at all times I have the honour to be 
with great regard, &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

74 Records of the Cape Colon;/. 


Address of Sir George Keith Elphinstone, K.B., and Major- 
General Craig to tlie Governor, Council, Magistrates, and 
Inhabitants of the Settlement and Town of the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

24 June 1795. 

Gentlemen, — We are sorry to understand that there seems to 
have been some misconception of our intended meaning to convey 
by proclamation His Majesty's Royal Intentions towards the 
Inhabitants of the Cape, a circumstance easily accounted for by 
our being little instructed in the Dutch Language. 

In the first place with respect to an Oath of allegiance, that can 
only be required from the Military and such as draw pay from 
his Majesty, and for so long time only as they continue in his 
pay. Protection and Allegiance are synonymous and His Majesty's 
Officers cannot doubt of the good intentions of the Inhabitants of 
the Cape without giving them trouble to quit their habitations for 
the purpose of taking an oath were it required. 

When His Majesty through us signified His Royal Intentions 
that no new Taxes should be levied on the people it was not 
meant that all the former Taxes were absolutely to remain, and 
we shall feel ourselves at liberty upon the application of the 
Community to depart from any Tax or Impost that may be 
grievous, or of which they shall have just cause to complain, and 
nothing will give us more pleasure than to fullfil His Majesty's 
gracious intentions by hearing and relieving any well founded 
complaints applied for by the Majority of the Inhabitants. 

Some misunderstanding seems to have gone forth respecting the 
Paper Money. We cannot but be sensible that this must prove a 
subject of some difficulty, and therefore we have proposed that 
which appeared to us as the mode most likely to continue a value 
on it, which otherwise it must lose, on account of the total failure 
of the Dutch East India Company upon whose security alone 
it rests. 

We shall be glad to be acquainted with the Ideas of Gentlemen 
more conversant with the subject, and have only to assure the 
Inhabitants that \\v will join in every measure that shall appear 

Records of the Cape Colon}/. 75 

practicable and justifiable in us for preventing it' possible, or at 
least lessening an inconvenience to which they must be liable. 

A circumstance has been reported to us, which we should 
consider as too absurd to notice, did we not understand that it has 
made an impression on some people, this is that the Inhabitants 
will be liable to be impressed to serve on board the Fleet, and 
even that some of them will be sent to Botany Bay. On this 
subject we have only to assure them that either measure would be 
perfectly illegal in us, and we should be liable to severe punish- 
ment were we to adopt it, but we are sensible that our ignorance 
of the Dutch Language must expose us to the risque of being 
misunderstood on a subject on which it is our wish that we should 
be most explicit. We have therefore to propose that any number 
of Gentlemen appointed by the Community may repair to False 
Bay where we shall be happy to meet them, and to give them 
such explanation on every point as they may require, and such as 
we are well assured will satisfy them of the Benevolence of His 
Majesty's Intentions and of our warm wishes to exert our best 
endeavours in fulfilling them. 

And whereas many Individuals have expressed their great 
anxiety about the encouragement which may be held out to 
Negroes & Slaves, we beg to observe that we hold any such 
advances in abhorrence, and even under the present circumstances 
we are ready in the event of any tumult or insurrection to assist 
with all our force in suppressing the same, and do declare upon 
our Honour that any such men employed for that purpose shall be 
reembarked the moment the Governor signifies he has no further 
use for them or their assistance. 

We intend to take speedy steps to make our payments in 

Specie, by procuring it for that purpose. His Majesty sent us 

here with an intention to resist the tyranny of France, but with 

no view to enslave a Brave people our Ancient Friends and Allies. 

We have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone, 
J. H. Ckaig. 

76 Becoj'ds of the Cajic Colony. 


Letter from Commissioner Sluysken and the Council of Policy 
to Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig. 

In't Casteel de Goede Hoop den 25 Junij 1795. 

Hoog Edele Heeren, — De eerstgeteekende in onze vergadering 
gisteren avond hebbende overgelegt zeeker geschrift, gemtituleerd, 
addres aan den gouverneur, den raad, den inagistraat en de 
ingezeetenen der kolonie en stad Cabo de goede Hoop, vinden 
wij ons thans in de onaangenaame noodzaakelijkheid en in eer 
en eed verpligt om ons van alle verdere onderhandelingen te 
excuseeren. Wij hebben de eer enz. 

(Geteekend) A. J. Sluysken, 
J. I. Khenius, 
E. J. Gordon, 
J. J. le Sueur, 
W. F. van Eeede van Oudtshoorn, 


E. Bergh. 

[Copy of Translation.] 

Letter from the Burgher Councillors to Admiral Elphin- 
stone and General Craig. 

Cape of Good Hope 25 June 1795. 

Honble. Sirs, — Two dispatches with Proclamations and trans- 
lations thereof in the Dutch Language have been duly delivered 
to us the undersigned Senate * of this place. 

After having compared the Original with the translation and 
finding the same to agree we determined to communicate the 
contents thereof to the Officers of the Burgher Corporation to the 

* This is probably an incorrect translation of the word burgerraden. The 
original Dutch letter is not to be found. Titles of offices are constantly mis- 
translated in this series of documents, though in all cases where the originals and 
translations can bo comi»ared the remaining portions of the letters are correctly 

Records of the Cope Colony. 77 

end that it might be by this means made known to the Public 
at large. 

We therefore caused them to be called together at the Senate 
House * and there read to them the whole of the Proclamation. 

In consequence hereof this matter was taken into consideration 
and the result was the unanimous resolution that the steps taken 
by our re presentable Government upon the proposals and invita- 
tions of your honors being fully known to them & the whole of 
the Inhabitants they would not only confide therein, but that as 
well as ourselves they would henceforth conform to all the 
liesolutions taken by this government upon such proposals as 
have been made or such as may hereafter be made by your 

After this our unanimous unfeigned & unalterable declaration 
which we make not only for ourselves but in the name of the 
whole of the Inhabitants we trust that your honors will trouble 
us with no more proclamations or Translations as we declare that 
the contents of those received by us have been fully understood 
and rejected. We have &c. 

(Signed) J. Smuts, 

G. H. Meyer, 
H. J. de Wet, 
A. Fleck, 
H. A. Truter, 
H. P. Warnecke. 

* Probably " bnrgerwachthuis." 


Letter from Admiral Eli'iiinstone and General Craig to 
Commissioner Sluysken and the Council of Policy. 

His Britannick Majesty's Ship Monarch, June 26, 1795. 

Gentlemen, — We have received the Letter dated the 22nd Inst, 
with which you have honoured us. 

We beg to observe to you that we have in no instance that we 
are aware of departed from the sentiments which we have from 

78 Records of the Cape Colon//. 

the first declared since our communication with you. In the first 
Letter which we had the honour to address to you and which 
accompanied that of His Serene Highness the Stadtholder we did 
not think it necessary to enter particularly into the exact nature 
of our Mission, because we were led from our instructions to 
suppose that it was distinctly pointed out in His Serene Highness's 
Letter and we thought that it might be more agreeable to you to 
be made acquainted with it by that communication than by any 
one from us. We repeat now Gentlemen, that the great and sole 
principle which has actuated his Majesty in the step which he has 
taken of sending a force to the settlement has been to preserve 
the Colony for the States General and to protect and defend the 
Inhabitants from the misery and destruction which must ensue 
from the French obtaining possession of it ; and in doing so we 
again repeat to you also that our Instructions are to pursue every 
method whether of commerce or of any other nature which may 
tend to better the condition of the Inhabitants. 

We desire to assure you Gentlemen, that as we honour brave 
men, we should be the first to approve of and applaud your 
resolution to defend yourselves, did the circumstances really 
require your doing so against an attack on the legal constitution 
of your Country, but we feel infinite regret that we have occasion 
to recall to your recollection that that Legal Constitution no 
longer exists ; were that not the case the occasion for our coming 
here would probably not have existed either and if it did no 
difficulty could present itself to our landing whatever force might 
be deemed necessary under the direction of an authority which 
would be derived from a legal government at amity and in alliance 
with that of Britain ; but no such Government is at present to 
be to. Holland is in fact a part of France, and if the 

Colony of the Cape of Good Hope is to continue its allegiance to 
Holland it also becomes a part of France. If the conscientious 
attachment to their allegiance to Holland and the oath which they 
have taken should oblige the Inhabitants to adhere to the orders 
of the States General the arrival of those very orders issued by 
the mandate of the French Convention may convert us into 
Enemies tomorrow, and excuse us if we add must shortly do so. 
But we cannot believe that any people can think themselves 
bound by an Oath to a Government while that Government is 
overthrown by an armed force. The Inhabitants of the Settlement 

Rvcorda of the. Capt Colony. 79 

are surely not bound by any oath or any tie to the French Con- 
vention. It is under these circumstances, and these only, that 
His Britannick Majesty has invited and required the Inhabitants 
of the Colony to accept of His Government during the annihilation 
of their own. We have in His Majesty's name pledged His Royal 
Word for the restoration of the Colony the moment their old 
Government shall appear again; and His Majesty's chief and 
great Exertions are directed to the enabling it to do so. But 
it cannot be expected that His Majesty should in any case suifer 
a possession which may in some sort be considered as the Key of 
his own in the East to fall into the hands of His Enemies, and we 
are most serious in our earnest exhortations that you will reilect 
on the awful moment which may arrive when a French and 
English force may be contending for the superiority within your 
walls. Should it fall to us we shall have little obligation towards 
you whose friendship we shall only have acquired by a Victory. 
Should it on the other hand remain to the French they are 
more likely to consider you as rebels as furnishing a pretence 
to the confiscation of your property, their first view in all their 

We are rather at a loss to conceive the last part of your Letter 
which regards the proclamation which we have dispersed. We 
must beg to observe to you that this step (justifiable as it is in 
itself) was not however adopted till we had reason to believe that 
the persons most immediately interested were kept in the dark as 
to our intentions and till after a British Otticer had been ordered 
out of the Town solely for having shewn a paper which Genl. Craig 
had given him, which the General was under no obligation to 
keep secret and the contents of which the Governor informed the 
General he had himself laid before the Burghers. It is impossible 
to imagine for a moment that the acquainting the Inhabitants of 
a Country with the advantageous terms which we are instructed 
to oiler them can alienate from us the minds of any but of those 
who from interested motives or Jacobinical principles (if any such 
there be) may wish to prevent their having their due weight. Let 
these alone be answerable for the consequences of their rejection, 
which we join with you Gentlemen in thinking may be most un- 
happy. As however we have not yet received any answer from 
the Magistrates and Burghers we shall still hope that every such 
unhappy consequence may be averted by their exertions to induce 

30 Records of the Cape Colony. 

a compliance with a proposal made only for their own benefit. 
We have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone, 
J. H. Craig. 


Letter from Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig to the 
Eight Honourable Henry Dundas. 

False Bay, His Majesties Ship Monarch 27th June 1795. 

Sir, — His Majesty's Ship Sphynx having sailed from this for 
St. Helena the 18th Inst, we had the honour to write to you 
separately by that opportunity. Yesterday the Orpheus, a private 
ship in the service of the East India Company, arrived here from 
St. Helena from which she was dispatched by Governor Brooke 
immediately on the arrival of the Arniston at that place, and as 
we have judged it necessary to send her back again without a 
moment's loss of time and consequently as she will sail in a few 
hours we have agreed by a joint letter to give you the necessary 
information of the Events which have taken place in the few days 
which have elapsed since the date of our former letters. On the 
18th Major General Craig went to the Cape Town and had a 
personal conference with the Governor which on the part of that 
Gentleman passed with a formal civility very unpromising to the 
success of the measures which it was our wish to bring him into. 
The Major General perceiving how little was to be expected from 
this quarter and that the Governor seemed to be the entire master 
of his Council, thought that it would be a very proper opportunity 
to make known to the people in general His Majesties gracious 
intention towards them, of which he found they entertained the 
most erroneous opinion ; and he was the more induced to take this 
step, from the repeated complaints which were generally made to 
us by those of the Burghers to whom we had access, that they 
were kept entirely in the dark; the General accordingly laid 
before the Governor and Council the full extent of our instructions 
in this respect and having at their desire given it in to them in 
writing, He took some pains to circulate copies of the paper while 

Records of the Cape Colony. 81 

he remained in the Town. We have the honour to enclose a Copy 
as well as of a translation of the answer which he received. 

On the General's return on the 20th, we enclosed a proclamation 
to the Governor more fully to the same purpose and sent one also 
to the Magistrates and the Burghers, to these we yesterday received 
answers of which as also of some other letters which have passed 
we have likewise the honour to inclose Copies. 

This morning the Admiral received official intimation that the 
Governor had directed the usual supplies of fresh provisions 
which we have hitherto received daily, to be stopped in future. 

In this state of hostility we are under no apprehension of any 
mischief which can arise from any attempt on their part but the 
preparations which they have been able to make to oppose us, as 
well as our present weakness in point of land force must neces- 
sarily oblige us to delay the execution of our further intentions till 
the arrival of the remainder of our force. We have, &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone, 
J. H. Craig. 


Letter from Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig 
to the Right Honourable Henry Dundas. 

On Board His Ma.i' Ship Monarch, 
False Bay 2Mh June 1795. 

Sir, — One sentiment and one opinion only guiding us, on the 
present occasion: we trust that under the circumstances of the 
great hurry with which we wish to send the Orpheus back to 
St. Helena you will have the goodness to excuse our conveying 
them to you in a joint letter. By the stopping of our supplies & 
by the wish of having no further communication with us expressed 
in the last letter we have received from the Governor, as well as 
by its being echoed in that from the Magistrates & Burghers, we 
look upon ourselves as very nearly in a state of hostility. It is 
pretty evident that the Governor & Council have been much 
alarmed at the Step of an application being made immediately 
to the people, & we imagine that their principal view in their 


82 Records of the Cape Colony. 

measures now, is to prevent a continuance of any communication 
with them. Our accounts indeed assure us that Party discord runs 
very high among them, but it is to be feared that the personal 
influence of the Governor which is very great will unite the 
greatest number against us. Whatever may be the views or 
prospects of this Gentleman, and notwithstanding his assurances 
upon our first arrival we have now good reason to believe that He 
is our chief & strongest opponent nor will his views whatever they 
may be, suffer any check from his attachment to the House of 
Orange. We have every reason to expect that Coll. Gordons 
corps is well inclined to us indeed we have grounds for hoping 
that they will join us as soon as we land, but the Corps of 
Artillery which by all accounts is very good remain firm to their 
present rulers. 

Under the circumstances which we have represented we fear 
that we must at last have recourse to force, but our present 
weakness, our total deficiency in Artillery & above all the hazard 
of keeping possession against the will of a numerous & well armed 
people with no nearer communication with the Ships than twenty 
miles, induce us to think that it would be too dangerous to make 
the attempt till we are better able to ensure success by having 
received a further accession of strength. It is not therefore our 
intention to take any steps for this purpose till the arrival of our 
reinforcement from St. Helena at least ; these we shall look for in 
a little more than three weeks — it will then depend upon the 
circumstances of the movement as well as the probable time at 
which General Clark may be look'd for whether we shall proceed 
on the attempt or wait for him. In the mean time it is possible 
that the necessity of supporting our friends, particularly the 
Military, should they unexpectedly call for it may force us into 
actual hostilities however desirous of delay. We have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone, 
J. H. Craig. 

Record* of the Cape Colon if. 83 


Letter from General Craig to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

His Majesty's Ship Monabch 27 June 1795. 
False Bat. 

Sir, — By His Majesty's Ship Sphinx which left this for St. 
Helena on the 18th I had the honour to apprize you, that I had 
written to Governor Brooke at that place to send me here on the 
publick Service £3500, — inclosing you at the same time a Copy of 
my letter to that Gentleman. 

A particular circumstance which has arisen here giving me 
reason to expect that I may have an indispensable call for a more 
considerable Sum before the arrival of General Clarke, I have just 
written to Governor Brooke to extend the supply to £5000. 

I have &c, 
(Signed) J. H. Craig, Major-General. 


Letter from Commissioner Sluysken and the Council of Policy 
to Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig. 

In't Casteel de Goede Hoop, den 27 Junij 1795. 

Hoog Ed. Gestrenge Heeren, — Wij hebben de eer gehad te 
ontfangen U Hoog Ed. Gestr. missive van den 26 deezer. 
Ofschoon wij ons ook verpligt vinden om ons te gedraagen aan 
onze jongste van den 25 deezer ; vastelijk beslooten hebbende 
deeze kolonie te bewaaren voor de wettige constitutie van ons 
vaderland en te beschermen teegens de geene, welke daarop een 
aanval zouden willen doen; zoo permitteeren wij ons egter op 
dezelve U Hoog Ed. Gestr. missive aantemerken, ten einde aan 
U Hoog Ed. Gestr., de geheele waereld en de nakoomelingschap 
bekend zij de motiven en het fundament van ons gedrag, dat de 
goedkeuring van God en menschen moet wegdraagen. 

Dat het verre is dat U Hoog Ed. Gestr. van den beginne 
zouden hebben gedeclareerd de sentimenten welke thans mani- 

G 2 

•84 Records of the Cape Colony. 

festeeren, dezelve in teegendeel eerst hebben verklaard te zijn 
gekoomen om ons teegen eenen vijand behulpzaaiu te zijn, daar 
dezelve nu, op een ongehoorde wijze, vorderen om ons en de 
kolonie aan haar overtegeeven en een recht vermeenen te hebben 
om die voor haaren souverain te neemen. 

Bijstand verdient dankzegging, zelfs dan wanneer eigen kragten 
genoegzaam zijn en men dezelve niet noodig heeft, maar iemand 
. te willen noodzaaken iets aftestaan, dat hem is toevertrouwd, is 
eene daad van geweld, die wij nimmer wenschten te ontmoeten 
van een oude geallieerde van ons vaderland, onze geringe be- 
grippen leiden ons vasttestellen, dat wij de benaaming van eer- 
en trouwloos verdienen zouden, wanneer wij van ons verkrijgen 
konden om de ons toevertrouwde kolonie aftestaan of overtegeeven 
aan een souverain, welke de onze niet is en daarop geenig regt 
of aanspraak heeft, welk regt hebben U Hoog Ed. om ons te 
ontslaan van den eed aan onze hooge superieuren gedaan, en welk 
regt heeft het rijk van Engeland op deeze kolonie ? Zoude 
iemand, welke goederen in bewaaring heeft van zijn souverain, 
van zijnen meedeburger, ja zelfs van een vreemde met eenige 
schijn van regt kunnen gedwongen worden om die aan een 
derde, die dezelve uit hoofde van convenientie, goed vond te 
vraagen, overtegeeven ; wij begrijpen dat de zulke zig aan 
meineed en trouwloosheid voor God en menschen schuldig 
maaken zoude. 

En de reedenen welke U Hoog Ed. daar teegen gelieven 
aanteroeren, zijn te zwak om den minsten indruk op ons of de 
burgers en ingezeetenen te maaken, want is de constitutie niet 
meer, waar is de onmoogelijkheid dat die kan worden hersteld ? 
Zouden wij onze gehoorzaamheid aan de republicq verkragten, 
om dat dezelve door een vijand gedeeltelijk overmee3terd is, en 
waar van wij zelfs, nog van den heer stadhouder, nog zelfs van 
een enkeld regent van ons vaderland eenige informatie hebben, 
in teegendeel hebben wij beslooten, hetzelve te bewaaren volgens 
onzen pligt tot dat de constitutie zal hersteld zijn, en wij zullen 
hetzelve in gelijker wijze met alles beschermen teegen eenige 
magt, welke de fransche conventie teegens ons mogte goedvinden 
te zenden, terwijl wij betuigen van jacobijnsche gevoelens zoo 
afkeerig te zijn als iemand immers weezen kan. Hier bij zouden 
wij ons antwoord kunnen laaten berusten, zoo wij niet gedwongen 
wareu, ten einde aan de waereld te toonen dat wij nimmer de 

Record* of the Cape Colony. 85 

geheiligde regten van hospitaliteit verbraaken, om eeu woord te 
repliceeren op ons gedrag om trend den kapitain in dient van de 
Engelsche Compagnie Oust, dat wij vermeend hebben hem niet 
langer te kunnen laaten jouisseeren van die genoeglijkheeden, 
waarvan zeedert maanden tot herstellinge zijner gezondheid had 
gebruik gemaakt, zoo ras zig met publicque zaaken, waar toe 
nog gewettigd nog gequalificeerd was, meleerde, terzelver tijd 
dat de lieut. Owen zig in gelijker voegen alhier bevindende, 
door den eerst geteekenden is te kennen gegeeven dat met 
dezelve gerustheid als in het midden van Groot-Britannien, 
alhier verblijven konde, zoo als zig ook onder dieszelve toe- 
zegging, Engelsche onderdaanen alhier bevinden. Wij hebben 
de eer enz. 

(Geteekend) A. J. Sluysken, 


R. J. Gordon, 

J. J. le Sueur, 

W. F. van Reede van Oudtsiioorn, 

W. S. van Rijneveld, 

E. Bergh. 

Letter from Mr. John Pringle to Governor Brooke. 

H.M.S. Monarch, Simon's Bat, %7th June 1795. 

Honble. Sir, — In pursuance of the Resolutions entered into by 
you, I embarked on board the H.C.S. Orpheus, Capt. Bowen, and 
arrived here yesterday, and found Affairs in the situation so amply 
explained to you by Sir G. K. Elphinstone, and General Craig in 
their letters by this Dispatch. 

I remain here with Sir George and we shall expect the Supplies 
of Men and Money from you with impatience, I hope you will be 
able to spare (for a time) 5 or 600 Men, with a good Field Train 
and bring up plenty of Money for that is of indispensible necessity 
towards insuring us Success. 

The behaviour of the people here is very extraordinary, they 
have formed Ideas of Independence which is so absurd a Scheme 

86 Records of the Cape Colony. 

that it never occurred to me as likely to prove an obstacle to oiir 
Designs, the Boers are doubtless kept in this Delusion with a view 
to render them mere tools in the hands of those who for the 
moment enjoy their Confidence and who will sacrifice them if 
possible to their own ends. 

They have stopped all Supplies for the Fleet this morning, and 
of course it is not in my Power to send you any Stock by the 
Orpheus. I have &c. 

(Signed) John Pringle. 


Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

His Majesty's Ship Monarch Simon's Bat 
28 June 1795. 

Sir, — Two Americans are this instant arrived here from Amster- 
dam — no doubt they are the Vessels mentioned in the French 
Convention to be sent out under American Colours to acquaint of 
the Eevolution and invite the Inhabitants to join — they are laden 
with provisions, articles not in command here. 

I am this instant put in possession of all the dispatches to the 
Governor here, and at Batavia together with Papers of a dangerous 
and inflammatory nature, all of which I shall take the liberty to 
peruse, with the advice & concurrence of General Craig, but do 
not think proper to detain the Packet longer which is under Sail. 

I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

Translation of the Intercepted Dispatches referred to. 

P. J. Guepin to the Governor and Council, Batavia. Amsterdam, 
26 Febry. 1795. The bearer hereof is an American vessel, the 
Columbia, Captn. Mallay, is chartered by us to carry Dispatches 
on the terms &c. &c. 

Records of the Cape Colon}/. 87 

V, J. Guepin to the respective Governors, Directors, and Chief 
Commanders of the Company's Settlements, Establishments, Forts, 
and Factories in the East Indies and at the Cape of Good Hope. 
Amsterdam, 26 February. Referring to our Letter of the 10th of 
this month of February, the present serves in the name of their 
High Mightinesses the States General of these Countries to inform 
you as soon as possible, further and particularly to order as we 
do by these presents order, to put yourself in a proper state of 
defence in order to be secure against all inimical enterprizes, and to 
admit all English ships and goods which may wish to come into 
Company's ports, and to deposit the goods in storehouses for the 
proprietors thereof and at their risk till such time as the proper 
and legal decisions shall be made to enable such Proprietors to 
withdraw the same or as it shall be otherwise resolved respecting 
them. And when as it might happen that at the time of or after 
the execution of the forementioned measures other vessels might 
choose to sail which might be suspected capable of giving in- 
formation of the before mentioned Resolutions, by which the 
Colonies in India or of the Cape of Good Hope thus by so much 
the sooner be exposed to inimical attacks, so we order you further 
in the above name to prevent the sailing of such ships, and, 
notwithstanding the limitation of two months, it is left to you to 
extend or shorten this term with respect to the circumstances of 
Foreign Nations and the respect due to them, provided that upon 
every occasion you remember that the intended object of Their 
High Mightinesses is first and foremost to be accomplished, and 
thus all other considerations relative thereto must be postponed. 
We further inclose the Resolution of their High Mightinesses the 
States General of the United Netherlands of the 16th Inst, sent to 
us by their said High Mightinesses respecting the acknowledging 
the Sovereignty of the People of the Dutch Nation and other 
points thereunto belonging, and this until the further publication 
which is to be expected thereon. Further your Honours will 
cause copies to be made of these Dispatches and the enclosures 
thereunto belonging on the receipt thereof and send them as 
speedily as possible to our other Settlements in the East Indies. 

Slip. — A printed extract from the Resolution of the States 
General of Monday 16th February 1795. 

The Directors of the East India Company to Commissioner 
Sluysken and his deputy at the Cape of Good Hope. Amsterdam, 

S8 Records of the Cape Colony. 

20th February. This serves only to accompany the hereby changed 
Orders for the commanders of the homeward bound ships from 
India which shall arrive in this year 1795 from India, or are 
already there, respecting their voyage hither, which orders shall be 
complied with in the same manner as by our Letters of the 
10th of September 1793 and the 8th March 1794, and to charge 
you (the commanders of the ships) as we do by these presents, that 
if you arrive before the middle of August of this year 1795 or 
even later in the latitude of the Western Islands Corvo and Flores 
you are to avoid upon all occasions the English harbours and to 
steer for a French port, no matter which so that it: is the best you 
can fetch, provided that it is not in the Channel unless you are 
driven there by stress of weather; our further orders you will 
wait for in such French ports after that you have immediately 
upon your arrival given us notice of your arrival there and of the 
state of your ships, with all other particulars relative thereto, 
addressing your letters as we have ordered before. The supreme 
Chamber of Commerce having by order of their High Mightinesses 
written on this purpose to the Cape not to allow you to proceed 
on your voyage to Europe excepting under a sufficient convoy of 
French or Dutch men of war, we hereby take for granted that 
upon your being under such convoy, it is evident to suppose that 
these our orders solely relate to your being separated from such 
convoy or only conducted to a certain latitude, it being also clear 
that you are to obey the order of such convoy while you are 
under it. 

The Directors of the East India Company to any of their 
Governments which this may first reach, in India or at the Cape 
of Good Hope. Amsterdam, 10th February 1795. We dispatch 
this by several usual and unusual channels to inform you that since 
our last advices the arms of the French Nation, after that the frost 
had helped them across the rivers, have proceeded into the heart 
of Holland, and all the cities have received French garrisons ; that 
in consequence thereof a new Provisional Form of Government is 
introduced, and most of the other Provinces find themselves in 
a similar predicament. We deem it most essentially necessary 
not to let you remain uninformed that on the part of the 
representatives of the French Nation here shortly after their 
arrival a Proclamation has been made by which they declare and 
acknowledge us to be a free Eepublick, as you will more par- 

Record* of the Cope Colony. 89 

ticularly see by a copy of the said Proclamation which fur that 
purpose accompanies this. Their High Mightinesses the Suites 
General having commanded us as soon as possible to convey the 
state of affairs to the Cape of Good Hope and the Settlements in 
the East Indies, we immediately fulfil the said order by cautioning 
all Ships as well of the Company as private in as far as they can 
be serviceable to the defence of the Establishments to remain 
lying there till further order, or immediately to proceed to the 
places where they may be of use, and at all events not without a 
sufficient convoy of Dutch or French ships of war to undertake 
a voyage to Europe, and to avoid carefully all English ports, 
according to the ^Resolution of their High Mightinesses of this 
13th present month of February, of which we send you copy for 
your further information, and from which you will at once see 
that you must no longer look upon the French Nation as your 
Enemies. We require moreover and charge you in case of necessity 
that under these circumstances and such as may hereafter occur 
you will apply all possible means which may conduce to the 
preservation of the Company's Establishments and Property, 
that you should conduct yourself with great circumspection with 
respect to all foreign Nations but particularly the English, and to 
be upon your guard continually so as neither by pretences of 
friendship or any other means to be surprised, and that in general 
you will act in such manner as is to be expected from trusty 
servants ; whilst at the same time we must not conceal that we 
shall hold you answerable for the consequences in case it should 
be found that by your neglect or means any thing unfortunate 
shall ensue. 

(The remaining documents are voluminous, but contain nothing 
of importance that cannot be gathered from the above, except that 
an embargo had been laid on Dutch ships in English ports, that 
the States General had abolished the office of Stadtholder and 
absolved all persons from the oaths taken in his favour, that the 
new Government desired to live in peace and friendship with 
all nations, particularly with the Courts of Vienna, Berlin, and 
London, and that deputies were about to be sent to the Convention 
at Paris to make known the ardent desire of their High Mighti- 
nesses and the people at large to enter into a strict alliance with 
the French, in order to lay the foundation of the long wished for 
closest fraternity between the two nations.) 

90 Records of the Cape Colony. 


By The Honble. Sir George Keith Elphinstone, K.B., Bear- 
Admiral of the White and Commander-in-Chief of His 
Majesty's Ships and Vessels Employed and to be Employed on a 
Barticular Service including all the Indian Seas. 

Whereas from the present unfriendly appearances on the part 
of the Governor & Council of the Cape towards the ancient friends 
and allies of Holland, it is doubtfull whether there may not be an 
intention of delivering the Colony to the French Faction, which 
has overrun the Mother Country, and being directed by the King 
my Sovereign, in conjunction with the Prince Stadtholder, to 
resist the same and also to secure all Ships and Public property 
belonging to the Dutch East India Company, and to keep and 
protect the same from Embezzlement and to prevent its falling 
into the hands of the Enemy, and also to prevent all Ships of the 
said Country from sailing unless under the protection of a States 
Ship or British Ship of War, — I do therefore in consequence of 
these Instructions Command you not to move from this place, but 
to remain here and keep a strict and careful watch over the Ship 
and Cargoe entrusted to your charge, until the same can be restored 
to the Lawful Owners ; and should you refuse to obey the Stadt- 
holder's orders signified thro' me you are at liberty to depart with 
all your private effects, and property, and all such who chuse 
to remain and abide at their duty shall be protected in the due 
e x ercise of the same. 

Given under my hand on board His Maj.'s Ship Monarch in 
Simons Bay this 28th June 1795. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

To the Captains and Commanders 
of the Dutch Ships now in 
Simons Bay. 

Records of the (Jape Colony. 91 


Letter front Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig to 
Commissioner Sluysken and the Council of Policy. 

His Majesty's Ship Monarch, Simon's Bay, 
June 29, 1795. 

Honourable Sir and Gentlemen, — We do ourselves the honour 
to acquaint you, that on the 28th Inst, the American Ship 
Columbia being examined by the boats of the squadron the 
Commander declaring that he had sailed from Amsterdam, a Port 
in possession of the Enemies of His Britannick Majesty, under 
the enclosed Pass from the Commissioners of the National 
Convention of France whose authority appears to be paramount 
in that Country, delivered to the officers on duty a number of 
Papers and Packets directed to different People at the Cape. 

Conceiving it to be our duty to examine all Papers coming from 
any Port in possession of the King's Enemies and under their 
Passport, we did not hesitate to open these, and we have accord- 
ingly perused them all, and finding several which appear to be 
Publick Dispatches addressed to you, we do ourselves the honour 
to forward them to you as well as the private Letters directed to 
Individuals at the Cape Town. These we might perhaps have 
thought ourselves justifiable in detaining, as it appears by the 
tenor of several of them as well as by a Publick Letter to the 
first Commissary, that none have been suffer'd to come but such 
as have passed a previous inspection of Persons entirely under the 
Command of our Enemies ; but we have thought that the doing 
so would occasion much private inconvenience. 

We think it right however to apprize you, that we have stopp'd 
all Newspapers, because we know that the Truth cannot be 
published in Holland; we know that no man dare publish, but 
precisely as the Eevolutionary Committee approves, and they 
would therefore mislead, but not inform those to whom they are 
addressed. The Letters in many respects come under the same 
designation. Many of them inform you of planting the Tree of 
Liberty, but none mention the erection of the Guillotine ; many 
expatiate on the Blessings of their new Liberty, but not one 
mentions the imprisonment of all the leading and best men of the 
Eepublick or the enormous contributions which have been levied 

92 Records of the Cape Colony. 

for the emolument of the French. Some of them observe on the 
amiable disposition and good behaviour of their new friends, or 
masters ; but none of them give the smallest idea of the hundreds 
whom the resentment & indignation of the French have already 
deprived of their Lives in every Town in the Bepublick. We have 
no doubt but your correspondents are sensible of and feel their 
situation, but we are aware also that they dare not express it in 
Letters which were to pass under a French inspection. The only 
circumstance in which your correspondents seem to have express'd 
themselves with any freedom is in the true picture which they 
give of the lamentable situation of the finances and publick credit 
of the India Company. We are &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone, 
J. H. Craig. 


Letter from Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig to 
Commissioner Sluysken and the Council of Policy. 

His Majesty's Ship Monabch, June 29, 1795. 

Honourable Sir and Gentlemen, — Having received your inti- 
mation of the 25th that you found yourselves obliged to decline any 
further correspondence, it was not our intention to have encroached 
any more upon your time ; but as another occasion puts us under 
the necessity of once more communicating with you, we cannot do 
otherwise than seize the opportunity which it presents of offer- 
ing a few observations on the Letter which, notwithstanding the 
intimation above alluded to, you thought proper to address to us 
and which is dated the 27 Instant. 

Considering the unfriendly appearances which everywhere reign 
around us and more particularly the stoppage of fresh provisions, 
which though so essentially useful to the few Sick which we have, 
can, as the Squadron is in no want of provisions, in the general 
consideration only be viewed in the light of refreshments, which 
the polished mode of modern war do not sometimes deny to 
avowed enemies, it could not but be with much pleasure that 
we read your abhorrence of all Jacobinical principles as well as 

Records <>J lite Cupe Colony. 9'i 

your determination to defend the Colony against the forces of the 
French Convention. 

It is true Gentlemen, as you observe, that we at first offer'd the 
assistance of all the forces under our command in such defence 
should the occasion present itself. We believe that we have never 
departed from that offer, and we desire now to renew it, — the 
truth is the principal object of His Majesty in sending us here 
lias been to save you from the misery consequent on such an event 
as the French getting possession of the Settlement ; but it is not 
equally true Gentlemen, that we have given you any room to 
assert that we think ourselves entitled to take the Colony for our 
own Sovereign. 

His Britannick Majesty considers the Eepublick of Holland, 
under its ancient & legal constitution, as His Friends & Allies ; 
and although it has pleased Providence in its wisdom to permit 
the Country to fall under the dominion of a foreign power, yet 
His Majesty is so far from considering the re-establishment of that 
constitution as impossible, that he looks forward with confidence 
to the blessing of that same Providence on the justice of His arms 
for the success of His efforts to bring about so desirable an event, 
and in the mean time it is His Majesty's wish to preserve for the 
liepublick His friend & ally under its ancient Constitution as 
much of the Possessions belonging to it as can be saved from 
the ambitious grasp of the common Enemy. It is with this view 
that we are instructed to invite and require the Government and 
Inhabitants to accept of the protection of His Majesty by deliver- 
ing up the Settlement and its dependencies to the forces under 
our command ; but you will observe Gentlemen, that such Invita- 
tion and Requisition extends only to that period when it may 
be possible for His Majesty to restore it to the legal and proper 

In the mean time Government must exist, and as His Majesty 
and we His Servants do not conceive that the Inhabitants of the 
Cape are desirous of embracing that of the Jacobins of France, 
there seems to be no alternative to their choice, nor can we for 
a moment suppose that we have presented to them other than 
a blessing in this offer of the mild and equitable dominion of 
Britain, while they are restrain'd from the possibility of enjoying 
their own. 

In conveying this Invitation we thought it right at once to lay 

94 Records of the Cape Colony. 

before you and the Settlement such part of His Majesty's instruc- 
tion to us as relate to your situation in the event of your acceptance 
of it ; by these we thought His Majesty's gracious and benevolent 
wish to meliorate the condition of the Inhabitants, as far as 
appeared practicable, would be apparent, and that they would 
tend to destroy that jealousy with which we are well aware all 
men are apt at first to view a foreign domination. We assured 
you that the Laws, Usages and Customs of the Settlement should 
not be infringed, His Majesty and the Government of Britain 
having no view to profit by those taxes which have hitherto 
existed for the benefit of the India Company in the markets & 
internal trade of the Colony, we have declared that these shall be 
free and unshackled, while no new taxes shall be imposed, on the 
contrary such as are found to be grievous and oppressive shall be 
abolished ; Personal liberty and Private Property we have declared 
shall be held most sacred by us and shall be in every event 
protected by all possible exertions in our power. Aware that the 
Colony can have no trade with the Mother Country, and that it 
must be subject to the utmost distress from the impossibility of 
receiving any further supplies or necessaries from thence, we have 
offer'd them the right to trade, not as formerly under the monopoly 
of a Company, but of themselves, to Britain and Her Possessions 
in the East. Knowing that your Troops can be no longer paid 
by the East India Company whose credit must expire with its 
commerce, we have offer'd them a superior and a better Pay. 

It cannot be thought extraordinary that we should require from 
them the security of an oath of fidelity, which we restrict to the 
time of their being paid by us, but our placing confidence in them 
on such security will be the best proof to the world that we 
require nothing dishonourable or incompatible with their present 
obligation from them ; and lastly Gentlemen, appealing to your- 
selves for the distress which you know must fall on the officers of 
the Government from the same cause of the impossibility of their 
being paid any longer by the Company, we have promised that 
they shall continue in their present employments at least till His 
Majesty's pleasure be known. 

These Gentlemen are the general heads of what has passed 
between us in which we are confident nothing can be discover'd 
on the part of His Britannick Majesty but the utmost friendship 
and regard for His" ancient friends & allies the States General 

Records <>/ the ('<>/» Colony. 95 

under their old and legal Constitution and the tenderest solicitude 
for your happiness. But Gentlemen you ask us what title v;e have 
to absolve you from your oath taken to your Superiors. 

We claim no such Eight Gentlemen; on the contrary it is in 
virtue of that same oath that we require from you as an act of 
duty to preserve the Colony for those Superiors to whom alone 
your oath hinds you hy the only means which are now left to 
you ; but Gentlemen, though we have the highest regard for the 
solemn obligation of an oath and would as little require others to 
act in violation of it as we would ourselves be compell'd to such 
an infamy, yet we could in the present instance tell you, with the 
strictest regard to truth, that you are no longer under any oath, 
and as the proof of the justice of this assertion we refer you to the 
third Paragraph of the enclosed Proclamation. 

To Gentlemen sensible of the force of the obligation of an oath, 
we will not offer such an insult as to argue against the Right here 
exercised of annulling one part of an oath and retaining the 
obligation of the remainder, a Right as indefensible in its claim 
as is that of transferring your allegiance to the French Convention 
or a new Constitution framed under its direction, and a claim as 
absurd as their calling you a free and independent Government 
while they have an army of 120,000 men in your Country, whilst 
they have discharged your own officers and seamen to make way 
for theirs in the command of your ships and fleets, and whilst 
they are openly and avowedly emptying your stores & arsenals 
in order to fill their own. 

We decline entering into any discussion of Captain Cust's 
business, which we wish we could view in any other light than 
as an additional mark of a disposition which we see with regret ; 
but we cannot conclude these observations on your Letter, not- 
withstanding the length to which they have already drawn us, 
without adding that by the perusal of the Dispatches which will 
be delivered to you herewith you are now thoroughly master of 
the situation of affairs in Holland, you must know that every 
information which we have hitherto given you relative to them 
lias been strictly true. You must feel the force of every argument 
which we have founded upon that situation, and to us it appears 
that you have a plain option before you. On the one hand you 
have a Government upon French principles of Jacobinism, you 
have Liberty Equality & Fraternity — possibly under the protec- 

96 Records of the Cape Colony. 

tion of a French force — with the dissemination of the too capti- 
vating idea of universal freedom and the rights of man among 
your Slaves, (the universal practice of the French, by which they 
have already laid waste the finest islands of the West Indies), 
forcing the unfortunate Inhabitants of the Settlement from the 
peaceable enjoyment of their homes & families in the Country to 
meet the guillotine on your market place. You have to encounter 
the total want of money, necessaries & succours from the mother 
country, the failure of your markets and the entire annihilation 
of the little commerce which you now enjoy. 

On the other hand you have protection, peace and an extended 
commerce with every advantage which the Settlement is capable 
of, you have the continuance of your Laws, Customs & Usages, 
and you have the certainty of returning into the possession of 
Holland the instant such an event is practicable. You have 
security to your property and to your domestick happiness. But 
it is unnecessary Gentlemen to recapitulate what we have already 
said on the subject. We leave it to your consideration. We shall 
rest satisfied with having fulfill'd every call of humanity, friend- 
ship and the faithful discharge of our duty to our Sovereign in 
thus once more pressing it on you. We beg you to be assured 
that these motives alone could induce us to continue a correspon- 
dence which has been declined on your part, and in a manner 
accompanied with such marks of an unfriendly disposition. We 
are anxious to discharge ourselves of every possibility of blame, 
and if the Colony should unfortunately experience all the unhappy 
consequences which we cannot but foresee must arise from the 
rejection of our offers, we trust and have no doubt that the 
Inhabitants will do us justice and direct their acknowledgements 
to those only under whose influence they act. We have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone, 
J. H. Craig. 

Sent by Lieut. Owen of the India Company's service. 

}feeo)'<fit "I (In' ( 't!jir I'olimif. 97 


Letter from Commissioner Sluysken and the Council of Policy 
to Admiral Elphinstone. 

In't Casteel de Goede Hoop, den 29 Junij 1795. 

Hoog Edele Gestrenge Heer,— De stremming door U Hoog 
Ed. Gestr. toegebragt aan de scheepen van de Nederlandsche 
Compagnie, op haare eigene rheede, welke ons gebleeken is uit 
een bij U Hoog Ed. geteekend en aan de schippers van dezelven 
gezonden geschrift, is van dien aart, dat door ons niet wel 
anders kan worden beschouwd, als een daad van verkragting der 
tractaaten tusschen onze wederzijdsche souverainen subsisteerende, 
en een openbaare violentie gepleegd op de rheede van de republicq 
aan onderdaanen van den Staat der Vereenigde Nederlanden, en 
wij vinden ons dus in de onaangenaame noodzaakelijkheid om 
daar van herstelling te vraagen, niet twijffelende of U Hoog Ed. 
Gestr. zal dezelve scheepen niet langer in haare reize vertraagen, 
veel minder door openbaar geweld daarinne verhinderen, raaar 
haar vreedig en vrij na herwaarts laaten vertrekken, volgens de 
aan haar gegeeven ordres, bij ontstentenis van het welke wij 
protesteeren teegens alle consequentien en ongelukkige gevolgen, 
welke daaruit nu en in der tijd mogten voortspruiten. Wij 
hebben de eer enz. 

(Geteekend) A. J. Sluysken, 

J. I. Ehenius, 

R. J. Gordon, 

J. J. le Sueur, 

W. F. van Reede van Oudtshoorn, 


E. Bergh. 


Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Commissioner Sluysken 
ami the Council of Policy. 

Monarch, Simon's Bat, 30th June 1795. 

Honorable Sir and Gentlemen, — I have had the honor to 
receive your Letter of the 29th requiring that I would suffer the 
three Dutch East India Ships lying in Simons Bay to depart and 


98 Records of the Coupe Colony. 

proceed on their voyage. I beg that you will do me the justice 
to believe that I did not venture upon a step of this consequence 
without being fully instructed thereunto, which instruction was 
with full concurrence of the Prince of Orange in consequence of 
His Serene Highness's Letter to Lord Grenville, the substance of 
which you were acquainted with soon after I had the honor to 
hand His Serene Highness's letter to you. 

I must farther remark that I have not seized the above Ships as 
Prizes, but have only detained them, until it shall be determined 
to whom they legally belong and at all events to prevent their 
falling into the hands of the French. 

It is no longer necessary to inform you that long before I left 
Europe, the like orders had been given and circulated by the new 
modelled States of Holland against British Property, nor is it 
necessary to add that this Order was by the express command 
of a Member of the French Convention then residing in Holland, 
who in conjunction with General Pichegrew constrains the present 
pretended States implicitly to obey their commands. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 


Letter from Commissioner Sluysken and the Council of Policy 
to Admiral Elphinstone and General Craig. 

In 't Casteel de Goede Hoop, den 2 Jvlij 1795. 

Hoog Ed. Gestrenge Heeren, — Wij hebben de eer gehad, te 
ontfangen U Hoog Ed. beide missives den 29 1.1. gedagteekend ; 
en wij verzoeken U Hoog Ed. ons zullen inschikken, dat wij in 
dezelve niets hebben moogen ontmoeten, het geen ons zoude 
kunnen aftrekken of doen resilieeren van die gevoelens, welke wij 
ons permitteerden U Hoog Ed. te schrijven, hij onzen voorigen 
van den 25 der gepasseerde maand, en die wij verzeekerd zijn, dat 
een genereuse natie en U Hoog Ed. zelven niet kunnen afkeuren. 

Wij vinden ons daarom genoodzaakt te herhaalen, dat wij de 
aan ons toebetrouwde kolonie zullen beschermen, en trachten te 
bewaaren teegens elk en een ijgelijk, welke daarop eenen vijan* 

Records of the Cape Colon//. 99 

delijken aanval zoudo willen onderneemen. Wij hebben do 

eer enz. 

(Geteekend) A. J. Sluysken, 
J. I. Rhenius, 
R. J. Gordon, 
J. J. le Sueur, 
W. F. van Reede van Oudtshoorn, 


E. Bergh. 


Letter from Major-General Craig to tlu Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

His Majesty's Ship Monabch, 
False Bay, 3rd July 1795. 

Sir, — By the several letters which I have had the honour of 
writing to you, as well as by those of Sir George Elphinstone, you 
will have perceived the little expectation which we entertain of 
getting possession of this place by any other means than by force. 
The situation in which it is likely to be, in that event, has been 
a subject of consideration to us both and we have thought it our 
duty to convey to you thus early our opinion of it in which we 
both perfectly agree. 

We both think that it will be indispensably necessary that a 
much larger force should be kept here than seeHietT to be the Idea 
when we left Europe, under the circumstances which are likely to 
attend our getting possession of it, and \vith the general Idea of 
Independence, which undoubtedly prevails among the Boors, it 
is clear that we can have no expectation of assistance from the 
Militia, indeed so far from it, that it will be necessary to be in 
sufficient force to be certain of keeping them quiet untill they 
become more sensible of the undoubted advantages held out to 
them in His Majesty's gracious offers, — in time, I have no doubt 
but a mild and consiliating Government, which it will be the 
peculiar duty of who ever is entrusted with the command here to 
pursue, will reconcile them perfectly, but at present I fear it 
would be very wrong to place confidence in them, under these 
circumstances I have turned my attention to the consideration of 

H 2 

100 Records of the Cape Colony. 

the number of men which the defence of the settlement will 
require. The extent of Coast is so considerable that I do not 
conceive it possible to guard it sufficiently to prevent a landing, 
and having no fortress to which to retire, it must be by a battle 
that the fate of the Colony must be decided. Perhaps in future 
means may be found to remedy the want of a fortress but at 
present the Cape Town is not defensible and I think from what 
little I have seen of it can not be made so, — certainly by no other 
means than by carrying a line or a chain of redouts from the fort 
up the Hill which will at any rate require a considerable number 
of men. Colonel Gordon's corps I think we may rely on engaging, 
but the artillery not, if any of the latter are content to enlist with 
us, I would propose to forward them to the East Indies with 
Coll. Gordon's corps. I do not think any man can have any hopes 
of defending the place, if attacked, unless he has at least 2500 
effective men, indeed I should think the number ought not to be 
less than 3000, this is always upon the supposition that a large 
fleet is not to be tied down to our protection, a ship or two I 
suppose would always be here, but as all the roads and Bays are 
open, such could receive little protection from our Batteries and 
would therefore be of no other use than by landing her men to 
assist us in the management of our Guns. 

I beg leave likewise to mention to you Sir, my humble opinion, 
that it will be exceedingly requisite, that some officer should 
always be here of an intermediate rank between the Commander 
and the casual senior Regimental officer^ the reasons for this are so 
obvious, that I trust I shall be excused from entering into them. 

I have &c, 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 


Letter from Major-General Craig to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Hh Majesty's Ship Monarch, 
Falsb Bay 3rd July- 1796. 

Sir, — I have very little to add to my private letter of this date. 
Lieut. Owen of the East India Compy's service who was pitched 
upon as a proper person to go to the Cape Town with the inter- 

lit cord* of the Cape Colony. 101 

cepted letters, on account of his general acquaintance there, is this 
instant returned. He was pretty closely watched while there and 
had therefore not so much opportunity of conversing with his 
friends as ho could have wished, from what he could learn however 
the temper of the people seems to remain much the same. They 
appear to adhere to the idea of admitting neither us nor the french 
hut still profess that if a superior body of the latter should come 
they would gladly accept of our assistance to repel them, the 
letter from the Governor and Council seems to be much milder 
than usual but little can be gathered from that circumstance. I 
think it probable that none of their dispatches holding out the 
smallest probability of relief or assistance, may have it's weight, — 
in the mean time the Militia from the Country are extremely 
turbulent and troublesome and give much uneasiness to the towns 
people, while they themselves begin to express great dissatisfaction 
at being so long from their homes. 

We remain fixed in our determination to make no attempt by 
force till the arrival of the reinforcement from St. Helena unless 
it should be brought on by circumstances of which we are not the 
Masters. In my private letter of the loth you will find a detail 
of the strength which we could land for such purpose, but upon a 
further examination I fear Sir George could not afford us above 
six or at most seven hundred Sailors so that our total would at the 
utmost be 1500 men without a single field piece or one artillery 
man to manage any which we might take from the enemy. In 
the same letter I have also detailed the enemies force, which as 
fiir as I can at present guess might be 1000 regulars, with from 
2000 to 2500 Militia and an excellent train of Artillery. They 
have driven the country entirely between us and the Cape Town, 
so that we should not find a horse or a Bullock to assist us and 
unfortunately we are totally destitute of money to make us friends 
who could supply us, this last want we feel most essentially. 

Upon a personal examination I did not find the forcing of the 
pass at which they have taken post quite so impracticable as it 
had been represented to me, altho' it is certainly strong. It is 
possible notwithstanding the disparity of numbers and oth°r 
circumstances of disadvantage, that we might succeed, but the 
warmest partisan of British Courage must "also allow that it is at 
least possible that we might not succeed and we consider that a 
failure in the first attempt might bring on the total ruin of the 

102 Records of the Cape Colony. 

expedition, add to these considerations that suppose we did 
succeed, the sailors must return to their ships, and I must remain 
with 800 men, counting the Marines, in the midst of a numerous 
and discontented people, while if any superior french fleet should 
make it's appearance, Sir George would be deprived of a consider- 
able part of his force. Under these circumstances we trust Sir, 
that our deferring the attempt will not be disapproved by His 
Majesty ; I say we, because I have the honour to assure you, that 
there has not been a shade of difference of opinion between 
Sir George Elphinstone and myself on the subject. If we had 
nothing further to expect, we should certainly not hesitate, but 
having every reason to look for 500 men, some artillery and above 
all a supply of money from St. Helena in three weeks at furthest, 
we should think ourselves highly blameable were we to put the 
whole expedition to so great a hazard, as it would be, by our 
attempting it with our present force. 

We have still reason to think that Gordons Corps continue our 
warm friends, but we cannot attempt to put them in activity, till 
we have money to pay them. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 


Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

His Majesty's Ship Monabch, 
Simond's Bay 3rd July 1795. 

Sir, — Since I had the honour of writing to you on the 28th 
tllto. by the Orpheus, wherein I informed you of the Discovery 
of the Papers on board of the American Ship Columbia, which 
cleared with a Pass from the Representative of the French People 
at the Hague, which Papers were attained by using prudent 
measures, & without Violence, I have had time, in conjunction 
with Genl. Craig, to peruse the Dispatches for this Place, India, 
& China, the Heads of which are as follow, as I am disinclined 
to send the Copies by the present oppy. a Dane. — 

1st. Advice of their having sent the Columbia an American 

Records of the Cape Colony. 103 

vessel with Dispatches to the Cape of Good Hoj>e, & Batavia, 
& to return with a Dutch Cargo ; also for the ( lovernor of 
Batavia to send produce in future in all Neutral and Dutch 
vessels, preferring American. 

2nd. To purchase Grain at the Cape upon the best possible 
Terms, and send any Quantity thereof by all Dutch & Neutral 
Vessels that can be procured, there being great Scarcity. 

3rd. Orders from the States General to put the Place in a 
posture of Defence to resist all foreign Attacks, to seize, detain, & 
store, all British Property until decided on (dated 10th February) 
to lay Embargo on all Neutral Ships & Vessels for 2 months, 
or longer at His option to prevent information from spreading. 

4th. Resolution of the States General, dated 10th Feby. ac- 
knowledging the Sovereignty of the People, annihilation of the 
Stadtholdership, and total change in the ancient Govt. & have 
established a Provisional one to act in the meantime, and requiring 
all persons to accede thereto. 

5th. Whereas Hostilities have ceased with France, all Ships 
from every part of the East Indies, that shall arrive in 1795, 
are ordered to sail into the Late, of Corvo and Flores, where if 
they are not met by French or Dutch Men of War, they are to 
make the best of their way to the nearest French Port, taking 
care to avoid the French ports in the English Channel, unless 
driven there by stress of weather, & carefully to avoid English 
Ports and Ships. 

6th. Take the earliest opportunity of informing of the Revolu- 
tion ; the French acknowledge them to be a free Republic ; to 
prohibit any Ship sailing for Europe, except under convoy of 
Dutch or French Men of War, but to remain & defend the 
Place, & carefully to avoid all English Ports ; & you will at once 
see that you must no longer look on the French Nation as your 

7th. We require you to use all exertions to preserve the 
Company's Establishments & Property, & to conduct yourselves 
with great precaution, particularly towards the English, to be 
particularly on your guard so that neither under Pretence of 
Friendship or other means you may not be surprized, & that 
you act as good Servants, whilst at the same time we do not 
conceal that you shall be held answerable for the consequences, 
in case by your neglect anything unfortunate should ensue. 

104 Records of the Cape Colony. 

8th. On the receipt of these Dispatches, to make copies, and 
circulate them all over India. 

9th. A Proclamation, declaring Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, 
& the Rights of Man, Banishment of the Stadtholder, Sovereignty 
of the People, Abolition of the former Government, Establish- 
ment of Provisional Do., absolving from all former oaths to the 
ancient Government, & to be stuck up at the Public Places. 

10th. They rejoice in Heroic terms at their new acquisition of 
Liberty, and recommend Unanimity. 

I have also discovered that all the Ships of 1794 in which 
number you may include 21 which sailed hence only a month 
since, had been ordered to sail North about (round Shetland), 
& that all French Ships are ordered by the Representative of 
the People at the Hague, to endeavour to meet them, give them 
protection, and persuade them to make for French Ports on the 
ocean, — altho' I am afraid that this information will arrive too 
late to be of any service. 

To Canton in China, the orders are general, desiring their 
Servants to do their best, & to act as they did in 1781. 

I shall take the earliest opportunity of sending advice of the 
above information to all the different Presidencies in India & 
to China, but I am miserably distrest for want of Frigates, the 
two Sloops I have are so small, and sail so extremely ill, that 
it is not safe to trust them by themselves. 

From the private Letters by the Ship Columbia, it appears 
that all of them had been opened by a Committee appointed for 
that purpose ; & the Governors are directed by the Public Dispatch 
to Seal them up before they cause them to be delivered ; there- 
fore you will easily imagine that all the information has been 
on one side; a Circumstance which has induced the General & 
myself to withhold many of them & all Newspapers, & Pamphlets 
without exception: but the Public Dispatches for the Cape we 
have thought proper to send, that the different Parties might be 
informed of the situation of affairs in Holland; as the Govern- 
ment here had induced the Inhabitants at large to discredit what 
we had circulated upon our arrival. 

On the 28th Ulto. three Dutch Indiamen in the Bay attempted 
to depart. I sent an Officer on board to prevent them, & to 
deliver them the Paper I enclose. On the 30th I received a 
remonstrance from the Governor against this Act of Violence, 

Records of tltc Ct>]» Colony. \0"> 

and demanding redress which I have the honour to enclose with 
my Answer thereto. 

On the same day Lieutenant Owen of the East India Company's 
service who had resided some time <*it Cape Town was thought 
a proper person to be sent on shore by the General and myself 
to bear the Public Dispatches to the Governor, and such private 
letters as we judged fitting to go, but the Lieutenant was refused 
a Pass Port. Mr. Pringle, to save time, who has been for a 
considerable time the East India Company's Resident at this 
place, wrote from the Resident's house here in my name, desiring 
that lieutenant Owen might be furnished with a pass port, and 
whilst I am upon this subject, I hope you will forgive my 
mentioning that I have found Mr. Pringle of material advantage 
to the Service in consequence of a Residence of 15 months at this 
place and intimate knowledge of most of the Leading People of 
the Colony their principles &ca., & he departed immediately. 

Mr. Brandt the Dutch Resident here signified to me that 
the three Dutch Ships were positively ordered to depart, and 
desired to know whether I meant to prevent them, I answered 
yes. By private intimation from the Shore I was given to under- 
stand that the Sailing of the Ships was intended to bring on 
Hostilities and that their Batteries were ordered to open upon 
us with hot Shot & the preparations were visible, which induced 
me to place the Ships of the Squadron in situations the most 
likely to offend the Batteries, and to order Troops to be ready 
to land in the rear of them, to obstruct the Retreat of the Fugitives 
in the event of any hostile act on their part. 

July 2nd. The Ships have not yet attempted to sail, & things 
remain in the same state as yesterday. All Provisions of every 
kind continue to be stopped, even for the Hospital, and they 
have destroyed all the Wine, Flour, &c. in the Storehouses here. 

July 3rd. Lieut. H. Owen returned from Cape Town at 4 P.M. : 
he was strictly watched and obliged to live in the Governor's 
house, he represents that the Council met often & sat late, 
that all the People seemed low, and Party disputes run high, 
— he had reason to believe the Regular Troops were of one 
mind, and inclined to us. The Governor's letter is inclosed, 
and contains little upon the whole, it is not so violent as 

You may rest assured it is neither the inclination of the General 

106 Records of the Cape Colony. 

nor of myself to shrink from an attack at any prudent moment 

when the complexion of Affairs may render it necessary. I 

have &c. 

(Signed) G. K Elphinstone. 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Evan Nepean, Esqre. 

His Majesty's Ship Monarch, Simonds Bay, 
Cape of Good Hope, the 1th July 1795. 

Sir, — I had the honor of addressing a letter to you on the 
17th ultimo by His Majesty's Ship Sphynx ordered to St. Helena, 
& another on the 28th by the Orpheus India Ship, which was 
sent here by the Honble. Governor Brook with Mr. Pringle, the 
Company's Agent, on board, and returned on the 28th, but as 
those conveyances were uncertain as to time, I only touched upon 
a few particulars for the information of the Eight Honble. the 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, I now beg leave, by the 
opportunity of a Danish Ship bound to Britain, to transmit more 
circumstantial accounts of the occurrences relating to the Squadron 
of His Majesty's Ships under my command. 

On the 3rd April I sailed from Spithead with the Ships named 

in the Margin, arrived at Santa Cruz on 

Monarc \ the 13th, & having procured as much Wine 

Arrogant ° r . . 

Victorious as the shortness of our Stay would admit 

Sphynx of, left that Bay on the 16th April & pro- 

Battlesnake ceeded on the voyage. On the 10th June 

the Squadron under Commodore Blankett 

joined me, consisting of the Ships named in the Margin, who 

informed me he had made the Land three 
America . . 

Buby days, but had not had any commumcation 

Stately with the Shore, & on the following day all 

Echo, Sloop. the gaid ghi p S anchored i n Simons Bay, 

excepting the Arniston which left the Squadron on the 12 May 
& iproceeded for St. Helena, and the Rattlesnake which joined 
me here on the 15th, having been under the necessity of leaving 
her on the 12 May in consequence of the great detention her slow 
sailing occasioned to the Squadron. > . 

Records of the Capt Colony. 107 

Immediately on my arrival I endeavoured to procure the 
necessary Refreshments and ordered the Ships to be supplied 
every day with fresh meat, vegetables & fruit, which I found 
some difficulty in obtaining, and at a dear rate. I also established 
an Hospital on shore, at the advanced, but unavoidable claim 
of six shillings per man per day, these circumstances were 
rendered necessary by the sickly condition of many of the Ships, 
but more particularly the Victorious, which is thereby become 
almost useless, having had 175 on the Sick List at one time, 
and I am extremely sorry to add, that on the 27th all Supplies 
were stopped from the Ships and Hospital, which has greatly 
frustrated the progress of the Recovery of the Sick, and has 
obliged me, together with the Stately not having more than two 
months provision on board, to put all the Ships to two-thirds 

The following Courts Martial have taken place, viz. 

19th June H. E. Stanhope Esqre. was tried on charge exhibited 
against him by Lieut. Owen of the Ruby & very honorably 

20th do. John Lock Boatswain of the Rattlesnake on charges 
exhibited against him by Capt. Spranger, and dismissed, to servo 
before the mast. 

26th do. Lieut. W. F. Owen on charges exhibited against him 
by Capt. Stanhope and dismissed the Service. 

I have the honor to inclose copies of the Sentences of the 
Courts on these three trials, the particulars of which, when 
received, shall be sent by a safe opportunity. 

On the 18th the Sphynx sailed for St. Helena with Orders to 
remain there not longer than 24 hours, and then to proceed to 
St. Salvador in order to hasten the Troops under the command of 
General Clarke, but as the Sceptre is to remain at St. Helena 
until August as appears by a letter brought by the Oipheus, I 
have ordered her to proceed to St. Salvador to bring on the 
Troops and to strengthen the Convoy. The Echo & Rattlesnake 
are cruizing off the Cape, the former has also Orders to examine 
Saldahana Bay. 

Two Americans have arrived here bound to Mauritius with 
Provisions, and I understand from the Masters, that several of 
those vessels are employed in the same Trade. On the 28th 
ultimo an American Ship in Ballast also arrived here named the. 

108 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Columbia, Mallay Master, from Amsterdam with dispatches for 
the Governor and Council here & at Batavia, all which by the 
great discretion and assumed indifference practised by Lieutenant 
Durban of the Monarch who boarded the Columbia, I have been 
in possession of, and inclose such Extracts therefrom as relate 
to the Marine Department. I have also inclosed the State and 
Condition of His Majesty's Ships in the Bay, and an Account 
of Promotions and Removals, and you will observe how con- 
siderably short of Complement Commodore Blankett's Ships will 
be when the soldiers are disembarked. 

I am extremely distressed by the want of Frigates, and the 
only two Sloops I have are so small & sail so ill, they cannot be 
trusted by themselves, yet a Force is absolutely necessary to be 
sent to Foul Point and Antonnegill on the island of Madagascar, 
from which places the French Islands of Mauritius derive their 
only supply of Fresh Provisions and where they have a constant 
intercourse without any fixed settlement ; with Flour and Salted 
Provisions I am to lament they are but too well supplied by the 
Americans, who are daily passing this place laden with those 
Articles, and then return with Prize Goods, or proceed to the 
Dutch Colonies to load with Dutch Property on account of their 
India Company. 

I shall take the earliest opportunity of sending Advice to 
India of all the Dispatches intercepted by the Columbia, so that 
the Governors may regulate the departure of the Ships ac- 
cordingly, & be on their guard against the Dutch. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 


Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

His Majesty's Ship Monarch Simonds Bay. 
Cafe of Good Hope the ith July 1795. 

Sir, — Since closing the former letter of this date, I find one of 
the Batteries to the South of this Bay has been deserted & the 
Guns spiked, from private information, of which I have some, it 

ItecAH'd* of the ''"/" r "/""'/- W 

may be expected that another of live Guns will be abandoned in 
the night 

I think it my duty to mention, as early as possible, that it is 
my opinion that so long as this idea of independence prevails 
among the Boors, and party continues to run so high among the 
bettor informed, if wo should be fortunate enough to get possession 
a considerable Garrison will be found necessary not less than 
2000 until matters shall subside unless a Sea Force was to remain 
constantly here of more consequence than the King's Ministers 
may judge proper to dedicate for the protection or defence of the 
Colony, and it will naturally occur that in the event of our being 
fortunate this will become the depot for the Young Troops of the 
Company instead of St. Helena which will add to the strength of 
the Garrison. 

I am given to understand that there are good Barracks at the 
Cape for 1500 men, and here for 200. 

The Ship is under Sail & I have not time to add more. I 
have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 


Letter from General Alured Clarke to the Right HONOURABLE 
Henry Dundas. 

Prince Wiluam Hekbt India Man 
Poht of St. Salvador, Brasil 12th July 1795. 

Sir, — Though the circuitous Voyage the Hector is to make will 
prevent your receiving this Letter for several Months, I cannot 
let Captain Montagu depart for St. Helena, agreeable to his Orders 
from the Admiralty, without expressing the sense I have of his 
unremitted attention to the Convoy under his care, and acquainting 
you of his safe Arrival, with all the Ships connected with the 
Expedition under my command except the Cornwallis India Man, 
at this Port on the 6th Instant, when I had immediate Communi- 
cation with the Governor of this Province, who promises to afford 
all the assistance we may require during our stay, which I 
earnestly hope may be short, the Troops being at present very 
healthy, as will appear by the Returns now transmitted to the 

110 Records of the Cape Colony. 

War Office but may become otherwise if detained too long in an 
inactive State on board of Ships in this Climate. 

The Earl Cornwallis India Man having Lieut. Colonel Vansittart 
with about three Companies and the greatest Part of the Cloathing 
and Camp Equipage of the 95th Eegiment on board, parted from 
the Fleet on the 22nd Ultimo, and has not been heard of since, 
which gives me some uneasiness, though the "Weather has been too 
favorable to furnish any just ground of Apprehension for her 

Not having found any thing here from Capt. Blanket, or Eear 
Admiral Sir George Elphinstone was a great disappointment to 
me ; but being in daily expectation of hearing from one or both of 
them, I will take every means that depends on me to have all 
the Ships in readiness to proceed to Sea, in prosecution of the 
further Objects of our Voyage, on the shortest notice possible. 

As I was not supplied with Money previous to leaving England, 
and some will be wanted for various purposes while we remain 
at this Place, I shall direct the Officer who I have appointed 
Deputy Paymaster General to draw Bills on the most favourable 
terms that can be procured, on the Joint Paymasters General for 
such Sums as may be requisite and I am to request you will be 
pleased to apprize them of it. I have &c. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke. 


Letter from General Clarke to the Eight Honourable Henry 


Port op St. Salvador Brabil 13th July 1795. 

Sir, — My Letter to you of yesterday's date with those enclosing 
the Eeturns were sent on board the Hector last Night, and as she 
is to sail immediately, I cannot get them ; therefore avail myself 
of the moment that offers to inform you, which I do with much 
satisfaction, that the Cornwallis is arrived and the Troops on 
board in good Health. I have &c. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke. 

Jttconls of t)u Cape- Colony. Ill 


General Return of Assistance forwarded by the Arniston to the 
disposal of Admiral Elphinstone, K.B., <fcc. 

About 400 Military (as returned to General Craig) mostly 
trained to Field Piece, and Long Gun practice, with such Camp 
Equipage as may be made up on board Ship in the passage of 
materials furnished from this Place. 

A train of Field Artillery consisting of two 12 pounders, two 
G pounders, one Howitzer, and four 3 pounders. Total 9, with 
their Carriages, Ammunition, Travelling Forge, &c. as also a few 
intrenching Tools, Hand Hatchets &c. 

N.B. the four 3 pounders with their Carriages, Ammunition &c. 
furnished by Captain Vancouver. 

Ten thousand pounds Sterling mostly in Silver, directed to the 
care of Mr. Pringle, the Honble. Company's Agent at the Cape, 
or in case of his not having arrived there to be entrusted to the 
care of some confidential Person the Admiral may please to 
appoint on the Honble. Companies Account. 

N.B. From the above Sum is to be taken such Sum or Sums 
from time to time as the Admiral may want for & on account of 
those bills in favor of the Honble. Court of Directors he may 
judge necessary to draw, or for and on account of the Payment 
of the Detachment sent from St. Helena to the Assistance of His 
Majesty's Service. 

Return of what is proposed to be sent on the 14th July by the 

Flour and Provisions for three months for the St. Helena 

3 Field Pieces, with Carriages, Ammunition &c. complete. 

Five Thousand pounds Sterling in Dollars. 

112 RiH'onh of the ('<'/» t'o/on//. 


Letter from General Clarke to the Eight Honourable Henry 


Prince William Henry, Port of St. Salvador July 26th 1795. 

Sir, — My Letters of the 12th & 13th Instant, of which I have 
the honor to transmit Duplicates, will inform you of our Arrival 
at this Port, where the Sphynx Ship of War, commanded by 
Capt. Brisac with Despatches from Eear Admiral Sir George K. 
Elphinstone and Major General Craig, found me on the 22nd 
Instant ; and we were prepared to sail this Morning for the Cape 
of Good Hope (but the Wind proved unfavourable), when His 
Majesty's Brig Chatham commanded by Lieut. Puget arrived in four- 
teen Days from St. Helena, with Duplicates of the General's and 
Admiral's former Dispatches, and a Letter from Governor Brooke 
covering a Return of the Troops, Guns, Stores and Money that 
he had sent them from that Island, which must prove a very 
seasonable Supply, particularly the latter of which they stood in 
great need, and which, I am sorry to say, cannot be procured here, 
as you will perceive by the enclosed translation of a Letter I 
received from the Governor of the Province a few Days ago, in 
answer to one I wrote him upon the Subject. But understand- 
ing that several Captains and other Officers of the East India 
Company's Ships at this Place are in possession of a small Sum 
of Money (their own property, in Spanish Dollars), I have directed 
the Officer who I have appointed Deputy Pay Master to the Troops 
under my Command, to draw Bills on the Paymaster General in 
favor of such of them as may chuse to let him have it on reason- 
able terms, but if it cannot be procured from them here without 
an exorbitant Exchange, which I am apprehensive of (as I know 
the Money must go in the Fleet) I shall defer taking it from them 
till I get to the Cape: and can only lament that my not being 
furnished with a proper supply on leaving England will occasion 
Government being put to a greater expence on this score than 
wou'd otherwise have been the case. 

A small increase of our Sick soon after we arrived, made me 
think it necessary to remove them from the Ships, into an 
Hospital on Shore, to prevent it spreading, which I am happy 
to say has had the effect ; and I am in hopes the Fleet will go 

Ji'i cords of the Cape Colony. 113 

to Sea, tlte moment the vrind permits, with not many more Sick 
than when we came into Harbour, tho' the Weather has been very 
unfavorable from the heavy Kains that have prevailed ever since 
our Arrival. Lieutenant Humphries of the 98th Kegiment is the 
only Officer we have lost, but the Death of a few more Soldiers 
has adiled to the Number mentioned in the Keturns transmitted 
by the IFector, which I am sorry there is not time to send 
Duplicates of by this conveyance. The Critical Situation of our 
friends at the Cape of Good Hope makes me extremely anxious 
to join the Admiral, which we will endeavour to accomplish, by 
every exertion in our Power, as speedily as possible. 

Lieut. Puget of His Majesty's Brig Chatham, who is charged 
with this dispatch, informs me that Captain Vancouvre took those 
of Admiral Sir George K. Elphinstone, Major General Craig, and 
Governor Brooke from St. Helena, by which you will be informed 
of what had passed between them and the Dutch Government at 
the Cape, more fully than it is in my power to do ; I must therefore 
beg leave to refer you to them or to Lieut. Puget on the event of 
his arriving in England before Captain Vancouvre, which there is 
no reasonable ground to suppose. I have &c. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke. 


Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

His Majesty's Ship Monarch, Simons Bat, 
Cape op Good Hope the 18M Augwt 1795. 

Sir, — I had the honor of informing you in a former dispatch 
that the Dutch were entrenched in a strong position at Muysen- 
bergh and well furnished with Cannon, having a steep mountain 
on their right, & the sea on the left, difficult of approach on 
account of shallow water with high surf on the Shore, but 
which, the absolute necessity of the Post, rendered it requisite 
that we should possess, & made it obvious to Major General 
Craig & myself that it ought to be attempted. 

For this service I secretly prepared a Gun Boat, and armed 


114 Recm-ds of the Cape Colony. 

the Launches of the Fleet with heavy Cannonades, landed two 
battalions of Seamen, about one thousand, — under the command 
of the Captains, Hardy of the Echo, and, Spranger of the Rattle- 
snake, and sent Ships frequently around the Bay, to prevent 
suspicion of an attack when any favorable opportunity might 

On the 7th Instant a light breeze sprang up from the North 
West, and at 12 O'Clock the preconcerted Signal was made, when 
the Major General with his accustomed readiness and activity, 
instantly put the Forces ashore in motion, and at the same 
moment Commodore Blankett, equally zealous, in the America, 
with the Stately Echo and Rattlesnake, got under weigh, whilst 
the Gun Boat, and Armed Launches preceded the march of the 
Troops, about 500 yards, to prevent their being interrupted. 

About 1 O'Clock the Ships being abreast of an advanced Post 
of two Guns fired a few shot, which induced those in charge to 
depart, and on approaching a second Post of one Gun, and a Eoyal 
Mortar, or Howitzer the effect was the same, — On proceeding off 
the Camp the confusion was instantly manifest although the 
distance from the Ships was greater than could have been wished, 
but the Shallowness prevented a nearer approach. 

The Echo led, commanded by Lieutenant Tod of the Monarch, 
and anchored in two & a half fathoms, followed by the America 
which anchored in four & a half, then the Stately & Rattlesnake, 
anchoring nearer in proportion to their lesser draughts of water ; — 
off the Enemy's Works, which began to fire, and the fire was 
returned by the Sloops ; but an increase of Wind prevented the 
large Ships from acting, until they had carried out heavy Anchors ; 
this duty was performed by the Commanders with great coolness, 
much to their own honor and their Country's Credit. 

In a few minutes after, the fire opened, which obliged the 
Dutch to abandon their Camp with the utmost precipitation, 
taking with them only two Field-Pieces, and at 4 O'Clock the 
Major General took possession of it, after a fatiguing march over 
heavy sandy ground, to him I beg leave to refer for the particulars 
of what was taken therein as the Sea ran so high, that no person, 
from the Ships or Gun Boats, could venture to land. 

In transmitting to you the proceedings of the Fleet under my 
command I shall at all times feel great satisfaction in doing 
justice to the merits of the several Officers, to their judgment 

Records of the Cape Colony. 115 

& good conduct in the present instance, is to be attributed the 
immediate success which attended the attempt; it is therefore 
my duty to recommend to His Majesty's notice Commodore 
Blankett, Captain Douglas, Lieutenant Tod of the Monarch, 
commanding the Echo, and Lieutenant Ramage also of the 
Monarch commanding the Rattlesnake, and Mr. Charles Adam 
of the Monarch, midshipman, who commanded the Gun Boat ; 
I am sensibly obliged to them, each individually, for their steady, 
and correct discharge of my Orders. 

I must further beg leave to add that it is universally agreed, 
the Echo's fire was superiorly directed, and ably kept up, and 
particular acknowledgments are also due to the Officers and Men, 
for the general zeal & activity which appeared in every countenance, 
of which I was enabled to judge with more precision, as the 
Commodore obligingly permitted me to accompany him and to 
visit the other Ships employed under his direction upon this 

The America had two men killed, and four wounded, and one 
Gun disabled, being struck by a Shot — the Stately one man 
wounded. Some Shots passed through the Ships, but did not 
materially injure them. 

I am fearful the Major General will not be able to write by 
this conveyance, a genoese Ship, which intends touching at 
St. Helena, as he is now at Muysenberg, where with much labour 
we are endeavouring to establish a Depot for Provisions and 
Ammunition, so as to enable him to advance ; but the deep 
Sands and want of Cattle renders it difficult & fatiguing to feed 
the Troops and protect the line of communication. 

The Swallow Packet sailed from St. Helena the 28th June for 
this Bay but has not since been heard of, — the Orpheus India 
Ship arrived here the 5th instant from St. Helena, and the 
Arniston the 9th, the latter sailed with my dispatches for Madras 
the 15th, containing copies of your instructions to the Naval & 
Military Officers commanding in the East Indies, which were also 
transmitted to Canton on the 22nd July by the Swedish Ship 
Sophia Magdalena, and to Bengal by Captain Cust of the 
Company's Service in the Danish Ship Prince of Gustenburgh 
which sailed on the loth instant ; I was under the necessity of 
presuming to draw on the Company's Select Committee of Super- 
cargoes at China for Seven hundred & eighty one Spanish 

I 2 


Records of the Cape Colony. 

Dollars in favour of Mr. Eric Nissen Master of the Swede of 
whom I purchased a few requisite Naval Stores but had no Specie, 
or other mode of paying him. I have been however very amply 
supplied with Specie by the Orpheus and Amiston, and also with 
400 Men, Infantry & Artillery, Field Pieces, Ammunition &c. 
from Governor Brooke at St. Helena, to whose zeal & exertions 
the Service is greatly indebted. 

I have inclosed a List of the Dutch Ships detained at this Bay, 
and have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

[Enclosure in above.] 
List of Dutch Ships detained in Simons Bay 18th August 1795. 

Ships' Names. 


Willcmstadt en Boet- 
zelaar 1 . 

Be Jonge Bonifacius 2 

Qeertruyda 3 . 

Eet Vertrouwen 1 

Louisa & Anthony 6 . 

\ 10th May 1795 

24th June 1795 
9th May 1795 . 
14th August 1795 

15 August 1795 


St. Kooter 

(Jan Nicholas \ 
\ Croese . ./ 
M. de Vries . 
/Hilbrand van\ 
t Uyen . J 
(Kersjen Hil-\ 
\ brand . ./ 





Where from. 

The Texel 





1 Discharged the greatest part of her Cargo at the Cape, has remaining on 
board some Naval Stores, Military Clothing, Bricks & Tiles & Copper, Boxes, 
contents unknown, was bound to Batavia. 

8 Laden with Sugar, Coffee, Pepper, Sapan wood. 

3 Discharged most of her Cargo here, has still some Articles in — was bound to 

4 Laden with Sugar, Coffee, Pepper, Sugar Candy and Sapan Wood. 
8 Laden with Sugar, Coffee, Pepper, Sugar Candy and Sapan Wood* 

Re-cords of the Cape Colony. 



Return of the Killed, Wounded and Missing of the Troops & 
Seamen under the command of Major General Craig between 
the 7th of August & the 3rd of September 1795. 




2nd Battalion 78th Regiment 
St. Helena Corps . . . 






Names of the Officers Wounded : — 

Major Monypenny 78th Eegiment 
Captn. Hercules Scott 78th Eegiment 
Captn. Dentaffe St. Helena Corps 
Mr. Harty, Midshipman E.N. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig, Major General. 



To the Inhabitants of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope. 

The sentiments of general humanity and friendship for the 
Butch Nation, which induced Vice Admiral * Sir G. K. Elphin- 
stone and Major General Craig, to address the Inhabitants of the 

* Sir G. K. Elphinstone was Rear-Admiral of the White until the 4th of 
September 1795, after that date Vice-Admiral of the Blue. — G. M. T. 

118 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Cape of Good Hope on the 12th ulto., actuating in no less powerful 
a degree upon General Clarke who has succeeded the latter in the 
command of His Britannick Majesty's Troops; They find them- 
selves impelled by them to request, that the Inhabitants will 
take into their serious consideration, that the expected reinforce- 
ments from Europe being now arrived, the force acting against 
them is such as to render all resistance vain. His Britannick 
Majesty's Officers are however so well acquainted with the 
sentiments of their Royal Master that they persuade themselves 
that it will be much more agreeable to His feelings to hear that 
the Colony has accepted of the protection of Great Britain under 
the terms already offered to the Inhabitants, than that by an 
obstinate perseverance in an unavailing defence, they should 
have exposed themselves to the calamities of a State of War to 
which it never was his wish to subject them. 

In the ordinary course of Military Operations no intercourse of 
this nature would take place till the Army is before the Works 
of the Town. The British Commanders are however so very 
anxious if possible to avoid the Mischief to the Colony that 
must occur in their progress to that station, they wish so much 
to advance only under the friendly circumstances which may 
enable them to insure the safety of all property of every sort, 
they are so desirous of preserving the Country from the devasta- 
tion which must ensue from the wants of an army in the course 
of whose operations Houses must be destroyed to furnish materials 
for works, Slaves must be invited, Cattle must be destroyed and 
Gardens and fields will be little respected, that they are induced 
once more to say that the time is still open for a negociation to 
bring about those desirable purposes. 

As no unnecessary delay can now be admitted the answer will 
be expected to be sent as speedily as possible. 

(Signed) Alueed Clarke 

G. K. Elphinstone 
J. H. Craig 

Camp of Muisenberg 
9th Septr. 1795. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 119 


Letter from Commissioner Sluysken to General Alured Clarke, 
Admiral Elphinstone, and General Craig. 

In 't Ca8TEel de Goede Hoop, den 12 Sept. 1795. 

Mijne Heeren, — Mij is ter hand gekoomen het door U Ed. den 
9 Sept. aan de inwoonders deezer kolonie geaddresseerd geschrift, 
mijn eed verpligt mij denzelven voor den wettigen sonverain te 
bewaaren, en dien volgens dan ook beslooten hebbende om de 
kolonie te defendeeren, hoop ik dat de voorzienigheid mijne 
poogingen zal zeegenen, om de aanvallen eener natie die goedvind 
ons vijandelijk te attaqueeren, te weederstaan en afteweeren. 
Waarmede enz. 

(Geteekend) A. J. Sluysken. 


Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

His Majesty's Ship Monarch the 12th of September 1795. 

Sir, — I have the honor to inclose a summary of the occurrences 
"which have taken place since my former communication, together 
with Duplicates of my dispatches dated the 18th of August, by a 
genoese Ship, to all which I beg leave to refer you for the 
particular proceedings of His Majesty's Fleet under my Command. 
It gives me great satisfaction to inform you of the arrival of 
General Clarke on the 3rd Instant, with the Forces under his 
Command in the Ships named in the inclosed List, but I have to 
express my regret and disappointment that no Provision of Bread 
or Spirits was brought in the Ships, my anxiety on that point has 
been great, but now much increased, as those articles are in great 
demand, and the Quantities in the Fleet, from whence the Army 
has been supplied, very inconsiderable, it being now near three 
Months since we have received any Supply at this place. This 
has induced me to detain and unload a Danish Ship called the 
Treasurer Count Schimelman, on board of which I understand are 

120 Records of the Cape Colony. 

five Hundred Bags of Eice. As this Step was contrary to the 
inclination of the Commander, I have inclosed for your information 
the correspondence which passed on the subject. 

I have sent to St. Helena, for Food, and shall endeavour to 
forage the Country in hope of procuring Grain and other Articles. 
Should however these attempts fail, and the place resist, I shall 
be at a loss in what manner to act, but will do my best, and adopt 
measures which may be considered most conducive to the interest 
and object of the Expedition, and to remove or lessen our present 
necessities, which have obliged me to put the Fleet at short 
allowance, and General Clarke has ordered the same for the 

General Clarke is at. Muysenberg with the Forces, preparing for 
a regular attack against the Cape T9wn and Castle, and I am in 
expectation of being able, in a short time, to acquaint you, with 
his complete success, ultimately I have no doubt of it, and am 
only anxious concerning any delay, which may take place, for the 
reasons I have before stated. 

The inconvenience which officers of His Majesty's Navy, have 
hitherto experienced, from not being allowed to draw for their Pay, 
and the great Expence attending those who landed upon the pre- 
sent Service, rendered it impossible for them to subsist without 
extra pay, I therefore ordered' them the allowance mentioned in 
the inclosed account, and hope you will not think that I have gone 
too far, as this has only placed them on a footing with the Troops, 
who are allowed Bat & Forage for 200 Days. To the Marines 
who were equally employed on the same Service, I have ordered 
Bat and Forage to be paid at the same rate as the Army, for the 
number of Days they have been absent from their Ships on this 

Of the Dutch Ships found in Simons Bay, is the Willemstadt 
and Boetzlaar, quite new, of One Thousand Tons, mounted with 
26 Guns, and most completely found, with Copper in the Hold for 
the purpose of sheathing her bottom. Such a Ship appeared to 
me essentially necessary for this place, and for the purpose of 
incommoding the French Victuallers on the Coast of Madagascar 
hereafter, and at the present moment to approach the Shore in 
Table Bay with Provisions, and cover the Boats communicating 
with the Army, I therefore ventured to commission her by the 
name of the Princess, and gave the Command to Captain Hardy, 

Records of the Cape Colony. 121 

whose acknowledged merit will, I hope, justify my election and 
recommend him for confirmation. 

I also fitted out a Gun Vessel (the Squib) to carry one nine 
pounder, and one Eighteen-, which has proved extremely useful 
here, and must be equally so in Table Bay, to which place I shall 
send her with the Commodore. The Command I have given to 
Mr. Adam, one of the Midshipmen of the Monarch, of which 
I hope the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty will also 

In consequence of the promises of Major General Craig and 
myself, on our first arrival, to encourage the Enemy's Troops to 
quit their Service, and join His Majesty's, "That all Deserters 
should be admitted to serve in any situation they might choose," 
Many have made their election for the Marines, and I ordered 
them to be enlisted with a Bounty of Two Pounds, and shall 
Clothe them as soon as possible ; they have served faithfully, and 
are excellent German Soldiers. The Seas are infested with 
Americans, Danes, Genoese, Tuscans &c. or in other terms, 
smuggling Ships, mostly belonging to Britain & Bengal, entrenched 
with Oaths and Infamy, who Trade to the French Islands, and all 
the Ports in India, changing the Flags as is most convenient to 

To prevent the Commerce of this place falling into such a 
Channel, I shall prohibit all trade with Foreign Ships, unless 
where Supplies are absolutely necessary, until I am honoured 
with your farther Orders on this head. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

[Enclosure in the above.] 

A list of India Ships which arrived in Simon's Bay the 3rd of 
September 1795 with General Clarke on board, and the Forces 
under his Command, viz. 

Northumberland, Prince William Henry, Exeter, Worcester, 
Osterly, Kent, Brunswick, Bombay Castle, Earl Comwallis, Earl 
Howe, Beptford, General Coote, Warren Hastings, Prince of Wales 
armed Transport. 

122 Records of the Cape Colony. 


Summary of the Proceedings of the Squadron under the command 
of the Honble. Sik George Keith Elphinstone, K.B. 

June 17, 1795. — Captn. Dekker proposed sailing, hoping for 
conciliatory measures. I did not refuse his sailing, but expressed 
great surprize. Dispatched the Sphynx to St. Helena and St. 

June 18. — The Major General Craig went to the Cape. The 
Sphynx sailed. 

June 19. — The Eesident Brandt and his family dined on board 
the Monarch, saluted him with 9 Guns. 

June 20. — In the night all the Troops withdrawn from Simons 
Town & the "Women fled. The General returned from the Cape ; 
all supplies stopped for a day. 

June 21st. — Eemonstrated and distributed Proclamations. Dutch 
Frigate sailed. Supplies recontinued. 

June 1§th. — Supplies totally stopt; they expect us to depart. 
Arrived the Orpheus Packet with Mr. Pringle Agent to the 
Companys Secret Committee from St. Helena. Governor &ca. 
desired to be troubled with no more Correspondence. 

June 28th. — The Columbia an American Ship arrived here from 
Amsterdam with secret Dispatches for the Cape and Batavia. I 
obtained possession of all the Dispatches, three Boxes of Letters, 
Pamphlets and Papers, of a very seditious tendency. The Orpheus 
sailed for St. Helena. 

July 1st. — Sent Lieut. Owen of the India Service to the Governor 
with the original Dispatches which were taken from the Columbia. 
The Dutch Ships ordered to sail, and the Batteries to fire upon 
us, if we prevented their sailing, I ordered Ships to approach the 

July 3rd. — The Battery on shore deserted ; Lieut. Owen returns 
from the Cape with a Letter from the Governor and Council, 
signifying that they saw nothing in the Dispatches by the Columbia 
to induce them to alter, their Sentiments. 

July 8th. — Many Articles on shore destroyed by the Governor's 
Orders, Flour, Sugar, Wine &ca. 

July lUh. — Seven more Deserters came on board, making the 
number now 15. Landed 500 Men of the 78th Eegiment. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 123 

July 15th. — Surveyed the Coast off the Camp. 

July 22nd. — The Marines of the Squadron, 400 in number were 
this day landed. 

July 25th. — Delivered Dispatches to the Honble Companys 
Supercargoes to Captain Nissen of the Swedish Ship Sophia 
Magdalena containing explanatory Statement of Dutch Politicks 
and Particulars of the object of my expedition to the Cape &ca. 

July 2§th. — Sailed for China the Swedish Ship Sophia Magdalena. 

August 2nd. — Minerva Danish Ship sailed for Europe. Borrowed 
a Cannon from the Dutch Ship and prepared to attack Muysenberg 

August 3rd. — Wind blew too strong to move the Ships. A few 
Hottentots attacked our Pickets. Shot exchanged — one of our 
men wounded. 

August 5th. — Arrived the Orpheus Packet from St. Helena with 
Dispatches and Money from Governor Brookes. Arrived the 
Rinomato a Genoese from China. 

August 7th. — The Forces on shore marched and the America 
and Stately of 64 Guns each, with two Sloops proceeded off 
Muysenberg — at 2 the attack begun — at 4 the Camp entirely 
deserted & General Craig with his Troops entered it. Two Seamen 
killed, one wounded. 

August 9. — Arniston arrived from St. Helena, with 398 Troops, 
artillery and ammunition Guns Tents &ca. 

August 10th. — Finding it indispensably necessary, appointed 
Mr. John Jackson Commissary, and Mr. James Brown his Deputy ; 
the feeding of the Forces on shore having become serious & 

August 11th. — Sir George went to Camp. 

August 12th.— The Fleet fired in honour of the Birth Day of 
H. E. H. the Prince of Wales. 

August 13. — Sir George went on shore to reside. 

August 14. — Delivered Dispatches for Bengal to Captain Cust, 
to go by the Danish Prince of Gustenburg, and for Madras and 
Bombay to Captain Majoribanks of the Arniston E. I. C. Ship. 
Arrived the Vertrowen from Batavia. 

August 15. — Sailed Prince of Gustenburgh for Bengal and 
the Arniston for Madras. Arrived the Louisa Anthony Dutch 
Ship from Batavia and obtained from her sundry Dutch 

124 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Nothing remarkable. Employed conveying Pro- 
\ vision to Camp, to make a Depot there pre- 
paratory to advancing. 

) Nothing remarkable. 

August 16 
20 J 

August 21st. — A small party attacked the Dutch advanced 
Patrole at Muysenberg. Mr. Hartley, Midshipman of the Rattle- 
snake, wounded in the thigh. Delivered Dispatches to the 
Commander of the Genoese Ship Rinomato for Mr. Dundas and 
Mr. Nepean, also for Governor Brooke at St. Helena. 

August 22 ' 

August 27. — Coll. McKenzie went last night with a party of 
about 700 men, to attack the Dutch out posts, he returned after a 
March of 16 Hours without having discovered anything, except a 
few Hottentots lurking on the Hills, who harrassed his Eear when 
returning. The Echo sailed for Stollenbosch, a small place in 
False Bay, with Proclamation (as inclosed) to endeavour to procure 
Cattle and Sheep. 

August 28. — Nothing remarkable. 

August 29. — The Echo returned from Stollenbosch. Captn. Tod 
reports that he sent a Flag of Truce on shore and distributed 
the Proclamations at Stollenbosch, the people there appeared 
friendly inclined, but were not permitted by the Governor to 
dispose of anything — he saw plenty of Cattle and Sheep. 

August ?>§th. — Commodore Blankett ordered to proceed to 
Stollenbosch with the Echo, Rattlesnake and Orpheus Packet, to 
procure Cattle and other Supplies, by payment or force, if 

August 31. — Commodore Blankett ordered not to move until 
further Order. Wrote to General Craig relative to the state of the 
Fleet, Provision &ca. 

Sept. 1st. — Heard the firing of Cannon and Musquetry at the 
Camp — at 12 Major Moneypenny came to the Bay wounded by a 
Ball passing thro' the thigh. He reports that the English out 
post was attacked, and a number of Hottentots fired from the Hill 
— a skirmish ensued, Captain Dentaff of the St. Helena Corps was 

Records of the Cape Colony. 125 

also wounded in the Wrist and twelve Seamen and Privates. We 
lost five made prisoners. Hundred men immediately sent up the 
Hill as a Pickett 

Sept. 2. — Arrived the Danish Ship Moen from Copenhagen, last 
from Portsmouth, reports that General Clarke with the Forces in 
the Indiamen left St. Helens 3 Weeks before he sailed. 

Sept. 3rd. — At 12 p.m. received a Letter from General Craig, 
saying the Enemy were collecting and made every appearance of 
attacking us by dawn of day — ordered Commodore Blankett with 
the America, Echo, Rattlesnake and Orpheus to proceed off the 
Camp & Bays to cooperate with the Army and protect the Coast — 
the Ships immediately got under weigh and proceeded accordingly. 
12 a.m. saw other Ships in the offing at 2 p.m. saw 13 Sail. They 
answered our Signals. Proved to be the India Ships with General 
Clarke and his forces on board from St. Salvador as follows 
E. I. Ships Northumberland, Prince William Henry, Exeter, 
Worcester, Osterley, Kent, Brunswick, Bombay Castle, Earl Corn- 
wallis, Earl Howe, Deptford, General Coote, Warren Hastings, 
Prince of Wales armed Transport. Arrived also the Danish Ship 
Count Schimmelman from Bengal. 

Sept. 4th. — General Clarke came on shore, dined with Sir 
George. The Sphynx got damaged & was left at St. Salvador, but 
was to come on in three weeks. 

Sept. 5 

1 Troops landed, and marched to Camp. 

Sept. 9. — Nothing remarkable. 

Sept. 10. — General Clarke and Sir George went to Camp. 

1 9 | Nothing remarkable. 

Sept. 13th. — Commodore Blankett sailed with the America, Echo, 
Rattlesnake and Bombay Castle to cooperate with the Forces ashore 
against Cape Town. 

Sept. 14th. — Sir George went to Camp and returned, Beports 
that the Forces marched this morning, heard a great firing of 
Cannon at Noon. 


Records of the Cape Colony. 


Return of the Killed and Wounded of the Troops and Seamen 

under the Command of General Alured Clarke, on the 

\Uh September 1795. 


Grenadiers 78th 

„ 84th 

„ 96th 

„ 98th 

Light Infantry 78th. 


„ „ St. Helena Company 

98th Regiment 
Light Company Seamen . . 





(Signed) Walter Cliffe, Depy. Adjt. GenL 


Letter from Commissioner Sluysken to the Commanding Officer 
of His Britannick Majesty's Army. 

Sir, — To prevent further bloodshed I propose to you Sir a truce 
of 48 hours to the end of entering- upon a negociation. I have &c. 

(Signed) A. J. Sluysken. 

Castle op Good Hope, lith September, 1795. 

P.S. — I request the answer by the Officer, Bearer of these 
presents and likewise to know the manner in which you would 
desire to commence the said Negociation. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 


Letter from General Clarke to Commissioner Sluysken. 

Sir, — The same sentiments of friendship for the Dutch Nation, 
with which we have been ever impressed, still actuate us. I do 
not scruple to say that I shall be happy that a negociation may 
prevent any of those calamities which it has always been our wish 
to avoid. 1 consent to a cessation of hostilities for 24 hours, and 
will send Major General Craig to Eondebosch tomorrow morning 
at 10 Clock to meet any person whom you may appoint. I 
have only to observe, that as I cannot consent that any unnecessary 
delay should take place, I must desire that proper power may be 
given to the persons who are to meet General Craig, to enter into 
the Business immediately. I am &c. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke. 

Cahp or Great Wynbebg, 
Uth Sept. 1795. 


Answers to the annexed Articles 
of Capitulation. 

Art. t 

The Capitulation being signed the 
Castle and the Town are to be sur- 
rendered to a detachment of His 
Britannick Majesty's Troops at 11 
Clock this day. 

Voorslagen van Capitulatie, ge- 
daan door den Commissaris 
en de Regeering van Caap de 
goede Hoop aan den Generaal 
Clarke, als commandeer ende 
het Leger van Zyne Groot 
Britannische Majesteit, en den 
Vice Admiraal George Keith 
Mphinstone, Ridder van het 
Rath, commandeerende de Vloot 
van hooggem. Zyne Majesteit. 

Art. 1. 

De Capitulatie getekend zynde, zal 
het Casteel en de Stad worden over- 
gegeven aan een Detachement Troupes 
van Zyne Groot Britannische Majesteit. 

128 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Ab r. 2. Aet. 2. 

Agreed. De Militairen zullen met alle Krygs 

Eer uittrekken, en buiten gemarcheerd 
zynde, haare Wapenen nederleggen, 
en Krygsgevangen zyn, dog de 
Officieren haare Degens behouden. 

Abt. 3. Aet - 3 - 

Agreed. Diegeene der Militaire Officieren, 

welke op hun Woord van Eer, om niet 
tegen het Ryk van Engeland, geduur- 
ende deezen Oorlog, te zullen dienen, 
zullen verzoeken van hier te vertrek- 
ken, zal hetzelve worden toegestaan, 
zelfs met neutraale Scheepen, dog in 
dien Gevalle op haare eige Kosten, 
met vryheid om haare Eigendommen 
te realiseeren en mede te neemen. 

Art. 4. Abt * *• 


De Officieren welke verlangen alhier 
te blyven, zal zulks worden geaccor- 
deert, buiten eenige Dienst. 

Abt. 5. Art - 5 - 

Agreed in it's fullest latitude. A11 e onder afgeschreeven Gagie 

gestelde en geligte Dienaaren der E. 
Corape. zullen in deeze Colonie mogen 

Abt. 6. Abt. 6. 

Alles wat aan de Compagnie behoord, 
zal ter goede trouwe worden overge- 
geven, onder Inventaris, zonder agter- 
houding, dog de Eigendommen der 
Comps. Dienaaren, zo aan de penne, de 
Zeevaarende als de Militaire Stand, 
mitsgaders Van alle Burgers en Ingeze- 
tenen, zullen vry en onaangeroerd 
blyven, zo wel als hetgeen toebehoord 
aan Godshuiaen, Weezen en publique 

Records of the Cape Colony. 129 

Art. 7. Art. 7. 

Agreed; De Colonisten zullen alle haare 

Voorregten, welke thands genieten, bly- 
ven behouden, zo wel als der presentie 
Godsdienst, zonder eenige Veran- 

Art. 8. Art. 8. 

Agreed. The answer to this Article Zyne Groot Britannische Majesteit 
is at the foot of the Capitulation. zal, tot voorkoming van de totale 

Ruine der Ingezetenen, de Waarde 
van het papiere Geld doen stand- 

Art. 9. Art. 9. 

Agreed. Geene nieuwe Belastingen zullen 

worden ingevoerd, maar de fcegens- 
woordige, uit aanmerking van het 
Verval der Colonie, zo veel mogelyk 
worden gemodificeerd. 

Art. 10. Art. 10. 

Agreed. T)e Cornmissaris, als Gouverneur, 

Krygsgevangen zynde, zal na Overgave 
van alles wat aan de Compagnie be- 
hoord, vryheid hebben om op zyn 
Woord van Eer te mogen vertrekken, 
zelfs des verkiesende met een neutraal 

Art. 11. Art. 11. 

Agreed. ^ em za * toegestaan zyn, om alles 

wat hem toebehoord, volgens zyn 
Verklaaring op zyn Woord van Eer, 
mede te voeren of te realiseeren, zonder 
eenige belemmering. 

Art. 12. Art. 12. 

Agreed. 0°k zal hy, na dat alle Papieren, 

Plans &c. aan het Gouvernement be- 
hoorende ter goede trouwe zal hebben 
overgeleverd, vryheid hebben, om alle 
die Papieren, welke hem behooren, en 
tot Verdediging van zijn Gedrag, ge- 
dunrende den Tyd van zyn Ministerie, 
nodig heeft, na zig en mede te neemen, 
zodanig als hy zulks zoude hebben 
mogen doen, was hy door zynen 
Souverain ontslagen geworden. 


Records of the Cape Colony. 

Art. 13. 


Answer to Article 8. 

It having been represented to us 
that the utmost confusion must ensue 
in the Colony and that it would in 
all probability be attended with the 
Entire ruin of it, if the paper money 
now in circulation in it were deprived 
of that security which can alone give 
any effect to the 8th article, We 
therefore consent that the Lands and 
Houses the property of the Dutch 
East India Company in this settlement 
shall continue the security of that part 
of the money which is not already 
secured by Mortgages upon the Estates 
of Individuals by it's having been lent 
to them. This is to be however 
without prejudice to the Government 
of Great Britain having the use of the 
Buildings &c. for public purposes and 
we will further represent to His 
Majesty's Government the infinite 
importance of this subject to the 
future prosperity of the Colony and 
request that they will take it into 
Consideration in Order to make such 
arrangements as may appear proper for 
it's further security if necessary or for 
it's final liquidation if practicable. 

Kustenburg 16M Septr. 1795. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke, 

G. K. Elphinstone, 
Vice Admiral. 
A true and exact Copy of the 

(Signed) H. Boss, Secretary. 
(Initialed) A. C. 

Art. 13. 

Eindelyk zal nicmand, het zy 
Dienaaren van de Compagnie, Zeelie- 
den, Militairen, Burgers ofte wie het 
weezen mogte, tot den dienst van Zyne 
Groot Britannische Majesteit worden 
geprest, nog geengageerd, als met zyn 
eige vrye Wille. 

Aldus Gedaan en Voorgeslagen by 
den ondergetekende Commissaris, 
mitsgrs. de Leden van den politiquen 
Baad, uitmakende de Regeeringe van 
het Gouvernement van Caab de goede 
Hoop — In het Casteel de goede Hoop 
den Zestiende Dag der Maand Sep- 
tember van het Jaar Duizend Zeeven 
honderd Vyf en Negentig. 

(Geteekend) A. J. Sluysken, 
J. I. Rhenius, 
R. J. Gordon, 
J. J. le Sueur, 
0. G. de Wet, 
C. Brand, 


E. Bergh. 

Records of the Cape Colony, 131 

Letter from General Clarke to Commissioner Sluysken. 

Head Quarters, Great Wynbero 16 Septemr. 1795. 

Sir, — This will be delivered to you by Major General Craig who 
commands the advanced Guard of the Army under my Command 
and is fully authorized to take possession of the Forts and Batteries 
that are to be surrendered into my Hands agreeable to the Articles 
of Capitulation which I am persuaded he Will do in the manner 
most satisfactory to yourself and the Inhabitants of the Colony. I 
have &c, 

(Signed) A. Clarke. 


Beturn of the killed and wounded of the two Battalions of 
Seamen serving on Shore at the Cape of Good Hope, between the 
1st of August and the 16th of September 1795. 

First Battalion commanded by Captain Temple Hardy. — 
Eight Seamen wounded. 

(Signed) T. Hardy. 

Second Battalion commanded by Captain J. W. Spranger. — 

One Seaman killed. 
Mr. Joseph Harty, Midshipman of the Battlesnake, and 

Three Seamen wounded. 

(Signed) J. W. Spranger. 

Letter from the British Commanders to the Inhabitants of 


Cape Town 18th September 1795. 

The British Commanders are extremely anxious that the Inhabi- 
tants of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope should be made 
acquainted with the Intentions of the government of Great Britain 

K 2 

132 Records of the Cape Colony. 

towards them, for which purpose the most speedy and effectual 
means shall be adopted. In the mean time they take the oppor- 
tunity of the return of the Bearer Mr. Du Plessis to commission 
him and request that he will acquaint everybody to whom he may 
have access, 

That the first wish of the British Commanders is to adopt every 
measure which may appear proper to promote the Prosperity of 
the Settlement and the happiness of the inhabitants. 

That the Monopolies and oppressions hitherto practised for the 
benefit of the India Company are at an end. A free internal trade 
and market takes place from this day, every man may buy of 
whom he pleases, sell to whom he pleases, employ whom he 
pleases, and come and go when and where he chooses by land or 
water. The Inhabitants are invited to send their Cattle &c. to the 
Cape Town, where they may sell it in the manner which best 
suits them and is most for their interest. 

No new taxes shall be levied ; such as now exist shall be 
considered as soon as possible, and those which are found to be 
burthensome on the people shall be abolished. 

The paper money is to retain its value, but the British make 
their payments in hard Money. 

Lastly the British Commanders invite the Inhabitants of the 
different Districts, if there is any subject which is unexplained to 
them, that they should choose proper Persons to send to the Cape 
Town to converse with them upon it. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke, 

G. K. Elphinstone, 
J. H. Craig. 


Revenue Returns. 

Eeturn of the amount of the Eevenue at the Cape of Good Hope 
from the 1st of September 1793 to the 31st of August 1794. 

A. Kent of lands at 24 Eixdollars per annum 

for Lands given in Hereditary leases Eds. 61,256 16 

A. Eents proceeding from Lands let out for 

a certain time ..... 1,445 

Records of the Cape Colony. 133 

B. Duty which is paid on Sales of Immove- 

able Estates 21,819 42 

C. Duty on Importation and Exportation of 

Goods 17,222 17 

D. Eents proceeding from Licenses for the 

sale of Wine and Brandy &c. by retail . 45,742 

E. Duty on Effects sold in public Vendue . 10,832 11 

F. Duty on Wine and Brandy brought from 

the Country to the Town . . . 16,153 20 

G. Tythes of Corn 21,411 20 

H. Stamped Paper 15,685 18 

SommaRds. 211,568 

Return of the Amount of the Revenue at the Cape of Good Hope 
from the 1st of September 1794 to the 31st of August 1795. 

A. Rent of Lands at 24 Rds. per annum for 

Lands given in Hereditary leases . Rds. 36,973 40 

A. Rents proceeding from Lands let out for a 

certain time . . . . . 1,705 18 

B. Duty which is paid on Sales of Immove- 

able Estates &c 15,158 6 

C. Duty on Importation and Exportation of 

Goods 14,981 40 

D. Rents proceeding from Licenses for the 

sale of Wine and Brandy &c. by retail . 29,925 16 

E. Duty on Effects sold in publick Vendue . 10,544 40 

F. Duty on Wine and Brandy brought from 

the Country to the Town . . . 17,092 30 

G. Tythes of Corn 17,984 39 

H. Stamped Paper ..... 12,322 27 

SommaRds. 156,689 16 

General Revenues which the Company has had of the Govern- 
ment of the Cape of Good Hope from the 1st Sept. 1784 to the 
last of August 1794, and consequently in the space of Ten years, 
amounting on an average yearly to the Sum of f.310,056 15 8 or 

134 Records of the Cape Colony. 

103,352 Eixdollars. The said Eevenues liave consisted of the 
following Branches, viz. : — 

I. The Eecognition, which is paid by the Husbandmen for the 
Permission of cultivating and grazing the Lands, given in Fee to 
them by the Company, & for each of the said Lands they have 
paid yearly 24 Eds. The Eecognition of Lands, which although 
given in property, have been left subject to the said payment. 
The small Eecognition for the use of some Corn and Garden 
Lands, which are given to some of the Inhabitants for the space of 
ten years, in quitrent, & finally the Eecognition for the Lands 
and Yards given in Property by the Company to the Inhabitants. 
This branch has amounted yearly to f.56,659 15. 

II. Of the Duty of the Estates, when they are sold or 
alienated and consequently transmitted by the one to the other 
Individual, and of which formerly 2£ per cent, but since the 
year 1793 4 per cent of the money, has been paid by the 
Buyer to the Company. This Branch has amounted yearly to 
£81,112 9. 

III. Of the duty of imported & exported Goods. The said 
duty has been. levied since the year 1791 for the profit of the 
Company, and has amounted yearly to f.28,283 3. 

IV. Of the money' arising of the farming out the following 
Privileges which every year is done on the last of August to the 
best bidder, viz. : — (a) The Privilege of selling, with exclusion of 
all others, by small measures, the Cape Wine in a fixed number 
of Taverns, (b) The Privilege of selling in the same said manner 
by small measures the Cape Brandy, (c) The Privilege of selling 
in the same manner Cape "Wine and Brandy, in the District from 
the Bondeboschje to False Bay inclusively, (d) The Privilege of 
selling in the same manner Cape Wine and Brandy in the District 
of Stellenbosch & Drakenstein. (e) The Privilege of drawing 
and selling, with exclusion of all others, the European Beers and 
Wines by the bottle, (f) The Privilege of levying of all the Cape 
Beer which comes from the Brewhouse ah Excise of 3 Eds a 
barrel, (g) The Privilege of levying of every Leaguer of Cape 
Wine and Brandy, and also of foreign Brandy and Arrack which is 
exported, an Excise of 5 Eds. 

All the said farmings out have yielded yearly f. 134,891 12. 

V. Of the duty of the Cape Wine which is brought to Town by 
the Husbandmen and paid for each Leaguer 3 Eds. This Tax has 

Records of the Cape Colony. 135 

in 1793 been extended to the Cape Brandy and has yielded yearly 
f.35,587 15. 

VI. Of the Tythes of Corn which is brought to Town by the 
Husbandmen and lias yielded yearly f.17,563 14. 

VII. Of the Recognition of the publick Sales, being 5 per cent 
of the moveables and 2£ per cent of the immoveables, which is 
abated by the auctioneer of the amount of the sold goods, which 
part has devolved to the Company since the 1st of September 1793 
and has yielded in one year f.23,830 18. 

VIII. Of the stamped Paper, which is used according to the 
Institution of this Government for Acts of Transmission of Estates, 
Bonds, Notarial Acts, and a great deal of other Papers which are 
drawn up by the Council of Government or the subordinate 
Colleges. This branch of Eevenue has amounted in one Year to 
f.23,373 9. 

N.B. Three Cape Guilders are equal to a Cape Rixdollar, two 
Silver Guilders of Holland equal to do. 


Letter from Commodore Blankett to the Honourable Sir 
G. K. Elphinstone, K.B., Vice Admiral of the Blue. 

His Majesty's Ship America, 19M Sepr. 1795. 

Sir, — In pursuance of your orders I proceeded from Simons Bay 
on the Evening of the 14th and arrived off Chapman's Bay about 
Noon of the 15th. I ordered Captn. Todd of the Echo to stand in 
towards the shore and to make Signals and fire a Gun or two, with 
a view to alarm the Coast, and to invite the fire of the Enemy in 
order to know the position and strength of their Batteries, the 
America and the other Ships following under an easy sail as if 
preparing to enter the Bay. This had the desired effect; the 
Enemy keeping up a smart fire from two Batteries, one on each 
side of the Bay, notwithstanding the distance the Ships were off 
the Shore. When I concluded I had done as much as answered 
your intentions, I hauled off, with the expectation of doing the 
same at Green Point that afternoon. In my way along shore, I 
gave and received several shot from different Batteries, which 

136 Records of the Cape Colony. 

seemed by no means inclined either to hide their positions, or to 
disguise their force. As it fell little wind it was near Sunset 
before I reached Green Point, and then at too great a distance to 
do any thing with the guns, but from the Crowd of Horse and 
Foot we saw running to the Batteries, it was very evident the 
alarm was general. I saw several Ships & Vessels at anchor in 
Table Bay, among which was a Danish Ship and two Brigs. 

As it continued little "Wind all night, I hauled off from the 
shore, and in the morning of the 16th a Boat came from the 
Governor of the Cape Town proposing a truce for 48 hours, and 
informing me that he had sent the same Proposal to the General ; 
I answer'd his Letter by saying, that as I could not positively 
agree to a Truce without the concurrence of the General, I should 
nevertheless promise not to commit any act of hostility during the 
proposed time, unless I learned that the Truce was not admitted. 
At about 4 o'clock of the same afternoon I anchored in the outer 
part of the Bay, the Batteries from Green Point all along the 
shore to the Town firing at the Squadron notwithstanding the 
proposed Truce, but no notice or return was made to it. The 
Ships anchored out of Gun Shot, in order to avoid giving any 
reasonable cause of offence, and in a short time the Enemy seemed 
to recollect themselves and ceased to fire. The next morning 
about 11 o'clock the Danish Ship sent a boat to know if I had any 
commands to Bengal, as she meant to sail; I gave them orders 
not to sail until I should give them leave, not knowing for what 
purpose they had remained in a Place invested for some time, 
after seeing it attacked on all sides, both by Sea and Land. I 
have, &c. 

(Signed) J. Blankett. 

A Description of the Public Buildings at Simon's Town. 

In the Bottom or West Part of the Bay is situated a Bange of 
Storehouses & Barracks. The Ground Floor of the Storehouses 
consists of Five Store Eooms, a Room and Kitchen. The upper 
floor of Two Rooms. The Barracks on the Ground Floor consists 
of 5 Officers Rooms, 2 Kitchens a Blacksmiths Shop 2 Guard 

Records of the Cape Colony. 137 

Rooms & a Bake House. On the Upper Floor Three Barrack 
Rooms and four Store Rooms. The Buildings are of Brick and 
have a Terras in Front the Sea Face of which is of Stone with a 
wharf part of Stone & part of wood as more fully described by 
a Plan delivered to the Honble. Sir G. K. Elphinstone K.B. Vice- 
Adml. of the Blue & Commander in Chief. 

The Residents House lies 50 Yards to the North west of the 
Barracks is Built of Brick with a Terras of Stone. 

The Companys Stables and Carpenters Shop are situated 50 
Yards to the South west of the Residents House — are partly Built 
of Stone & Partly of Brick with Lofts for Hay — and have a 
Thatched Roof. 

The Hospital is a Square consisting of Two Wards, Four Store 
Rooms, a Dispensary, a Kitchen & two necessary houses — is Built 
of Brick Paved with Stone — has a Stone Terras and is Thatched. 
It will contain 250 People, as is more fully described by a Plan 
delivered to The Honble. Sir G. Keith Elphinstone K.B. It is 
situated 160 Yards West of the Residents House. 

The Surgeons House is a Low Building of three Rooms & a 
Kitchen — the Walls of Brick — is paved with Stone & has a 
Stone Terras in Front. The Roof is of Thatch. 

At the South Battery there is a Guard house & Magazine. At 
the North Battery a Guard Houses — all of which are built of 

(Signed) Alex/Farquhar, 
H. M. Ross, 
Thos. Whiddon. 


Account of the principal productions of the Cape of Good Hope 
in its present state. 

Wines in great variety : the most esteemed and best calculated 
for the European markets is the Constantia, a sweet wine, of which 
there are two kinds, red and white. 

A white Wine called Cape Madeira, of which there are large 
quantities well adapted for exportation ; the quality is somewhat 
between the Teneriffe and Madeira wines, but it is believed by 

138 Records of the Cape Colony. 

those who are well acquainted with its nature that it is capable 
of being brought to such perfection as to equal in goodness real 
Madeira. Wheat, Barley and Corn (Indian) in great abundance, 
and of excellent qualities. Eice, but not in very general cultiva- 
tion, which is to be attributed partly to the indolence of the 
Natives, and from the circumstance of the Settlement being 
supplied with what small quantity they have occasion for, at a 
cheap rate from Batavia. 

The Sugar Cane also grows to perfection, but not attended to 
for the same reasons. 

Tobacco and Indigo also nourish, but from the indolence of the 
Natives the culture is neglected. 

The sea coast abounds with Whales and Seals, and I am 
credibly informed that in the interior of the Country there are 
vast quantities of Oak and Fir timber, likewise Iron and Copper 

Black Cattle and Sheep in great abundance. 

British Manufactures much wanted for the Consumption, 
of the Settlement. 

Woollen Cloths of all kinds 
Hats and Hosiery 
Printed Cottons 

Leather, Boots and Shoes 
Cutlery ware of every kind 
Iron and Copper ware 
And in fine every species of Commerce exported from Great 
Britain to her Eastern and Western dominions. 


The Inhabitants of this Settlement were so oppressed by their 
late masters the Dutch East India Company, that there was no 
encouragement for Agriculture or Industry, further than were 
necessary for the produce of the articles of their consumption, and 
to supply the few Ships that called there for refreshment. 

Commerce being almost wholly prohibited, indeed to that degree 

Records of the Cape Colony. 139 

that a Gentleman could not keep a Fishing or Pleasure Boat ; and 
so rigid were their laws of monopoly that the Settlers at Cape 
Town dared not kill the mutton belonging to their Estates without 
the consent of the Company's Butchers, to obtain which, some 
consideration was absolutely necessary ; nor could those who were 
accustomed to supply the Shipping dispose of a single species of 
provision without paying an exorbitant Tax for such privilege, 
which was collected by the Fischal : and which made every article 
of necessity so excessively immoderate in price, that scarce any 
Ships touched there of late years but those which were impelled 
by actual distress : yet notwithstanding all those disadvantages, 
the Colony is become very extensive ; the Dutch farmers having 
penetrated very far in the interior, to the middle of what is called 
the Hottentot Country, where the Villages and Farms are scattered 
at great distances from each other, nor do the Natives give them 
the smallest molestation, but, on the contrary, many hire them- 
selves to the Farmers, who find them very faithful and industrious 

Those inland Farmers were accustomed to be very troublesome 
when on their Plantations, nor did they adhere to any Law or 
Government ; but being in general under the necessity of coming 
to the Town once a year to barter their produce for European 
articles, they were made to pay such Taxes and Fines as the 
Government chose to levy on them ; in consequence, the moment 
they got clear off the Fort, they were as turbulent as ever: to 
keep those people in some degree of subordination, and for the 
better Government of the Country, a few Troops of Cavalry were 
deemed really necessary. The late Governor Vandegraaf assured 
me that the India Company were requested to maintain a small 
body of Cavalry for the abovementioned purpose. 

One of the principal Grievances the Colonists complained of, 
and which they considered the greatest, was a quantity of paper 
money put in circulation in the late War for the support of the 
French Troops in the Colony; which first the Governor, and 
afterwards the Company promised to liquidate at certain periods, 
but from want of ability or inclination, was not done : this almost 
occasioned a revolt there, and which was very prominant in the 
year 1792, when Commissioners arrived from Holland to regulate 
the Company's affairs (I happened to be at the Cape at that period) 
the Burghers were formed into Corps and Companies and exercising 

140 Records of the Gape Colony. 

in the most public manner : but the Commissioners by submission 
and promises of conciliatory measures, quieted them for that time. 
Under all those circumstances, and from my general knowledge 
of the sentiments of the most respectable part of the Inhabitants, 
I am persuaded that if the British Government were to permit 
them to trade on the general principles of His Majesty's Colonies, 
and devise a plan for the liquidation of, or better security for their 
paper money, that it would be their most earnest wish for the 
Cape to become a British Settlement, and the advantages that 
would result to Great Britain in the event of such a case are 
beyond my ideas of comprehension: a profitable field may be 
opened for the Emigration of the Agriculturist and the Mechanic, 
which will necessarily encourage Industry, and lead to the im- 
provement of Agriculture in the interior, and according to its 
advancement must the surplus produce of all kinds of Grain &ca. 
of the Colony be increased, which will meet with a ready market 
in exchange for the surplus produce of the manufactories of Great 
Britain ; besides I am firmly of opinion from well authenticated 
report, as also from my own distant views of the Eastern Coast, 
that a number of spacious Bays and Harbours may be found there, 
by means of which an advantageous traffic may be opened with 
the Natives for Elephants teeth, Gold dust, and Cowries &ca. 
(Ships from the East Indies make very successful voyages to this 
Coast for these articles) and I entertain no doubt but in a few 
years the Commerce of Great Britain by such a union might 
extend along the African coast from the Promontory of the Cape 
of Good Hope to the Bed Sea. 

(Signed) Donald Campbell. 


Proclamation by the British Commanders. 

Whereas sundry Slaves & Blacks, at various times since the 
arrival of His Britannick Majesty's forces at this place have 
relinquished the service of their respective Masters and put them- 
selves into the hands of His Majesty's Servants, who found it 
necessary to use and employ them in several purposes of labour 
in the Navy & Army and to retain some by force contrary to their 

Records of the Cape Colony. 141 

inclinations for similar uses as well as to confine others who came 
in under suspicious circumstances. 

His Britannick Majesty's Officers being desirous to relieve the 
minds of the Inhabitants from any apprehension that their pro- 
perty will be infringed, do hereby declare that all such Slaves who 
have been employed as before mentioned shall upon application 
of their Legal owners be delivered up to them, they entering into 
a solemn promise that the said slaves so delivered shall not be ill 
treated or punished in oonsequence of the services they may have 
rendered the British Forces as is herein before stated : 

And whereas various idle and malicious reports, propagated by 
ill designing persons, are said to be in circulation which tend to 
disturb the peace by alarming the minds of the Inhabitants, such 
as that the Town is to be delivered, up to plunder and the In- 
habitants to be transported to distant places, and other the like 

"We do therefore further declare that it is His Majesty's orders 
to cultivate the best possible understanding with the Inhabitants, 
and consequently they will meet with perfect protection, and all 
the offences that shall be committed contrary to the Law will be 
punished with the utmost severity ; and after this Warning if any 
persons shall be discovered creating or circulating malicious reports 
they shall be dealt with according to their demerits. 

Given under our hands in the Castle of Good Hope 19th Sep- 
tember 1795. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke, General, 

G. K. Elphinstone, Vice- Admiral, 
J. H. Craig, General. 


Inventory of all such Companys Buildings, Fortifications & Estates] 
&c. as were existant at the Surrender of the Cape of Good Hope 
to the Anns of His Britannic Majesty, and at present, according 
to the Capitulation & by order of the undersigned Commissary 
of this Government, are delivered by the Major of Artillery 
George Coenraad Kuchler & the Captain of the Engineers Louis 
Michel Thibault for a Receipt, to the Captain of the Engineers 

142 Records of tJie Cape Colony. 

Bridges & the Lieutenant of the said Engineers Elphinstone, 
commissioned for this purpose by the commanding Officers of 
His said Majesty, viz. 

Fortifications of the Cape & its circumference: — 

The Castle of Good Hope, with all its Lodgings, Warehouses & 
other Buildings. 

The Line by the Sea side, running from the Battery Imhoff to 
the Fort the Knokke. 

The Fort the Knokke. 

The New Battery at the Salt Eiver. 

The Line from the Fort the Knokke to the Estate the Sonne- 
bloem. • 

The Battery Gordon at the foot of the Devil Mountain. 

The unfinished Battery Coephoom, situated between the Castle 
and the Devil Mountain. 

The Battery in the Rogge Bay. 

The Battery Amsterdam. 

The Battery Chavonnes. 

The Battery Kyk in de Pot, between Chavonnes and the Great 

* The Battery of the Great Mouille. 

* The Battery of the Little Mouille. 
The Battery in the Bay of van Camps. 

Some transitory Fortifications situated in the Hout Bay, in 
the Clift between the Table Mountain and the Lion Head, and 
between the Quarries and the burying places — all risen during the 
former War. 

Buildings in the Cape Town. 

The Landing Place. 

The masoned trained Oil Trough, with the there over against 
situated Dwellinghouse of one of the Under Sheriffs or Constables. 

The Slaughter House, with the thereto annexed Dwelling of the 

The Magazine of Timber, with the thereto annexed Building 
used for the Working House of the Coopers. 

Three Cellars or Magazines of Wine, with their Alleys, situated 
next one another, two of which are employed by the Contractor 

Records of the Cape Colony. 143 

of the Wines & the third is used to put up the Tuns, Barrels, 
Staves, Hoops, &c. 

The three Magazines of Corn, situated in the Rogge bay. 

The Workhouse of the Company's Tradesman, with the Dwelling- 
house of the Inspector. 

The Naval Storehouse, with the Dwelling house of the Master 
Attendant and other annexed Buildings, together with the Lodge, 
situated between the said Storehouse & the Rogge bay. 

The Council of Justice, with the Dwellings of the Under Sheriff, 
Constables &c. & the Jails. 

The two great Magazines of Corn & Wine, situated next to the 
Lutheran church. 

The House where the Reverend Johannes Petrus Serrurier 
lives in. 

The Magazine of Corn situated next to the reformed church. 

The Ruins of the burnt Building called the Zydespinnery, with 
the ground belonging to it. 

The Lodge of the Slaves, with the Dwelling of the Inspector. 

The Horse Stable, with the House and other Dwellings annexed 
to it. 

The Company's Garden, with the Governor's House, Dwellings 
of the Gardeners and the Yard with its Buildings, all situated in 
this Table Bay. 

The Potters' Workhouse. 

The Hospital with all its Buildings. 

The Aqueducts of the Castle & the Landing Place. 

Five Military Guard Houses, viz., one in the Rogge Bay, one on 
the foot of the Devil Mountain, one at the Battery Imhoff, one at 
the entry of the Company's Garden, & one at the Quarries. 

Houses, Buildings & Estates out of the Cape Town: 

The Lime Kiln, with the Dwelling of the Limeburner and other 
Buildings annexed to it. 

Some contiguous Buildings along the Line, between the Castle 
and the Port the Knokke, with the Dwelling of the Officer 
commanding this Post. 

A new Building, situated next to the last mentioned, having 
served for a Lodging for an Officer of the Artillery, some gunners 
& Fortification Workers. 

The Great Magazine of Gun Powder, situated behind the Line. 

144 Records of the Cape Colony. 

The Little Magazine of Gun Powder in the Battery Charlotte. 

A Building in the Fort the Knokke. 

A Little Building in the New Battery. 

* The Horse Island with its House & other Buildings. The use 
of this Island & its Building has been granted to Arend van 
Wielligh, Contractor of the Waggons, Horses &c. for the service 
of the Company, during his Contract. 

The Place of Execution with its little Building. 

The Corn Mill with its Building— the use of this Mill & 
Building has been granted to the Contractor of the Bread during 
his Contract. 

The pealing Mill, which is only used for to peal Barley. 

The Building in the Cleft between the Table Mountain & the 
Lion Head — has served for a Guard House for a Detachment and 
for a Lodging of the Signal men — the said Building is commonly 
called the Vlaggemans huisje. 

The Estate situated in the Bay of Van Camps, with its Buildings, 
Gardens, &c. 

The wooden Guard House, behind the Battery at the Mouille. 

The Building at the Battery Chavonnes. 

The Little Magazine of Gun Powder at the said Battery 

The Great Magazine of Gun Powder, near the Battery Amster- 

Two Little Magazines of Gun Powder in the Battery Amsterdam. 

The Post at the Penguin Island, with the ruin of its Buildings. 

Estates & Buildings in the District of the Cape Town: 

The Company's Garden, called Eustenburg, situated at the 
Bondeboschje, with its Buildings, Stables &c. 

A Piece of Ground situated between the late Post the Schuur & 
the Post the Paradys, designed for the plantation of Eire Wood. 

The Post the Paradys, with its Ground & Woods. 

The Post the Kirstenbosch, with its Valley and Woods along 
the Mountains. 

The Post the Witteboomen, with its Woods paled in. 

A Place called Baas Harmans kraal, has belonged formerly to 
the abovementioned the Schuur (sold some Years ago) & is 
remained until now unlet or unsold. 

All the places which have been formerly used in behalf of the 

Records of the Cape Colony. 145 

said Post the Schuur, & now are granted to the Possessors of 
the Estates situated at the Rondeboschje, Wine & Steenbergen &c. 
who pay a Recognition for the same. 

The Place called Jan Biesjes kraal, situated in the Cape plain 
on the other side of the Salt River, with its Buildings, Magazine 
of Salt, Lands &c, all which have been granted for the use of the 
Contractor of Salt. 

The Post the Riet Valley, situated in the Cape Plain, near the 
Blue Mountain, with all its Buildings, Stables, Garden &c. 

The Post the Groene Cloffe, with its Buildings & Lands, the use 
of which has been granted to the said Contractor of the Salt. 

Six & Thirty Places situated in the Groene Cloof, called Palmiet 
Fontein, Conterbergs Fontein, Karnemelke Fontein, Orange Fontein, 
Oude Comps. Post, Duinen Fontein, Groote Post, Smalpad, Drie 
Paper Fontein, Lange Fontein, Alexander Fontein, Doom Fontein, 
Groote Rondeberg, Reeboks Fontein, Bontebergspost, Plaat Klip, 
Drooge Valley, Schildpad Fontein, Klip Fontein, Sonquas Fontein, 
Zwarte Water, Eyser Fontein, Hartebeestkraal, Nieuwe Melkpost, 
Oude Melkpost, Witzand, Kleine Dassenberg, Laatste Stuiver, 
Modder Rivier, Kransen Valley, Buffels Fontein, Nieuwe Post & 
Slangekop — the use of all which places has been granted to the 
Contractor of the Meat. 

* The Post in the Saldanha Bay, with the Dwelling of the 
Postholder & the other Buildings & Gardens &c. 

Estates <& Buildings in the District of Stellenbosch : — 

* The Post the Clapmuts, with its Lands, Buildings, Sheds of 
Hay &c. 

* The Hot Bath situated at the Oliphants River, with its 
Buildings & Lands. 

* The Post the Zoetemelks Valley, situated near the River 
Zonder End, with its Buildings, Lands & Woods. 

* The Post at the Oude Biquas Land with its Lands, Buildings, 

Estates & Buildings in the District of Swellendam : — 

*The hot Bath, situated on the other side of the Hottentots 
Hollands Mountains, with its Lands & Buildings. 

*The post in the Mosselbay, with the Magazine of Corn, 


146 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Dwelling of the Postholder & other Buildings, together with its 
Lands, Woods &c. 

*The Post in the Plettenbergs Bay, with the Magazine of 
Timber, Dwelling of the Postholder, & the other Buildings to- 
gether with its Lands & Woods. 

In the Hout Bay: — 

* The Post in the Hout Bay, with the great uncultivated Valley 
as far as the Mattroosen Drift, with its Buildings & the Woods on 
the Mountain side. 
The Battery Sluysken. 
The Battery Gordon. 
In the Castle of Good Hope 20th Septr. 1795. 

(Signed) A. J. Sluysken. 
By us undersigned delivered. 

(Signed) G. C. Kuchler, 
L. M. Thibault. 
By us undersigned received. 

(Signed) G. Bridges, 

H. Elphinstone. 

The places marked with an * have not been inspected, but as 
being really existant, the same have been by us faithfully 


(Signed) G. C. Kuchler, 
L. M. Thibault. 
(Signed) H. M. Gordon, 
John Jackson, 
H. Boss, 
James Brown. 

(The other Inventories of surrendered property are very bulky, 
and have not been copied, as they are of little interest now. They 
embrace the contents of the magazines, the furniture of each 
public building, &c., down to such items as 1 spade, 1 hatchet, 
2 handspikes, 6 spoons, and so on, in a battery. There are several 
important items, however, such as 432 cannon, 87,054 cannon- 
balls, a vast quantity of gunpowder, 32,924 muids of grain, 25,344 
rixdollars in coin, 24,388 rixdollars in paper, 315 male slaves, 
145 female slaves, and 74 banished Indians, of whom 49 were fit 
for work.— G. M. T.) 

Records of the Cape Colony. Ii7 

Letter from General Clarke to Admiral Elphinstone. 

Cafe Town September 20th 95. 

Dear Admiral, — The necessary and sudden departure of the 
Seamen and Marines that were serving on shore in our progress to 
this place, having precluded the opportunity of my offering those 
thanks which their distinguished and spirited Exertions upon 
every occasion so justly merit, I am to request that you will be 
good enough to communicate to them, in the most acceptable 
manner, the high sense I entertain of the faithful and gallant 
services of all the Officers Seamen and Soldiers of those Corps in 
general and the obligations I feel myself under to Major Hill and 
Captains Hardy and Spranger who commanded them, particularly 
the two latter who not only submitted to a degree of fatigue and 
inconvenience that is seldom experienced, but by their uncommon 
zeal and anxiety for the public service disciplined their respective 
Battalions in a manner that was but little to be expected under 
the peculiar circumstances of their Situation. Your faithful &c. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke. 

Letter from Major-General Craig to Admiral Elphinstone. 

Castle of Good Hope, 20th September 1795. 

Silt, — The circumstances under which the Seamen quitted the 
Army, which was during my absence, put it out of my power to 
make any of those acknowledgements which my sense of the 
general conduct of the Officers and Men and the particular merits 
of individuals called for from me. Permit me therefore Sir to 
request that you will do me the favor at a proper opportunity of 
expressing to the Officers and Men of both Battalions how sensible 
I am of the cheerfulness with which they encountered the hard- 
ships and fatigues of their situation while under my command, 
and of the spirit which they at all times displayed when opposed 
to the Enemy, these have not been exceeded on any occasion and 

L 2 

148 Records of the Cape Colony. 

I should have done great injustice to them if I had not represented 
them in strong terms to the King's Ministers to be laid before 
His Majesty. 

In mentioning to you Sir the general conduct of both Officers 
and Men as entitling them to your best approbation, I feel myself 
called upon particularly to notice Captains Hardy and Spranger 
who commanded the Battalions. It is not sufficient to say that 
these Gentlemen discharged their duty with unremitting attention 
and zeal, I should not do them justice if I did not add that their 
best exertions were at all times ready on every occasion in which 
they thought they could be useful. I feel myself particularly 
indebted to them for their assistance and as the only return that I 
can make for it beg to offer their Merits to your consideration. 

I hope I shall not be thought to detract from the Merii of the 
Officers in general who commanded the Companies if I particularize 
among them Lieutenant Campbell of the Echo who commanded 
the Men of that Ship and the Rattlesnake formed into a Company 
of Light Infantry. These were almost in constant employment 
and conducted themselves on every occasion in a manner highly 
honorable to themselves and creditable to the Officer who led 

Lieut. Campbell's zeal and activity could only be equalled by 
the ability which he at all times displayed in the conduct of his 
Company. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig, Major General. 


Letter from Major-General Craig to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle of the Cape of Good Hope 2\d Sept. 1795. 

Sir, — By my letters of the 16th & 27th June and 3rd July you 
will have had an account of our situation to the date of the latter, 
and I am now to do myself the honour of reporting to you, the 
events which have taken place here, during my command, since 
that period. 

As the Dutch Governor had not only rejected in the most 
peremptory terms the proposals which had been made to him, 

Records of the Cape Colony. 149 

that the Sett lenient should place itself under the protection of 
Great Britain, but had also acted in a manner demonstrative of 
such hostile dispositions towards us as to justify the suspicion 
which was convey'd to us, of it's being his intention to set fire to 
Simons Town, from which all the Inhabitants had been obliged 
to retire by his order, the Admiral and myself concurred in 
thinking it expedient to prevent the execution of his purpose, by 
landing ourselves, and taking possession of the place, which I 
accordingly did on the 14th July with the part of the 78th regt. 
under my command and the Marines of the Squadron, the latter 
amounting to about 350 Men and the former to 450. Very few 
days elapsed before our patroles were fired upon by the Burgher 
Militia and Hottentots who occupied the Hills round us, while 
our people were restrained by the directions which they had 
received not to commit any act of hostility towards the Dutch 
Troops. Hostilities being however thus commenced, and as the 
time approached when we might reasonably expect the arrival of 
the Troops and Stores which had been requested of the Governor 
of St. Helena, it appeared to me to be an object of consequence to 
dispossess the Dutch Forces of the post which they occupied at 
the important pass of Muysenberg, as by it we might perhaps 
open a more ready communication with the Country, at the same 
time that we should by doing so, convince the Inhabitants of the 
reality of our Intentions, of which we knew they entertained 
doubts. I accordingly proposed it to Sir George Elphinstone, who 
immediately agreed to it, with that readiness which has so strongly 
attended all the instances of assistance, which I have received 
from him. Sir George having landed a detachment of Seamen 
which was formed into two Battalions, we were only delay'd by 
the want of a proper wind, which would not permit the movement 
to take place till the morning of the 7th August, when Sir George 
having made the signal that it would serve, the America and 
St a fell/ with the Echo and Rattlesnake got under weigh about 
12 O'clock, and I marched at the same time with the 78th & 
Marines together with the Seamen being in all about 1600 men. 

The post of Muysenberg being extremely strong to the front, 
and covered by a numerous field artillery against which I had not 
one gun to oppose, our principal reliance was upon the fire from 
the ships, which being properly disposed of at the different 
stations assigned them by Commodore Blanket! produced every 

150 Records of the Cape Colony. 

effect which could be expected from it. The enemy were driven 
from two twenty-four pounders which were directed towards the 
sea, and abandoned the post, before it was possible for us to arrive 
near enough to profit by the circumstance so compleatly as we 
were in hopes of doing, as they carried off all their Artillery, 
except the two heavy guns above mentioned, and one brass six 
pounder, with two eight Inch Howitzers. 

The Enemy having however taken post on an advantageous 
ridge of rocky heights, very strong and difficult of access, a little 
beyond the Camp, the advance Guard under Major Moneypenny 
of the 78th, supported by the Battalion of that regiment, attacked 
and drove them from thence, with the greatest spirit, alt ho' in 
addition to the strength of the Ground, the Enemy were further 
protected by canon from the opposite side of the Lagoon, which 
covers the post of Muisenberg towards the Cape Town. In this 
affair which terminated only with the day, the activity and spirit 
of the light Company of the 78th, under the command of Captn. 
Campbell, were conspicuously displayed. Captn. Scott of the 
78th was the only Officer wounded on the occasion. 

The next morning the Enemy having drawn out their whole 
force from the Cape Town, 8 field pieces advanced to attack us, 
but finding us too strongly posted, and being themselves fired 
upon from the pieces they had left behind the preceding day, 
which had been drilled and brought forward by the exertions of a 
Company of Pikemen under Lieut. Coffin of the Rattlesnake, they 
thought it more prudent to desist from the attempt, and retired, 
after some skirmishing attended with little loss on our side, and 
only remarkable for the steadiness displayed by the first Battalion 
of Seamen commanded by Captn. Hardy of the Echo, who having 
crossed the water with the Marines, received the Enemies fire 
without returning a shot, and manceuvered with a regularity, 
which would not have discredited veteran troops. The marines 
under Major Hill displayed an equal degree of steady resolution 
on the occasion. 

On the 9th the Amiston arrived from St. Helena with such 
assistance as Governor Brooke had been able to afford us. It 
consisted of 352 rank and file with some field artillery and a very 
limited proportion of ammunition. They were directed to proceed 
immediately to Camp, and the Boats of the Fleet were un- 
remittingly employed in forwarding Stores and provisions to us. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 151 

a work in which from the peculiar difficulty of our situation and 
the insufficiency of our means, our progress was very slow and 
frequently so much interrupted by unfavourable weather, that we 
could hardly get ahead of our consumption. While this necessary 
business was going on, our future operations became the object of 
my most earnest consideration. On the one hand, as the Enemy 
appeared numerous, and disposed to an obstinate defence, for the 
which they had had ample time to make the best preparations, I 
could not but be sensible that the force under my command was 
in point of numbers inadequate to the attempt of reducing them ; 
while from it's composition, I had little to rely on to counter- 
balance the disparity, but the spirit of the Individuals belonging 
to it. I possessed no Cattle or carriages for the transport of 
ammunition or Provisions and a communication of 12 miles was 
to be kept up to be furnished with either, at least till I could open 
a shorter one with the Ships that the Admiral might send to 
Table Bay, for which the season was still very unfavourable. On 
the other hand, tho' these difficulties were sufficiently discouraging, 
yet the arrival of General Clarke was extremely uncertain, and 
the state of our provisions was such as to render the possibility 
of our stay, till it should happen, very doubtful. Under these 
circumstances I determined on an attempt by night on the most 
considerable of the Enemies Outposts in the hopes that a severe 
execution among the Burgher Militia might intimidate them, and 
produce circumstances to our advantage. It took place on the 
27th of last month but unfortunately notwithstanding every 
attention on the part of Lt. Coll. McKenzie who commanded, it 
failed from the intricacy of the roads and the timidity and 
ignorance of the Guides, while it served only to produce amon^ 
the Enemy a degree of Vigilance which soon convinced me of the 
impracticability of any further attempt by way of surprise. 

On the morning of the 1st Sept. the Enemy having lined the 
Mountain above us with Hottentots and Burgher Militia com- 
menced a fire of musquetry upon our Camp, which from the total 
want of effect that had attended a former attempt of the same 
nature, was little attended to, till unfortunately the Picquet of 
the Reserve being too much occupied with covering themselves 
from it, neglected their front, from whence the Enemy poured 
in considerable numbers, and forced them in with some loss. 
Captn. Brown with the 78th Grenadiers advancing however to 

152 Records of the Cape Colony. 

their support, the Enemy were immediately driven down the Hill 
agun, and the Ground of the Picquet reoccupied. In this affair 
Major Moneypenny of the 78th was severely wounded, and we 
suffered a great loss in being deprived of the assistance of an 
Officer of distinguished zeal and activity in the command of the 
reserve, with which he had been charged since our march from 
Simons Town. Captn. Dentaffe of the St. Helena Troops was 
also wounded. 

In a conference with Sir George Elphinstone on the 2nd Sept. 
it was agreed to wait six days longer for the possibility of the 
arrival of General Clarke, and that if he did not appear by that 
time, I should then advance and under any disadvantage of 
numbers and situation, try the fortune of an attack which, how- 
ever hazardous, we deemed it our duty to make, before the total 
failure of our provisions put us under an absolute necessity of 
seeking a supply elsewhere. 

On the morning of the 3rd however, the Enemy encouraged by 
the little success which had attended their attempt on the 1st, 
meditated a general attack on our Camp, which in all probability 
would have been decisive of the fate of the Colony. They ad- 
vanced in the night with all the strength they could muster, and 
with a train of not less than 18 Fieldpieces. Some movements 
which had been observed the preceeding evening had given me a 
suspicion of their intention, and we were perfectly prepared to 
receive them. They were on their march and considerable Bodies 
began to make their appearance within our Yiew, when at that 
critical moment the signal for a fleet first disconcerted them, & 
the appearance of 14 Sail of large Vessells, which came in sight 
immediately after, induced them to relinquish their enterprize, 
and retire to their former posts. General Clarke came to an 
anchor in Simons Bay the next morning, and for the subsequent 
events which have been attended with the capture of this 
important Colony, I do myself the honour to refer you to His 
account. Trusting that His Majesty and our Country will do me, 
and the Troops and Seamen under my command, the justice to 
believe, that it has not been owing to any want of zeal or of a 
chearfull determination to encounter every hazard in the necessary 
discharge of our duty, that the same event did not take place 
during the period in which we were left to ourselves ; under the 
circumstances of our situation I did not think the attempt justifi- 

Records of the Cape Colony. 153 

able, unless compelled to it by necessity; but we were at the 
same time fully resolved not to retire in any event, without 
making that attempt, which whether successful or not, would at 
least have been a proof of our zeal for His Majesty's Service. 

It is impossible for me to close this report Sir without making 
my acknowledgments to Lt. Col : M'Kenzie of the 78th, Major 
Hill of the Marines, and the Captains Hardy and Spranger of the 
Echo and Rattlesnake Sloops who commanded the two Battalions 
of Seamen. Animated by the exertions of these Officers the 
Troops and Seamen have undergone great fatigue and hardships 
with a chearful resignation, and have encountered a more numerous 
Enemy with an active spirit which entitles them to the most 
favourable report from me to His Majesty. Lieut. Campbell of 
the Echo, who commanded a company of Seamen, which I formed 
into a light Company, merits also that I should notice the in- 
defatigable zeal, and the ability with which he conducted the 
constant service in which his Company was employed. To this 
Sir I have only to add, that my sense of the obligations I am 
under to Sir George Elphinstone is such, as I should not do justice 
to in an attempt to express it ; His Advice, his active assistance 
and cordial cooperation on every occasion, have never been wanting, 
and entitle him to my warmest Gratitude. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig, Major General. 

I have the Honor to enclose a Eeturn of the killed and wounded 
during the period of my command. 


Address of His Britannic Majesty's Officers to the worthy and 
respectable Inhabitants of the Colony of the Cape of Good 

Whereas this Colony is now under the protection of the 
King of Great Britain and His Majesty's Principal Officers are 
desirous that the peace of this place shall be speedily established, 
as far as in them lies to remove all distinctions of Country and to 
live on the most friendly and social Terms with the inhabitants, 
they do hereby publish and declare that all Persons holding or 

154 Becords of the Cape Colony. 

having held Civil Offices requisite for the maintenance of Govern- 
ment and protection of the Police, who are willing to continue in 
those Offices may give in their Names in order that His Majesty's 
Officers may take the reappointment of them into consideration, 
on condition that all Persons however who may be reappointed 
to their former Situations shall take an oath punctually to dis- 
charge the duties of their Stations so long as they shall enjoy the 
Benefit of the King's protection or receive salary or other Emolu- 
ments for their services. 

And all Masters of Vessels and other mariners who have been 
employed in any of the Company's Ships or Vessels, as also all 
Clerks, Warehouse keepers and other Persons who may have been 
employed in the department of the Master Attendant, are likewise 
required to attend to the said notice, and to signify to him their 
inclination to continue or depart, and be it hereby known that the 
intention of this address is to quiet the Minds of the People and 
to furnish immediate employment for the Industrious. 

22nd September 1795. 


Letter from Major-General Craig to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Oastel of Good Hope, 22d September 1795. 

Sir, — So very short a time has elapsed since the success of His 
Majesty's Arms has put us in possession of this place that it is 
not possible for us to accompany the information of the Capture, 
which the Commander in Chief and Admiral have thought it of 
the first consequence to transmit with as little loss of time as 
possible, with any particular account of the State of the Country. 
It will undoubtedly require more time and much attention to gain 
that knowledge of the subject which is requisite to convey an 
adequate degree of information to His Majesty's Ministers. But 
however sensible I may be of this Sir, yet I feel it my indis- 
pensable duty not to lose an opportunity of giving the earliest 
account, in so far as my observation or enquiries may hitherto 
enable me to do, without any risk of being mistaken in it 

Records of the Cape Colony. 155 

reserving myself to a more full detail of the subject, which I 
shall not fail to transmit by every future opportunity. 

It appears that this Country has been in a state of violent 
fermentation with respect to it's Government for some time past. 
The oppressions of the Dutch East India Company and the 
Monopolies exercised by their Servants will indeed sufficiently 
account for the odium under which it had generally fallen, and 
I do suppose that in it's origin the detestation of the people was 
levelled only at the Government of the Company, but as the 
knowledge of what was going on in Europe has gained ground in 
this Country, the temper of the people, predisposed by their 
sentiments with respect to their own rulers, has gradually become 
more and more susceptible of the impressions which designing 
persons have been busily employed in giving them, and it is 
certain that the great Body of the People are at this moment 
infected with the rankest poison of Jacobinism. Here at the 
("ape Town, it has by the energy of a strong Government, and the 
personal influence of Mr. Sluyskens, been kept pretty well under, 
not however without frequently shewing itself in symptoms which 
have been the occasion of considerable alarm, — but in the Country, 
at some distance, the case is otherwise, a very considerable district 
is actually governed by a regular National Convention, and it's 
inhabitants distinguished by the constant appendage of the 
National Cockade; in some others, they have proceeded the 
length of dismissing the Magistrate and Servants appointed by 
the Company, declaring it to be their intention to Govern them- 
selves, altho' they have not yet assumed the regular form of a 
Convention. In considering this subject, it is necessary to observe, 
that it is hardly possible to convey an idea of the ignorance, the 
credulity, and the stupid pride of the people in general, but more 
particularly of the Boors of the Country, the most absurd Ideas 
with respect to their own strength and importance are universally 
prevalent amongst them, nor indeed is there any opinion, on any 
subject, too ridiculous or too grossly unjust, not to be adopted by 
them if recommended by a few of the popular leaders. 

With respect to us, I am pretty confident that I am not mis- 
taken when I say, that except about half a dozen merchants or 
principal people in this Town, nearly every man in the Colony 
is our Enemy ; and should a french force appear tomorrow, I have 
not a doubt that every assistance would be given to it, that the 

156 Records of the Cape Colony. 

fears of the people would permit. The Burghers from the Country 
would join them, and not one in the Town would assist us. When 
the Capitulation took place, the greatest part of the Country 
Militia went away in arms, declaring their intention not to submit 
to it, and they were accompanied by a considerable number of the 
worst Jacobins of the Cape Town, several of the latter have how- 
ever since returned, & there is nothing to be apprehended from 
the former, who will undoubtedly disband immediately if they 
have not already done it, and return to their homes. I only 
mention it as a mark of their disposition, — a Frenchman has 
accompanied them, who has been represented to me as a very 
dangerous fermenter of sedition. I shall endeavour to lay hold 
of him and send him away. There are four or five others of the 
same description here over whom I shall keep a watchful eye. 

The Corps of Artillery are to a man infected with those detest- 
able principles, and even Gordons corps began to shew strong 
symptoms of the same disposition, about 100 of the former have 
deserted, and gone into the Country with the Burghers, many of 
the Officers of this Corps are represented to me to be equally 

Tho' not qualified at present to enter any further into the State 
of the Country, yet I have thought Sir, that you would not be 
displeased at my giving you this information, relative to so leading 
a feature in the disposition of the Inhabitants, upon the truth of 
which, I am sure I can rely. 

I trust, and indeed have no doubt, that in a little time all this 
will subside, and that the advantages which the people will feel 
from the change of their situation will serve to reconcile them to 
the blessings of a regular and mild Government, but I fear that 
at this moment they are totally unfit for the reception of any 
other than one founded upon the same principles of energy and 
power as the one which existed at our arrival, — divested indeed 
of it's oppressions and the abominable Monopolies which weighed 
down and ruined the People, but conducted with a degree of firm- 
ness and steadyness which may overawe the ill inclined, and 
encourage those who may wish to maintain that order and 
regularity, which can alone insure the prosperity of the Colony, 
and the happiness of Individuals. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig, Major-General. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 157 


Letter from Admiral Elpiiinstone to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

His Majesty's Ship Monarch 

Table Bat Cape op Good Hope 

the 23d September 1795. 

Sir, — I have the honor to inform you that on the 3rd instant 
the India Ships from St. Salvador arrived in False Bay; His 
Majesty's Ship Sphynx which sailed with them having met with 
an accident was obliged to return to the former place for repair. 

On the 4th General Clarke came into the harbour and on a 
conference with him it was determined to land the troops without 
a moment's loss of time, but, notwithstanding the utmost exertion 
of the Troops & Seamen, it was the 14th before Provisions, Guns, 
Ammunition &ca. could be collected to enable the General to 
move forward from the Camp at Muysenberg. 

On the morning of that day the Army marched, each man 
carrying four days provision, and the Volunteer Seamen from the 
India Ships dragging the Cannon through a deep sand ; the country 
being difficult to proceed on they were considerably galled by the 
Enemy during a fatiguing march performed in hot weather. 

At Wynberg the Bulk of the Dutch made a Stand, but were 
soon dislodged by His Majesty's Forces, and nearly at the same 
moment Commodore Blankett, whom I had previously detached 
for the express purpose of alarming the Enemy, and giving them 
a diversion on the Cape Town side, appeared off Camps Bay with 
the America, Echo, Rattlesnake and Bombay Castle India Ship, and 
performed the excellent service sett forth in his letter, at 11 p.m. 
the Commissary Sluysken sent in a Flag of Truce to demand a 
cessation of Arms for forty-eight hours, as you will perceive by 
the correspondence inclosed, and on the following morning the 
Colony was fortunately surrendered to His Majesty on the terms 
which I have the honor to transmit herewith. 

I cannot conclude this letter without acknowledging the con- 
solation I have derived from the friendly assistance and advice of 
Major General Craig during a tedious sojournment before this 
place under many distressing circumstances and it is a real 
pleasure to add, that, with him, and also since the arrival of 

158 Records of the Cape Colony. 

General Clarke, the same sentiments seem to have actuated the 
minds of the Officers to whom His Majesty has been pleased to 
entrust the conduct of the expedition. 

I beg leave to notice the eminent services of Captains Hardy 
& Spranger which are more fully described in the letter from 
Major General Craig to me, a copy of which is inclosed, the 
conduct of the Officers and of the Sea and Marine Corps is also 
truly praise worthy and will be acceptable to His Majesty, the 
readiness with which the Seamen of the India Ships, under the 
command of Captain Acland of the Brunswick, offered their service 
gave me the highest satisfaction; indeed all ranks of Men bore 
this long service, during bad weather, with the utmost cheerful- 
ness ; tho often unavoidably ill fed, and attended with great 

My anxiety to dispatch the Orpheus, and the short time since 
our obtaining possession will, I hope, plead my excuse for not 
transmitting by this opportunity a Eeturn of the Naval Stores 
taken, which I understand are considerable; but the variety of 
other circumstances at present occupying my mind, have hitherto 
prevented my attending to that point. 

The Ship Castor, & Star Armed Brig, both belonging to the 
Dutch East India Company were found riding at anchor in this 
Bay, the latter, being fit for His Majesty's Service, & much 
wanted, I have presumed to commission. 

As this place will of course become the common Kendezvous of 
Ships intended for the protection of India, it will be necessary to 
send here as speedily as possible a considerable quantity of Salt 
provision, Butter, Pease, Spars, Naval Stores, Coals, Slops & Shoes, 
in order to form a depot, as none of those articles can at present 
be procured, and as the Silver Dollar is the Coin most valued at 
this place, which passes for five shillings sterling, it will be 
absolutely necessary that a quantity of that coin should be sent 
here with all expedition for the common disbursements of the 
Naval Service, — the Dollar may be procured at Cadiz or Malaga 
for four shillings and three half pence. 

Two strong, well built Sloops from fifty to one hundred tons 
will also be requisite for the purpose of transporting Stores, Wood, 
& Provisions to & from the different Bays in this settlement. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 159 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Evan Nepean, Esqke. 

His Majesty's Ship Monabch, 

Table Bay the 23rd Septr. 1795. 

Sir, — I have the honor to acquaint you for the information of 
my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty that on the 16th 
instant the Colony & Castle of the Cape of Good Hope surren- 
dered hy capitulation to the British Arms, in consequence of 
which I proceeded in the Monarch to this Bay, whither I had 
previously dispatched Commodore Blankett in the America with 
the two Sloops and an India Ship for the purpose of raising an 
alarm on the Cape Town side, in which he succeeded admirably. 

This event has given me great satisfaction, not only from the 
fortunate termination, but also from the relief it affords to the 
Officers, Seamen and Marines of the Fleet under my Command, 
after a laborious service for a length of time, wherein they were 
continually fatigued and often unavoidably ill-fed ; they merit my 
warmest thanks, to which the Volunteer Seamen from the East 
India Company's ships are also entitled, for their readiness in 
undertaking to draw the Cannon, and the cheerfulness with which 
they performed that duty; and I must more particularly beg 
leave to notice the eminent services of Captains Hardy & 
Spranger, which, however, are more fully described in a letter 
from Major General Craig to me, a copy of which I have the 
honor to inclose, together with a list of Promotions wherein you 
will perceive I had given the command of the Princess to Captain 
Hardy, whose acknowledged merit will I trust justify my election 
& recommend him to their Lordship's confirmation ; this ship is 
one of those found in Simon's Bay called by the Dutch the 
Willcmstadt & Boctzelaar of One thousand tons burthen, mounting 
twenty-six guns and most completely found, with Copper in the 
Hold sufficient to sheath her, and will be essentially necessary at 
this place, as also for the purpose of incommoding the French 
Victuallers on the coast of Madagascar hereafter, and hitherto 
intended for other purposes of approaching the Shore with pro- 
vision, and covering the Boats on their communicating with the 

I also fitted out a Gun Vessel, the Squib, to carry one nine 

100 Records of the Cape Colony. 

pounder and one of eighteen, which has proved extremely useful, 
the command I gave to Mr. Charles Adam. The Ship Castor & 
Star Armed Brig, both belonging to the Dutch East India 
Company, were found at anchor in this Bay, the latter, being fit 
for His Majesty's service and much wanted, I have also presumed 
to commission. . . . 

In consequence of the promise of Major General Craig and 
Myself on our first arrival, to encourage the Enemy's Troops to 
quit their service and join those of His Majesty, "that all 
Deserters should be admitted to serve in any station they might 
choose," many have made their election for the Marines. I 
therefore ordered them to be enlisted with a bounty of Two 
Pounds and shall clothe them as soon as possible, they have 
served faithfully, and are excellent German soldiers. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 


Letter from General Clarke to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Bundas. 

Cape Town September 23d 1795. 

Sir, — Vice Admiral Sir George Keith Elphinstone and Major 
General Craig having informed me that you are fully advised of 
every transaction that has taken place previous to my arrival, I 
beg leave to refer you to their Dispatches for all necessary 
Information to that period. 

My Letters from St. Salvador by the Chatham Brig (Duplicates 
of which I herewith send) will have acquainted you of our leaving 
that place. And I have now the honor to inform you that all 
the India Company's Ships, having Troops on board, arrived off 
the Cape of Good Hope on the 3rd and entered Simon's Bay on 
the 4th Instant, where I found the Admiral in possession of the 
Harbour, and Major General Craig at Muyzenberg a Post of 
importance about six miles on the Eoad to this Place, with a 
Corps composed of Seamen and Marines from the Fleet, Six 
Companies of the 78th Eegiment that came in it and a Detach- 
ment of the East India Company's Troops from St. Helena, 

Records of the Cape Colony. L01 

amounting in all to about 1000 men, and the Enemy, who had 
peremptorily rejected all Negociation, in a state of active Hostility 
against us. Under these Circumstances it became necessary to 
endeavor to effect the Execution of our Orders without loss of 
Time. I therefore, in conjunction with and aided by the Admiral 
disembarked the Kegiments, Artillery and necessary Stores, and 
forwarded them to the advanced Post as fast as possible, where 
through his ardent zeal for the public service and indefatigable 
exertions, as much Provision was collected as we hoped might 
enable us to set down before the Town and go on till we could 
communicate with our Ships in Table Pay, or draw some assist- 
ance from the Country behind us. And having made the best 
arrangements we could for transporting our Provisions, Guns, 
Stores, Ammunition, and necessary Articles of every kind by the 
only means in our power, Mens Labour, we marched on the 14th 
from Muyzenberg, leaving a sufficient Detachment for the pro- 
tection of our Camp and Stores at that Place. The Enemy could 
see all our Motions, and the Country through which we were to 
pass for several miles being very favorable to the sort of Warfare 
that it was their business to pursue (many of them being on 
Horseback and armed with Guns that kill at a great distance) I 
had reason to think we might be greatly harrassed and suffer 
much on our route. Our loss however, from the precautions 
taken and the shyness of the Enemy, fortunately proved less than 
might have been expected, having only one Seaman killed, and 
seventeen Soldiers wounded in our progress to the Post of 
Wynberg, where the Enemy were in force, with nine pieces of 
Cannon, and had determined, as we were told, to make serious 
resistance But having form'd the Army from Columns of March 
into two Lines, and made a Detachment from my right and left to 
attack both their Flanks, while I advanced with the main Body 
and Artillery (which much to the Credit of Major Yorke was 
extremely well conducted and served) against their Center, they 
found themselves so pressed by us and at the same time alarmed 
by the appearance of Commodore Blanket with three Ships the 
Admiral had detailed into Table Bay to cause a diversion on that 
side of which they were very jealous, that they retired with the 
loss of a few men from our Cannon, before we could gain the Top 
of the Hill ; from whence we followed them close for two Miles 
— but dark coming on, and great part of the Troops being much 


1G2 Records of tlie Cape Colony. 

fatigued by the burdens they carried and the harrassment they 
met with through very swampy ground in the course of the Day, 
I determined to halt for the night in the position I found myself, 
which proved favorable for the purpose, with the intention of 
prosecuting my march at Day-light next morning. In this 
Situation an Officer arrived with a Flag and Letter from Governor 
Sluysken, asking a cessation of Arms for Forty-eight Hours to 
arrange and offer proposals for Surrendering the Town ; but I did 
not think it prudent to grant more than Twenty -four, in which 
Time every Thing was settled agreeable to the Articles of Capitu- 
lation that I have the honor to enclose, whereby the regular 
Troops that formed the Garrison became Prisoners of War, and 
His Majesty is put into the full possession of the Town and 
Colony, which I hope will prove acceptable to him, and justify 
the Commendation and report that I think it my Duty to make of 
the meritorious Services of all the Officers, Soldiers, Seamen, and 
Marines that have been employed in this arduous Service. The 
difficulties and hardships that great part of them have experienced 
are extreme, and the perseverance and chearfulness with which 
they were encountered do them the highest Credit, and I am 
persuaded will recommend them all in the strongest manner to 
His Majesty's Favor. 

The general Character of Sir George K. Elphinstone, and his 
ardent desire to serve his Country, are too well known to receive 
additional lustre from any thing I could say upon that Subject. 
But I should do injustice to my own feelings if I did not express 
the obligations I am under for the ready cooperation and assist- 
ance that he afforded upon every Occasion which so eminently 
contributed to the successfull issue of our joint endeavours. 

The arrangement made by Major General Craig previous to my 
arrival, and the active Services he rendered afterwards claim my 
Thanks, and furnish the best founded Hope that he will conduct 
the affairs of this important Colony in a manner honorable to 
himself and beneficial to his Country. 

Enclosed is a Copy of a Paper we addressed to the Inhabitants 
and sent by a Flag of Truce previous to our marching from 
Muyzenberg, and of Governor Sluysken's answer thereto. 

Lieutenant Colonel McMurdo, Deputy Quarter Master General 
to the Expedition under my orders, will have the honor of 
delivering this Dispatch. He is well qualified to give you every 

Records of the Cape Colony. 163 

Information that his short residence here will admit, and I take 
the Liberty, Sir, of recommending this old and most valuable 
Officer to your good Offices, and His Majesty's favor. I have &c. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke. 

P.S. — The Quantity of Ordnance, Ammunition, Kaval and other 
Stores that we find here is very considerable, but as there is not 
Time to have it examined, and proper Inventory's made before the 
departure of the Ship which conveys these Dispatches, we must 
defer sending such Documents as may be thought necessary upon 
this Subject till another Opportunity. The Eegular Troops made 
Prisoners of War amount to about One Thousand — six hundred of 
which are of the Eegiment of Gordon, and the rest principally of 
the Corps of Artillery. Enclosed is a Keturn of the killed and 
wounded on the 14th Instant. — A. C. 


Letter from General Clarke to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Cape of Good Hope, 

Cape Town 2±th September 1795. 

Sir, — In addition to the other Letter which I have had the 
honor to write you by this conveyance, I think it necessary to 
observe that from present appearances a much larger Force will 
be necessary for the security of this Colony than accords with my 
Instructions, and seemed to be the Opinion when I left England 
— for though the Country is tolerably quiet now, and we have 
reason to hope that the People who have retired from the Town 
will not act hostile to us while unassisted by others — it is pretty 
certain that many of them would, at least for some time to come, 
be very active in aiding any French or Dutch armament that 
might be sent against us. 

Flour and Fresh Meat, I am told, may generally be procured in 
great abundance ; but I do not think it the less necessary that a 
proper quantity of Salt Provisions should be always kept here, and 
particularly under our present Circumstances. I would therefore 
strongly recommend the sending some immediately, together with 

M 2 

1G4 Records of the Cape Colony. 

a sufficient Sum of Money in Spanish Dollars (which will prove 
very advantageous to Government if procured on the best terms 
at Home) for purchasing such Articles as the Country affords, and 
paying the Troops &c. that will be left for its Defence. 

The great fatigue and expence that the Officers have been ex- 
posed to in the course of this Service, which they have performed 
with the utmost cheerfulness and Credit to themselves, entitling 
them to some aid and recompense, I have ordered Eeturns to be 
made for two hundred Days Bat and Forage money that I mean to 
issue to them immediately, which I hope will meet with your 
sanction and His Majesty's approbation. 

This part of the Country having little or no Wood in it, Mr. 
Pringle the Commissary tells me it will be hardly possible to 
procure as much as is requisite to be delivered to the Troops for 
the necessary use of Cooking ; and, if to be had at all, not without 
very great difficulty and expense — I therefore beg leave to suggest 
whether it may not be proper to send out some Coals for this 
purpose on Trial, as well as for the use of the Forges, by an early 

The manner in which we have taken possession of this Country 
making it necessary to leave more Troops for its protection than 
were thought requisite when the expedition sailed from England, 
such as can be spared from hence, after establishing a sufficient 
Garrison, will be inadequate to attempting any other object before 
we reach Madras, which cannot be till after the Monsoon. Under 
these circumstances the Admiral and myself agree in thinking it 
best to remain here about six weeks, and employ that Time in 
regulating the Affairs of this Place in the best manner we can, 
previous to our sailing for the Coast of Coromandel, where we may 
probably arrive about the End of December. I have &c. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 16' 

Letter from Major General Craig to General Clarke. 

Castle of Good Hope, 2Qth September, 1795. 

Sir, — You have done me the honour to require, that I should 
give you my opinion relative to the number of men which appear 
to be necessary for the defence of this Colony. Feeling it to be 
my duty to obey your commands on all occasions, I can have little 
hesitation in doing so now, when it is upon a subject on which I 
have long ago made up my mind, upon which I have already 
written my sentiments to His Majesty's Ministers, & upon which 
I do not think it possible there can be two opinions. 

I do myself the honour to inclose you a Copy of the letter which 
I wrote to Mr. Secretary Dundas (3rd July) upon this Subject, 
and I can only add to it that every Circumstance which has 
occurred since, and every opportunity of observation or informa- 
tion, which have presented themselves to me, Jiave tended to 
confirm me in the opinion expressed in it. 

It is evident I think that for some time at least, no assistance 
can be expected from the inhabitants, I trust and indeed have no 
doubt, that a conciliatory Government which it will be the peculiar 
duty of whoever commands here to pursue by every method in his 
power, and the advantages which must undoubtedly result to the 
Colony from it, will in a little time do away the Ideas which at 
present prevail, but at this moment I think myself warranted in 
saying, that the Burghers of the Country would join a french force 
while those of the Town would give us no assistance, they would 
even require to be carefully watched. 

I do not feel myself as yet possessed of sufficient local informa- 
tion to form or to enter into any detail of a regular system of defence, 
— but without descending to particulars, when the great extent of 
Coast, the detached situation of some of the landing places, the 
open nature of the Country, which admits of few advantageous 
dispositions, none that I at present see which covers the Town, 
that the fort is indefensible, and the Town entirely open ; when 
these circumstances are considered, added to the necessity of 
watching the Inhabitants, who 1 set down as disaffected to us and 
who are all armed, I can do no otherwise than say that the 2928 

166 Records of the Cape Colony. 

men which compose the whole of your force, are no more than 
adequate to the security of the Colony. I must observe, that for 
many reasons I cannot but think, that it would be an improper 
measure to leave the Men of the Dutch artillery or Gordon's Corps 
at this place either in a Corps or mixed in our Regiments. 

In the Inclosed letter I have laid it down as a principle, that in 
it's present situation the fate of the Colony if attacked must be 
decided by the event of a Battle — to your superior Judgement Sir, 
I refer this opinion — but if I am not mistaken in it, it may perhaps 
be worth while to consider a little the deductions which must be 
made from the above number of men when we are considering the 
force upon the exertions of which that event must rest. In the 
first place I am sorry to observe, that the present state and 
composition of the regiments, give reason to apprehend that there 
will always be a very considerable number of men, if not actually 
sick, yet going under the denomination, these by the present 
returns amount to 253 but I am confident they greatly exceed 
that number, put them down however at 200, a pretty strong 
garrison must always be left in the fort, sufficient to secure it and 
to overawe the Town, this could not be less that 300 men, the 
Batteries along the Coast must also be to a certain degree guarded 
and could not be secured under 100 at least, many other parts along 
the Coast must be occupied, from whence it is likely that the men 
could not be withdrawn in time to join in the action, for you 
could not abandon the posts till the Enemy were actually landed & 
it would probably be our business to attack him vigorously, before 
he has time to strengthen himself, to land his artillery, or even to 
recover from the effects of a long Voyage — these are at a low 
computation when estimated at 150 men. Thus our Force in the 
field is already reduced to under 2200 men, to you Sir I need not 
point out many other Causes which would operate to reduce them 
still further in spite of every effort to avoid it, and it is to be 
remembered that these 2178 men include 70 artillery and the 
number of additionals which they would require. Upon the whole 
I think that out of the four Regiments now here we could not 
expect to bring more than 2000 firelocks actually into the field. 
No enemy will I presume ever venture on the attack of this place 
without having with him such a force as will reduce every 
circumstance of advantage arising from a more numerous artillery 
than he could probably land — our superior means of moving that 

Records of the Cape Colony. 1G7 

artillery and our bettor knowledge of the Country would require 
every exertion of 2000 men to withstand, I should hope it may be 
done with success, but believing that it would be at least doubtful 
I must of course think that the event must still become more 
precarious with 500 less. 

Having thus Sir, in obedience to your directions laid my opinion 
before you I have only to submit it to your better judgment and 
experience with the assurance that I have no other motive in 
what I have said on this Occasion than that of conforming to your 

Whatever you may determine, I feel that it will be my duty to 
make the best use of the means which may be furnished to me, 
many circumstances may exist which may render it impossible 
that those means should be of the extent which I think necessary 
to ensure the probability of their sufficientcy, of these Sir you are 
the best Judge. My opinion upon them would always be open to 
the suspicion of the bias which the mind of Man naturally takes 
to a measure conducive to the security of his own undertaking. 

I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

T.S. — I think it might be proposed to His Majesty's Ministers 
to send out the number of men necessary to complete the 98th to 
their establishment which is one thousand, the 145 men of the 
84th now said to be with the first Battalion and the remaining 
4 Companies of the 78th, this last mentioned Battalion might then 
proceed to India if wanted there. 


Memorandum on the Condition of the Colony. 

One of the first and indispensable duties of Man is the Love of 
his Country. Animated with that sentiment I take the liberty to 
lay before your Excellencies a few hints on the subject of my 
Country, and I hope your Excellencies will give me credit that I 
am in this step actuated neither by animosity against our former 
Bulers or the legitimate Government of the Dutch East India, nor 

168 Records of the Cape Colony. 

by any selfish motive, or any other than that eternal and sacred 

This Colony has for several Years been on the decline, and 
rapidly approaching its annihilation. The intolerable Shackles 
laid on Trade, the Monopoly, the Paper Currency, the Stamp Taxes 
of all description, and above all the Jacobine Mania, are the chief 
causes ; and I may venture to say that nothing less than a 
Kevolution could have saved it. The Insurrection for instance 
which took place in the interior parts of the Country (at Grave 
Eeinet) is a sufficient proof of my assertion. The Insurrection at 
Grave Eeinet seemed to proceed from a dislike to the Dutch 
Company's Monopolies as well as from a ridiculous notion, that like 
America, they could exist as an independant state. But where 
are the resources ? The Population of this Colony does not exceed 
21,000 Inhabitants, the Land is barren, and the Enemies with 
which the people are surrounded are numerous. Government had 
lost its respect and such was the oppression of the Inhabitants that 
every prospect of reconciliation had vanished. It is now two 
Months since Government has sent a Deputation to Grave Eeinet 
— and that the Commissioners were obliged precipitately to leave 
the Country, under the most imminent danger of losing their lives. 
Want of authority on the part of our Government is the chief 
reason that the Cape was so easily reduced. Everybody would 
command here, and nobody would obey — it is then no longer 
surprizing if we lost a Colony, which although unable to secure 
its Government against the invasion of a superior Enemy, might 
yet have opposed him a more effectual and durable resistance. 
The Cape is weak by nature, ill fortified & has been still worse de- 
fended. As in the Mother Country it was sufficient that one pro- 
posed for his neighbour to reject ; it is thus that they also lost their 
Country. The Inhabitants are for the greater part impoverished — 
this poverty has disposed them for disaffection and Eevolt as appears 
again by the example of Grave Eeinet. Those unhappy people 
are dispersed over an expansive surface and live at a considerable 
distance from each other — on one side they are incessantly 
harrassed by the Bossies Manns (a Species of Hottentots) & on 
the other they are obliged to struggle under the oppressive Yoke 
of their own Government. 

The object of all Merchants is Gain— it was then consistent 
that they, the East India Company, should govern the Colony 

150 Eds. 







Records of the Cape Colony. 1G9 

more with an eye to their own interest, than to that of the 

A Farmer is obliged to have two Farms in this Country, one for 
the Winter and one for the summer ; for these he is in the course 
of three years obliged to pay to Government at 

25 Eixdollars each .... 

For a Waggon .... 

Clothes & Necessaries .... 

Hiring of Servants .... 

Total .... 750 Eds.* 

To cope with such a taxation one hundred Bullocks are necessary 
to a farmer ; & as the Cows breed only every other Year & mostly 
in equal proportion of Bulls & Heifers, four hundred Cows ; it is then 
upon calculation evident that the Farmer is at the end of three 
Years what he was at the first, poor and still on the starting point. 
In spite of this oppression the Farmer might subsist, were it not 
for the perpetual state of Warfare which they are daily involved 
into by the Natives, who pour in flocks upon their plantations & 
forcibly take their cattle from them.f We have more than once 
witnessed a Farmer one day in affluent circumstances, & the next 
at the mercy of another's charity, or perhaps even murdered, 
together with his Wife and Family, because Government had never 
supported him, and which yet he had been paying. From that 
state of things, several families have been so completely ruined, 
particularly in the last war with the Caffres, that they are 
reduced to nudity, or at most to a Sheeps Skin, after the manner 
of the Hottentots. It is a positive fact that several and such as 
had been in easy circumstances were obliged to put their children 
to sale, merely because they had no means to give them bread. 
In the very face of this unexampled misery, the Company did not 
cease to levy their Taxes in the most rigorous manner. Governor 
Sluysken has however acted with more humanity for these two 
years past. 

* Note by Rome other person. — The Farming Estimate may be correct, but I 
see no remedy, except getting Vessels to carry (heir effects to Market. The 
Quit Rents are low enough. 

t Note by some other person. — The Dutch Settlers too oftea provoke the 

170 Records of the Cape Colony. 

The Chief Products of this Colony are Cattle, Wheat and Wine. 

The Company so far from encouraging the breed of Cattle, seems 
to have been resolutely bent upon the extermination of them, and 
by every means to have sought to keep the Inhabitants low. The 
mediocrity of our breed of Horses is likewise to be attributed to 
the Company, they have in no instance allowed the Captains 
of our Indiamen to import Stallions from Holland for the im- 
provement of our Horses. But Monopolies are the grievance to 
which we must look for the principal cause of the misery of the 
Inhabitants. The Company in order to get its own meat cheaper 
has given to a Company here, called the Slaughter Company, the 
exclusive grant of selling meat to foreign Ships. Now admitting 
the common price to stand thus 

A Pound of Meat .... 2 pence 

A Sheep .... 2 Rix Dollars 

A Bullock .... 8 Do. 

Foreigners are obliged to pay the Slaughters 

For a Pound of Meat ... 4 Pence 

a Sheep . . . 4£ Eix Dollars 

a Bullock ... 22 Do.* 

From that circumstance Foreigners have for some time left off 
frequenting this Colony, the houses have fallen in price, one half 
of them are without Tenants, and that class of the Inhabitants 
who were used to subsist on a temporary small traffick with them 
are reduced to mendicity. That monopoly may then justly be 
considered as the radical evil that has brought on the decline of 
the Colony, and on its removal depends the preservation of it. 
For all that the Breeders of Cattle are, as well as the rest of the 
Inhabitants, saddled with the heaviest Taxes. By far the greater 
part of the Farmers and of the Inhabitants of the Town are 
Bankrupts, the rest have their property under Sequester, and every 
individual looks forward to impending ruin. 

The Farmers owe the Company 400,000 Eix Dollars, about 
80,000 Pound Sterling for Contribution only, as appears by the 
Books of 1794; 200,000 Eix Dollars for Vendue Money; The 

* Note by some other person. — This Estimate may be exact, but I see no 

Records of the Cape Colony. 171 

Monopolists owe 100,000 Eix Dollars and to the Lombard Bank 
700,000 Eix Dollars, in all about 280,000£ Sterling. Yet the 
Paper Currency amounts to only 1,300,000 Eix Dollars and there 
is no more than 100,000 Eix Dollars in the Treasury. 

Vendue Money 
Monopoly of Wheat 
The Lombard 
In the Comps. Treasury 

400,000 Eix Dollars 
200,000 Do. 
100,000 Do. 
700,000 Do. 
100,000 Do. 


By this Balance it appears that the Inhabitants owe to the 
Company 200,000 Eix Dollars Discount, and that the Company is 
through the Lombard in possession of one third of the property of 
the Inhabitants, and it is no idle presumption to suppose that the 
Company must ere long have arrested the Farmers for Nonpayment 
of the Interest. When the Company discovered that the Farmers 
grew slack in the payment of their Taxes, they without hesitation 
put their property to sale, seized upon their Waggons, Utensils of 
Husbandry and Cattle. Finding that violence had not its desired 
effect, they recurred to new measures, of which Monopoly was the 
basis. The Monopoly for selling Meat and Cattle to the Company 
is renewed and granted every fifth year. The Condition upon 
which the Slaughters used to secure that exclusive privilege to 
themselves is remarkable— they were namely from their dealing 
and intercourse with the Farmers more likely to recover such 
Debts as were due by the Farmers to the Company. Their 
manner of corresponding with that view of the Company is as 
follows : 

The Butchers send their Servants into the interior parts of the 
Country for buying Cattle, these pay the Farmers with Bills on 
their Masters ; the Farmer when he comes to Town to receive his 
Money obtains only part of it, as the Butcher, in correspondence 
with the Company, deducts from the Sum what he owes to the 
latter. Thus it is no unusual thing for a Butcher (Grazier?) to 
make a two months journey to town, in hopes to purchase 
necessaries for his Wife and Family, to see his expectation baffled 
and himself obliged to return the same way home, both without 
money and necessaries. By that means the Butchers could not 

1 72 Records of the Cape Colony. 

fail losing their credit ; the people of Grave Keinet perished thro' 
want, and finding that no ear was given to their repeated remon- 
strances, became Rebels. Such are the consequences of vexation 
and monopoly.* 

The following are their present pretensions. 
1st. They will receive no Commissioners from Government. 
2nd. They refuse all further allegiance to the Government of 
the Colony, or of the Company, and insist upon being independant. 
3rd. They have expelled their Governors, and made a sort of 
Government for themselves on the basis of Democracy. 

4th. They claim the freedom to sell their Products where they 
please and a free trade in general. 

5th. They refuse paying Taxes and reject the Vendue Bills. 
6th. "With regard to the Hottentots in their service they have 
arrogated the judiciary power to themselves. 

7th. They prescribe the Herrenhuters sent among them for the 
purpose of instructing the Hottentots in the Christian Religion. 

8th. They will no longer allow the Hottentots the use of Fire 

9th. The Prisoners of War made by themselves are in future to 
be their own Slaves & Property. 

10 th. The Vendue Masters are to receive no Emoluments if 
they buy Goods from their own Relations. 

11th. The Clergy shall follow no Employment besides the 
service of the Church. 

They wear the three coloured Cockade and stile their Assembly 
a National Convention. Swellendam very soon followed their 
example. Stellenbosch was on the point of doing the same, and 
were it not for the arrival of the English Forces here, the Cape 
might have made common cause with the rest. 

The Product that merits next the attention of Government is 
Wheat. Every Wheat Farmer is obliged to pay Tythes to the 
Company, and to see them taken to the Companys Storehouse at 
his expence. He is not allowed to sell his Wheat to any but the 
Company and Burgher Storehouse for 25 Rix Dollars the 10 Mud 
or Sacks, the Burgher Commissioners sell it to the Bakers at 
30 Rix Dollars; and these are the Monopolists to Foreigners, 
fixing the price as they think proper, and which has never yet 
been under 40 Rix Dollars per 10 Sacks. No man is allowed to 
* Note by some other person. — All Monopoly is done away. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 173 

bring Bread or Flour to town with him, supposing therefore an 
Inhabitant of the Town to have a Farm in the Country, he cannot 
even in that case use his own Flour or Bread ; he is bound to sell 
his Corn to the Monopolist, and the price he gets for it would not 
suffice to repurchase half of it in bread. Notwithstanding the 
fertility of the Country a Corn Magazine is absolutely necessary 
here, where there ought never to be a less quantity than for one 
Years consumption.* Scarcity is not unknown here, and in the 
year 1786 it was so urgent that we were under the necessity of 
sending for supplies to Europe. In the same year Deputies were 
sent to Mosselbay, to contract with the Farmers for Corn, and the 
Company actually built a Storehouse for the reception of it. The 
Farmers, in compliance with the demand of the Company, bought 
Slaves and Implements of Husbandry and made Debts on then- 
new prospects. The Company resorted three Years to them, the 
moment their Storehouse was filled the Correspondence ceased, the 
Farmers found their Corn on their hands, and being unable to pay 
their Interests, they hoisted the Standard of Eebellion, after the 
manner of the people at Grave Reinet. I take it to be as easy 
a matter to establish a Corn Magazine here, without recurring 
to Monopoly, as it is an indispensable object. Let there only 
a price be fixed & ready money to be held out to the Farmers, 
the Magazine will be replenished the whole Year round of 

Wine is another chief Product of the Country. The Wine 
Planter pays for every Leager 10 Rix Dollars, and 5 if it be 
exported. The Farmers are not allowed to sell their Wine to the 
Foreigners, this is the exclusive privilege of the Town Wine 
Merchants. They procure it from every part of the Country, spoil 
it by mixture, and ruin the credit of our Wines among foreign 

Nothing has more contributed to the decay of the Colony than 
Paper Money. During the last War, the Company being in want 
of money, they borrowed from the Inhabitants the Specie they 
had, upon promise to restore it to them by the first Ships from 
Europe; but no Specie was sent & paper was left to circulate. 
After some time however some Silver Specie made its appearance; 
but it was broached on the Inhabitants with an advance of 

* Note by some other person. — Of Corn I apprehend a Months provision \vd 
be sufficient & Ships shd be employed to bring into this Bay. 

174 Records of the Cape Colony. 

20 per Cent, which directly occasioned a loss on the property of 
every Inhabitant of 20 per Cent — mean time the foreign nations 
which were used to frequent our ports and to sell us their 
Commodities, finding that there was no money in the Colony, 
withdrew, forgot their way hither, and the paper Money fell an 
additional 50 per Cent — the Farmer paid for every Article at an 
advanced price, and his own commodity preserved its original 
Standard; he was therefore in every respect a looser, & had 
nothing to look for but unavoidable poverty — after that the 
Company sold off part of their immoveable property and levied 
Taxes upon Taxes. The want of Money, both Specie & paper 
became so cogent, that to save the people from a general Bank- 
ruptcy, it was found necessary to establish a Lombard or Bank. 
The Money lent is no other than Paper at 5 per Cent Interest a 
year. What will be the consequence ? A time must come when 
the paper Money will return to the Treasury of the Company, the 
Inhabitants will be left without any, and the Company eventually 
prove the possessors of the property of the greater part of the 
Inhabitants. I do not suppose the annals of Turkey can produce 
an equal parallell of Tyranny and Extortion. Both the French 
and Dutch Fleet were during the last war supplied with Provisions 
from the Cape, all upon the credit of Paper Money ; and although 
the negociations amounted to several Millions, yet did the money 
which the Company paid out at that time return to the Treasury ; 
and that only through enormous Taxes that took place from time 
to time through the 50 penny stamped paper, the 25 penny on 
property and so forth. In view of such causes is it to be wondered 
that discontent spread over the Colony, & that the horrors of a 
Civil War stared us in the face ? however I do not despond as to 
resources. I have an high opinion of the tractibility of the people 
here, and I am persuaded that under a new and good arrangement 
of things, their wounds will be healed & their complaints cease, 
but no time must be lost. I am of the opinion that if the new 
Tax, laid on by Governor Sluyskens Predecessor two years ago, 
and which is most grievous, together with part of the Contribution 
on Cattle Farms usually called Agterstall were revoked, that 
matters will flow in an easy channel. At present the Inhabitants 
are in great want of Iron, which is not to be procured for money, 
as well as of Cloath, Coals, Timber &ca., of these Articles I under- 
stand there is a quantity in the Fleet at False Bay, it may be 

Records of tlie Cape Colony. 175 

conjectured how much the Inhabitants would be benefited by an 
admission to purchase some. 

In regard to the framing of Laws, as I suppose it impossible to 
bring the mind of the people to one focus of sentiment, it will not 
be eligible to consult them on that subject. Laws, founded & 
framed on justice, and promulgated as soon as possible, are what 
they stand in need of. From the knowledge I have of the 
Inhabitants, I will venture to prognosticate that if they can 
compass that essential point, that they will look up to the 
English as their Liberators, rejoice at the arrival of their Succour, 
strenuously adhere to their duty & obedience and omit nothing to 
ingratiate themselves with a Nation for which moreover they have 
at all times entertained the sincerest attachment and esteem. 

For my part if these hints can at all contribute to the future 
prosperity of the Colony, I shall be thankful to Providence. I 
have &c. 

(Signed) F. Kersteins. 


By General Alured Clarke, Commander in Chief of His Majesty's 
Troops, and Vice Admiral Sir George Keith Elphinstone, 
Commander in Chief of His Majesty's Fleets & Ships of War 
in the Indian Seas &c., &c. t &c. 

Whereas His Majesty has been pleased to appoint us to be 
Commanders in Chief of His Land & Sea Forces, employed on an 
Expedition in the course of which the Colony of the Cape of Good 
Hope has surrendered to His Majesty by a Capitulation dated on 
the 16th Instant. And whereas His Majesty among other Articles 
of Instruction with which he has been pleased to charge us, has 
directed that in the event of the surrender of this Colony we 
should arrange and settle such matters as may be necessary for 
the internal regulation of the Affairs thereof. Now we considering 
that it will materially tend to the purpose aforesaid as well as to 
the furtherance of His Majesty's Service, Do hereby appoint you 
to be Commandant of the Town and Settlement of the Cape of 

176 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Good Hope, authorizing and directing you to take upon you the 
Charge of all Duties and of all manner of things both civil and 
military appertaining to the duty of Commandant aforesaid, and 
in the discharge of such duty you are from time to time as may be 
necessary to report to us your proceedings therein and to follow 
such orders and directions as to us may appear expedient to give, 
and for so doing this shall be to you and to all other Persons 
concerned a full and sufficient Warrant. 

Given under our Hands & Seals at the Cape of Good Hope this 
thirtieth day of September 1795. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke, 

G. K. Elphinstone. 

To Major General Craig. 


By General Alured Clarke and Vice Admiral Sir George 
Keith Elphinstone, Commanders in Chief of' His Britannic 
Majesty's Forces, &c, &c. 

Whereas we have judged it expedient for the benefit of His 
Majesty's Service and the more speedy arrangement of the Affairs 
of this Province by a Warrant under our Hands and Seals dated 
this 30th day of September 1795 to appoint Major General James 
Henry Craig to be Commandant of the Town and Settlement of 
the Cape of Good Hope, we do hereby publicly notify such 
Appointment to the end that all persons may be acquainted 
therewith, and the said Commandant having our Authority for 
the arrangement and settlement of all matters civil and Military 
relative to the Colony under such limitations and directions as are 
contained in our said Warrant, all Persons are therefore informed 
that the necessary applications in all cases in which the Govern- 
ment is concerned are to be made to the said Commandant, whose 
directions therein as well as in all concerns are to be strictly 
complied with and followed. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke, General, 

G. K. Elphinstone, Vice Admiral. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 



Return of the probable amount of the Civil List at the Cape of Good 
Hope and it's dependencies for one Year say from the 1st October 
1795 to the 30 September 1796. 

The Governor .... 
Secretary ..... 
for 6 Clerks, a Messenger and Con- 
tingent Expences 

Board of Eevenue 
Receiver General 
Collector of Duties 
Collector of Land tax . 
Their Secretary, Clerks and 
Bookkeepers &c. &c. &c. . 

Secretary to the Court of Justice his Clerks and 

the contingencies of his office 
Fiscall & His Establishment 
Three Landdrosts & their Establishments 
Harbour Master 
Churches in Town 
Churches in the Country 

Surveyor of Lands 
Convict Guard . 
Plettenbergs & other Bays . 
Overseers of Woods &c. 
Overseer of the Water Works 
Signal Men at the Lions Head 

Rds. 13,400 

Rds. 4,440 








Klerks and 

• • 


• • 




. . 





• • 






. . 


• . 


* . 




178 Records of the Cape Colony. 


Order issued by Admiral Elphinstone to the Respective Captains 

of the Fleet. 

Monarch, Table Bay, ith October 1795. 

It has been represented to me that some Chaplain of the 
Squadron has taken upon him to marry a Couple who not being 
legally entitled had been refused by the Eegular Clergy of this 

It is therefore hereby required and directed that no Chaplain 
shall presume to exercise any such function until having duly 
informed himself and his Commander of all the Circumstances and 
having obtained his consent & permission for the same. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 


By General Alured Clarke, Vice Admiral Sir George Keith 
Elphinstone, KB., and Major General Craig, &c, &c, &c. 

Whereas it has been customary in all changes of Government, 

and on other Occasions, in this province, for the people to renew 

the Oath of Allegiance to the Government under which they 

lived and enjoy'd Protection, and whereas by the Capitulation 

under which this Colony surrendered to the British Arms on the 

16th September, His Britannick Majesty is become the Sole and 

only Lawful Sovereign, to whom all persons residing in the Colony 

owe allegiance and fidelity, these are therefore to call on such of 

the Inhabitants of the Colony as chuse to continue their residence, 

and thereby to become subjects to His Majesty, to take the oath 

of allegiance and fidelity for so long a time as His Said Majesty 

shall continue in possession of this Colony, which Oath the 

Landdrost of the several districts is empowered and required to 

administer according to the form hereunto annexed, and to 

transmit to us the name of such persons as shall take the same. 

And to prevent any doubt which might take place on this head, 

Records of the Cape Colony. 179 

it is hereby declared that all persons whatever continuing to 
reside in the Colony, and thereby to enjoy His Majesty's pro- 
tection, although they may not have individually or actually 
taken the oath hereby required, will nevertheless be considered as 
having virtually acceded thereto, will be looked upon as subjects, 
will as such enjoy every right & privilege belonging to that 
quality, and will be liable to all the pains and penalties attached 
to the crime of treason in case of any act contrary to their 
allegiance as such. 

And if there are any persons who preferring the government 
of any other power, do not chuse to become subjects of Great 
Britain, all such are hereby required to notify such their in- 
tentions as they will be allowed a reasonable time to settle their 
affairs after which it will be expected that they do withdraw from 
the Colony. 

Given under our Hands and Seals in the Castle of Good Hope 
this 7th day of October 1795. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke, 

G. K. Elphinstone 
J. H. Craig. 


By General Alured Clarke, Vice Admiral Sir George Keith 
Elphinstone, and Major General J. H. Craig, Commanders 
in Chief of His Britannick Majesty's Forces &c, &c. t &c. 

Whereas the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope has by a 
Capitulation dated on the 16th September 1795 been surrendered 
to the arms of His Britannick Majesty, and whereas His Majesty 
in his paternal goodness has been pleased to direct and instruct us 
by every means in our power to promote the prosperity of the 
Colony and the wellfare and happiness of the Inhabitants we His 
Majesty's Commanders by Sea and Land do think it incumbent 
upon us to make His Majesty's gracious Intentions and Instruc- 
tions thus Publickly known, to the end that all persons may be 
acquainted therewith, and that all such as shall demean them- 

n 2 

180 Records of the Cape Colony. 

selves as becometh them may rest assured of all protection and 
security to their Persons and Property. 

And whereas by the Capitulation aforesaid His Majesty is 
become the only true and Lawfull Sovereign of the Colony to 
whom alone allegiance is due, we do therefore strictly charge and 
command all Persons whatever to abstain from the exercise of 
any act of Sovereignty in the Name or by the pretended authority 
of any other power whatever, and we do in like manner caution 
all persons residing in this Colony from acknowledging any power 
or authority derived from any other source than that of His 
Majesty aforesaid, as by so doing they will be considered as 
having renounced their allegiance and will be subject to such 
pains and penalties as may be fitting. 

The allegiance which is due to His Majesty, while he remains 
in the possession of the Colony, from all persons who by con- 
tinuing to reside in it, and enjoying His protection, acknowledge 
themselves His subjects, is founded on so evident a principle of 
Justice and the universally acknowledged Laws of nations, and 
is besides so essential a requisite to the peace and happiness of 
Society that we do not conceive that any doubt can remain in the 
mind of any Person relative thereto. 

To remove however the possibility of any such, to quiet the 
minds of all, and to the end that all may be informed of our just 
expectation on the part of His Majesty, we have thought it ex- 
pedient by our Proclamation of this day's date to call on the 
Inhabitants to take that oath of allegiance and fidelity which on 
the change of government and on other occasions they have been 
accustomed to take to their former government, and in which 
such as chuse to remain Inhabitants of this Settlement are now 
bound to His Majesty, whose subjects by such residence they 

And altho' relying on that religious sense of duty which must 
operate upon the minds of all who are not wickedly bent upon 
destroying the peace and happiness of others for their own profit 
and advancement, we have full confidence in the peaceable disposi- 
tion of the Inhabitants of this Colony in general, nevertheless we 
think ourselves called upon on this occasion earnestly to exhort 
and require of all that laying aside all animosities and heats of 
every sort which may have formerly existed, they do unite in 
general efforts for the Publick benefit, the Prosperity of the 

Records of the Cape Colony. 181 

Settlement, the advancement of Industry and the good of Society 
in a peaceable and orderly behaviour and a due Submission to the 

And whereas the administration of Justice according to the 
Laws now in use and which are known to all, is an object of the 
first importance to the wellfare of the Colony and its Inhabitants 
we do make known that it is our intention to re-establish the 
Council of Justice for that purpose as speedily as the indispens- 
able arrangements will admit of, — and we do further think it 
right to acquaint the Inhabitants, that the Several other Publick 
Establishments intended for the further administration of Justice 
and police as well as for all other purposes of general concern 
shall be objects of our earliest attention and care and that such 
Steps shall be forthwith taken therein as shall best ensure His 
Majesty's intentions in the prosperity of the Colony and the 
wellfare of the Inhabitants. 

And whereas during the late government of the Dutch East 
India Company a variety of Monopolies and restrictions calculated 
for the profit and benefit of the Company, but oppressive on the 
Inhabitants and destructive of all industry have existed, we do 
make known that in obedience to His Majesty's Instructions it is 
our intention to abolish all such, and altho' we have not yet had 
time to enter into a full consideration of this subject we never- 
theless think it expedient to declare that in future all restrictions 
on the internal trade of the Colony shall be taken off, all Com- 
modities the produce of the Country may be brought to publick 
Market and may be sold as best suits the Interest of the Owner. 

We allso declare that all persons so disposed are at Liberty to 
exercise their several trades as best suits their inclinations, all 
Persons desirous of so doing may set up a Brewery or any other 
Manufacture not under a general Prohibition, may possess boats, 
may fish or may trade from any harbour of the Colony to another. 
The Whale Fishery whether at Sea or in a Harbour of the Coast is 
open to all. 

In thus declaring our intention that those restrictions which at 
present exist in the Internal trade of the Colony shall be taken off 
we think it however proper in order to avoid any mistake on the 
subject to inform the Publick that this is not to affect the Pay- 
ment of any taxes or contribution which for the present must 
continue on the same footing as formerly, altho' we will give our 

182 Records of the Cape Colony. 

earliest attention to their future regulation so as to endeavour to 
modify such as may appear oppressive. 

It must likewise be understood that the coasting trade and the 
possession of boats will be liable to such regulations as may be 
found necessary for the benefit of commerce. 

Given under our Hands and Seals at the Cape of Good Hope 
7th October 1795. 

(Signed) Alueed Clarke, 

G. K. Elphinstone, 
J. H. Craig. 


Letter from Major General Craig to the Kigiit Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle, Cape op Good Hope, 9th October, 1795. 

Sir, — I do myself the Honor to enclose you duplicates of my 
letters of the 22nd ultimo which went by Lieut.-Col. McMurdo. 

My time has since been unremittingly employed, under the 
direction of General Clarke, in endeavouring to obtain that 
knowledge of the situation of affairs here which may enable him 
and the Admiral to arrange them in the manner which may 
appear most consonant to the views of His Majesty. Upon this 
Subject General Clarke will doubtless give you all the information, 
which from the shortness of the time, and the difficulty attending 
it, we have been able to collect. 

The General having called upon me to give him my opinion, as 
to the number of Men, requisite for the defence of the Settlement 
under its present circumstances I did not hesitate to comply with 
his desire upon the principle of its being my duty to obey His 
commands. Altho having already been informed by him, of its 
having been intended to leave me in the command here, I was well 
aware that my opinion would always be open to the suspicion of 
its being influenced by that desire, which is always supposed to 
accompany Command, of having it as considerable as possible. I 
have the Honor to enclose you a copy of the letter which I wrote 
to him on the occasion, and I have at least the satisfaction of 
knowing that the opinion conveyed in it, is corroborated by that 

Records of the Cape Colony. 183 

of General Clarke himself, The Admiral and indeed of every 
Person here. Upon this letter I only beg permission to remark 
that I was sensible at the time, that there was a mistake in the 
State of the Troops which I had before me, when I wrote it, with 
regard to the Sick, which upon enquiry since I find arose from 
the Regiments having returned only those here, and not having 
included those at Simons Town and Muisemberg, the whole should 
have been 561. I hope this number will decrease, but I fear the 
Column of Sick will at all times reduce our real strength, by a 
much greater number than the 200, which I have calculated 
it at. 

I trust Sir, it is not necessary that I should offer any assurances 
of my utmost exertions, in the arduous task which will devolve on 
me, when General Clarke leaves this. Having had the Honor of 
giving you my opinion on the present disposition of the people, in 
the seperate letter of which I now send a duplicate, you will be aware 
of that which I entertain of the existence of a necessity that the 
Government should be conducted on those principles of Vigor and 
Energy, which may serve to keep in awe a Disposition which is 
certainly in momentary readiness to disturb the Publick peace. I 
beg leave however to assure you Sir at the same time, that I am to 
the full as equally impressed with the conviction of the Propriety, 
and the Great utility to His Majesty's Service, of cultivating the 
friendship and Good will of the People by every conciliatory 
means in my power. I feel such a line of conduct to be on the 
present occasion, as much my Duty, as it is consonant to my 
inclination, and I shall hope to find no difficulty in combining it, 
with that Vigilance, and Steadiness, which appear to me to be no 
less essential to His Majesty's Interests. 

Lieut.-Col. Mackenzie of the 2d Battn. of the 78th Eegiment, 
will have the Honor of delivering you this letter. The advice of 
Physicians from the apprehension of a liver complaint to which 
he has been subject, and from which He has already experienced 
some severe attacks, has induced him to ask General Clarke's 
permission to return to Europe. Lieut.-Col. Mackenzie has been 
with me the whole time, and from the circumstance of his being 
the next in command to myself has had opportunities of mani- 
festing His Zeal for His Majesty's Service, in the readiness with 
which he has at all times afforded me his assistance. 1 have great 
pleasure in adding that after being most dangerously ill from his 

184 Records of the Cape Colony. 

wound, Major Moneypenny is now in a fair way, of being shortly 
able to take upon him the command of the Companies of the 
78th here. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 


By General Alured Clarke, Vice Admiral Sir George Keith 
Elphinstone, K.B., and Major General Craig, &c, &c, &c. 

Whereas we have judged it expedient to appoint a Collector 
General, Collector of Land Eevenue, and a Treasurer : 

We hereby make known that 

1st. Mr. J. I. Rhenius is to take upon himself the office of 
Collector General and Treasurer, 

2nd. Mr. C. Brandt Collector of the Duty of Imports and Exports 
of Merchandize and produce together with the duty of the Cape 
Wine and Brandy, and of the tythes of Corn on being brought to 
Town. Wherefore all Persons desirous of Importing or Exporting 
any Merchandize or produce are to apply to the said Mr. Brandt 
and the duty of the said Cape Wine together with the tythes of 
the said Corn are to be paid with ready Money to the Clerks who 
will be appointed for that purpose at the Main Guard of the 
Imhoff Battery as has been Customary. 

3rd. Mr. J. P. Baumgard Collector of the Revenue which is 
yearly paid by the Farmers for permission to cultivate and feed 
Cattle in the Lands of the Company and of the Revenues pro- 
ceeding from other Lands. 

Given in the Castle of Good Hope 10th October 1795. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke, 

G. K. Elphinstone, 
J. H. Craig. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 185 


Letter from Vice Admiral Elphinstone to tJie Right 
Honourable Henry Dundas. 

His Majesty's Ship Monabch, Table Bay, 

Cape op Good Hope the \0th October 1795. 

Sir, — I have the honor to transmit herewith Duplicates of my 
former Dispatches and other consequent Papers respecting this 
Colony containing such information respecting this Colony as I 
have been able to procure in the short time which has elapsed. 

Upon the whole the People of the Colony do not seem to regret 
the change of situation, but the numerous train of Servants of the 
Dutch Company and the Officers, all of whom are natives and 
married here, and enjoyed places of Trust and Emolument, are 
great losers and much to be pitied as persons deprived of every 
prospect of Rise by the destruction of the Company, these Persons 
being of the first Families, their opinions are doubtless looked up 
to by many ; I therefore presume to offer to your consideration, 
the propriety of employing the Natives in Offices of Trust & 
Profit under His Majesty, as the means of conciliating their 
affections, and, as here are many fine young men without any 
profession who are desirous of serving in the Army and Navy, I 
am confident a few so employed would be found advantageous. 

I have been obliged to prohibit Neutral Ships trading here, 
excepting when the Articles are much wanted by the Publick 
by reason that if they are allowed to ship Grain or Wine, they 
uniformly pretend to be forced into the French Islands by bad 
weather or cruizers, and there load with English Prize Goods, 
or take Commissions to capture British Vessels. Tranquebar has 
seventy ships belonging to it, notwithstanding the whole Settle- 
ment is not worth five thousand pounds. 

I have the honor of sending by this conveyance, in conjunction 
with the General, descriptive Accounts & Inventories of the 
Publick Revenue, Houses, Lands & Stores. 

In the time of the Dutch Company the Master Attendant had, 
or used the privilege of supplying foreign ships at a great profit 
with whatever stores they stood in need of, and kept his private 
concerns indiscriminately connected with those of the Publick ; 

18G Records of the Cape Colony. 

all such Stores therefore as appear fit for the King's use I have 
directed to be purchased and the remainder to be disposed of and 
removed from His Majesty's Storehouses, — the Master Attendant 
has resigned his situation. 

The Whale Fishery here will become of much consequence, 
particularly at Whaalvish or Whalfish Bay ; in the winter from 
twenty to thirty Americans fish there ; this I have forbidden and 
shall send a Ship to prevent it, many of the Inhabitants being 
inclined to enter into that traffic, and the English Ships may receive 
the advantage of it until your Orders are received on that subject. 

Plattenberg Bay is a place of importance, affording Wood, Plank 
and Beams for Building, and will require a ship to visit it during 
the months of the North West Wind, the place abounds with Corn 
but is too distant for land transportation. 

I inclose a Paper delivered to me by an Independent Burgher, 
one well inclined, to which I have added a few remarks from a 
motive of duty and an anxious inclination to communicate every 
possible information ; the period however since our possession has 
not afforded sufficient intercourse, nor opportunities of enlarging 
upon this important point. 

The few Troops that could with safety be spared from this 
place were not of sufficient consequence to encourage the General 
or myself to undertake any expedition before our arrival at 
Madras, and as Major General Craig expressed great anxiety to 
have all the Troops left here, it has been determined to do so. 

Many of the German Soldiers, Prisoners, being desirous of 
enlisting for the English East India Company's service, I gave 
directions to Mr. John Pringle, the Company's agent, to furnish 
money for that purpose. I hope to be successful in this view, as 
it will not only serve the Company, but reduce the expence of 
sending to Europe by Cartel Ships. 

As there will be a necessity for a Judge of the Court of 
Admiralty or one to officiate in that office until His Majesty's 
pleasure is known, I beg leave to recommend Mr. John Peter 
Baumgardt, one of the Court of Justice, a Gentleman perfectly 
Master of the English Language, who resided eight years in Bengal, 
and as, on the event of a continuance of the War a Court of 
Commission will be requisite for the trying and adjudging Prize 
Ships, I presume to mention this gentleman for that situation, 
thinking him as well qualified to undertake it as any person in the 

Records of the Cape Colony. 187 

place, should it be determined to establish one here, which cannot 
interfere with the East India Company's Charter. 

The Inhabitants, having been previously summoned, assembled 
yesterday in great numbers on the Square within the Castle, and 
took Oaths of allegiance to His Majesty in the presence of General 
Clarke and myself, the Council of Justice which is composed of 
twelve Members and a President, immediately retired to their hall 
for the Dispatch of Business, the other Board followed their 
example. I see no reason to doubt the attachment of the People 
nor the tranquility of Government, but must at the same time 
inform you that our firmest friends are very anxious that a large 
force should be left here to repel any attack from the French, for 
whom they seem to tremble, some however are of a different opinion. 

I beg leave also to recommend Mr. Peter John De Wit to your 
notice as a fit person to be Kegistrar of the Court of Admiralty, he 
speaks English perfectly and has suffered much from his attach- 
ment to the British. 

Captain H. E. Stanhope will have the honor of delivering this 
dispatch, he was Captain of the Ruby, and after I quitted False 
Bay the command of the ships there devolved on him, where he 
performed the service with such activity & exactness that it is 
much to be wished that he enjoyed a better state of health. I beg 
leave also to recommend him to your notice. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elpiiin stone. 


By General Alured Clarke and Vice Admiral Sir George 
Keith Elph in stone K.B., Commanders in Chief of His 
Britannick Majesty's Forces, and J. H. Craig Esqre Major 
General of His said Majesty's army and Commandant of the 
Cape of Good Hope and its dependencies &c., &c, &e. 

To all those who shall see or hear of these presents, Salutation ! 

Whereas, after having considered of the most proper means of 
promoting, as much as possible, agreeable to the paternal intention 
of His Britannick Majesty the prosperity and welfare of the 
Inhabitants of this Colony, 

188 Records of the Cape Colony. 

We have conceived that the maintaining of an uncorrupted 
Justice and consequently the establishment of a Court of Justice 
by which not only the Laws for the maintenance of Peace, & Good 
Order, might be strictly enforced, but also the mutual differences 
of the Inhabitants might be judged and adjusted, according to the 
Laws, would be best conducive to the fulfilling of that salutary 
Intention, as the due maintenance of Law & Justice is the best 
surety for the Safety and happiness of a regular Society. And 
believing that it will be for the benefit of the Colony in general, 
and of each Individual in particular, that the administration of 
Justice should be given again to, and consequently remain in, the 
hands of those who till now have had the charge of that important 
office, and who are therefore supposed to be acquainted with the 
Laws and Customs of this country ; We have thought it expedient 
to reestablish as we by these presents do reestablish the Court of 
Justice of this Country in the same manner as the said Court has 
existed on the 16th September last, when this Colony was 
surrendered to His Britannic Majesty in order to administer 
Justice, in the name of His said Majesty, in the same manner as 
has been customary till now, & according to the Laws, Statutes & 
Ordinances which have been in force in this Colony, which we 
command to be followed in their full tenor & effect, as far as the 
same are not by us or in our name, or in that of any Governor or 
Commander in Chief for the time being, already altered or in 
future may be altered for the general benefit. Wherefore we 
command and enjoin all and every of the Inhabitants, to acknow- 
ledge, to respect & to obey, the said Court of Justice, in the said 
quality, as becomes faithful subjects & good Citizens, on penalty 
in case of acting contrary of being punished as disturbers of the 
publick peace and good order according to the Laws. And the 
Several Members of the said Court of Justice before it resumes its 
administration will take the Oath of Counsellors of Justice on 
Monday next the 12th Inst, in the morning at 10 o'clock in the 
Castle. Whereof these presents are to give notice to all and 
every one. 

Given in the Castle of Good Hope the 11th October 1795. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke, 

G. K. Elphinstone, Vice Admiral, 
J. H. Craig, Major General. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 189 


Letter from General Clarke to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Cape of Good Hope, 

Cape Town, 11th October, 1795. 

Sir, — I do myself the honor to transmit duplicates of my letters 
and enclosures to you of the 23rd and 24th ultimo, which were 
sent by Lieutenant Colonel McMurdo, and I have now the 
Pleasure to acquaint you that every thing has gone on as quietly, 
and with as little inconvenience to ourselves or the Inhabitants 
as could reasonably be expected under the circumstances that we 
took Possession of this Colony. 

The enclosed Copies of letters from Major General Craig, and 
the other Communications which he and Sir George Elphinstone 
have made to you before and since my arrival, (of which I had no 
knowledge when I last wrote to the same Effect) shew their 
Opinion of the necessity of leaving this place in as secure a state 
as possible at present : and coinciding thoroughly therein, I have 
determined that all the Troops shall remain here till His Majesty's 
Pleasure is signified by you on the subject. 

The whole of the Artillery that attended the Expedition is 
inadequate to the common Duties of this very extensive Garrison. 
The only Troops therefore that could possibly have gone forward 
to India with the Squadron (the six Companies of the 78th 
Regiment which are in the utmost distress for want of almost 
every necessary) would have been useless till we arrived at 
Madras, where, without doubt, every requisite can be furnished for 
prosecuting the further objects of our Instructions. 

This measure enabled the Admiral to dispatch all the East India 
Company's Ships immediately for their respective destinations, 
which must otherwise have been detained at great expense and 
inconvenience ; and it has contributed greatly to relieve the minds 
of such of the Inhabitants as are well disposed, or doubtful, from 
the apprehensions they had of the Colony's being retaken if a 
formidable force should be sent against it, which Idea was 
industriously propagated by the disaffected, and operated greatly 
to His Majesty's disadvantage. 

I beg to refer you to the joint Letter of the Admiral and myself 

190 Records of the Cape Colony. 

for such Keturns of Stores, Inventories, Lists, and other Papers, 
which we have thought fit to issue or been able to procure, as it 
contains; as well as to a paper, which he sends separately, that 
was written and presented to us by a very respectable and well 
disposed Dutch Gentleman of this Place. The English is bad and 
some parts are difficult to be comprehended, but it will serve to 
shew what were the general causes of discontent among the People 
in the distant parts of the Country, and the wild schemes of 
Opposition to the Government, and visionary Ideas of Independ- 
ence that actuate them. 

The stay of the Admiral and myself being so very short, and 
the Civil and Military business of the Colony vesting in Major 
General Craig on our departure, we thought it best to put it into 
his Hands as soon as possible, by empowering him to act in both 
Capacities as Commandant ; which appointment has taken place, 
and been notified to the public, as you will find by some of the 
Papers transmitted in our joint Letter. 

The Admiral tells me that he acquaints you with some circum- 
stances respecting Foreign Vessels coming to this port and the 
Fisheries and Harbours of the Coast, which his general knowledge 
of those matters with the present and former Opportunities he had 
of acquiring Information, fully enables him to do : But any that 
we have as yet been able to procure respecting the general affairs 
of the Government, or the interior Situation of the Country, is too 
vague and immature for transmission to any useful purpose at 

It would however be mine, if I remained long enough here, and 
will be the duty of Major General Craig, who is very competent 
and taking the greatest pains for the purpose, to send you the 
most full and accurate information upon every Subject as soon as 
he shall have had time and opportunity to procure it. 

The Garrison of this place were chiefly Germans in the Dutch 
Service, many of whom expressed a desire to engage with us ; but 
it not being thought prudent to employ them here, they had their 
option to serve in either the King's or Company's Troops in India, 
as they might like best ; and many of them having made choice 
of the latter, on account of the limitation to the Time of Service, 
several have been enlisted, and will be forwarded in the Company's 
Ships to the different Presidencies, to be disposed of as shall be 
thought proper. The term of their Enlistment is for five years, 

Jt'conls of the Cape Colony. 191 

and they axe to receive five Guineas Bounty, two of which they 
get here on embarking, and the other three are to be paid on their 
arrival at their respective destinations. They are in general very 
well formed good Soldiers, and I think will prove a valuable 
acquisition to the Company's Service. 

Lieutenant Colonel Mackenzie's state of Health being such as to 
require his returning to Europe for the recovery of it, I have given 
him leave of absence for six months ; and avail myself of the 
Opportunity he affords of transmitting these dispatches. He is an 
officer of great merit and observation, and having been actively 
employed throughout the whole Service here, I beg leave to 
recommend him to your notice, and refer you to him for any 
further information you may wish to acquire. I have etc. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke. 

P.S. Mr. Pringle having represented to me that there was a 
small quantity of Provisions to be sold on board the East 
Indiamen, and General Craig being extremely anxious to have a 
supply deposited in the Stores here, I directed him to procure all 
he could get ; and as it was under promise that payment should 
be made in Bills of Exchange, the Deputy Paymaster General will 
furnish the Commissary General with Bills at Thirty days sight 
on the Pay Office for the amount ; and as I am not clear of the 
manner in which this business should be transacted, the Com- 
missary is directed to acquaint Mr. Eose of the particulars for the 
Information of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, and I 
am to request that you will be pleased to give such directions 
relative to it as you may think proper. 

(Initialed) A. C. 


Letter from General Clarke and Admiral Elphinstone to the 
Eight Honourable Henry Dundas. 

Castle of Good Hope, the 12th Octr. 1795. 

Sir, — We have the honor to inclose descriptive Inventories and 
Accounts of the Lands, Tenements, Eevenue, Stores, Money, and 
all other articles, which have fallen into our possession, late the 
Property of the Dutch East India Company, in whom were vested 

192 Records of the Cape Colony. 

the territorial, military, civil, and commercial privileges of this 
Colony, with all rights, appurtenances, and judicial power. 

Every attention has been paid to the accuracy of these 
Inventories and Accounts, that circumstances and time would 
admit, the particulars of which shall be valued and secured in the 
best manner possible agreeable to His Majesty's pleasure. 

What may be the royal determination respecting the disposal of 
the Public Effects captured in this settlement we do not presume 
to judge ; but hope it may not be thought exceeding our duty nor 
improper to solicit through you Sir, His Majesty's consideration 
and favor in behalf of the Forces under our command, whom he 
has been graciously pleased to make instrumental in the acquire- 
ment of them. 

Having taken into consideration the necessity of our speedily 
proceeding to the further execution of His Majesty's commands, 
and the shortness of our stay here rendering it in a great measure 
necessary that Major General Craig, on whom at our departure the 
command and administration of the affairs of the Colony must of 
course devolve, should as expeditiously as possible be put in the 
exercise of that jurisdiction, we have thought fit to appoint him 
Commandant, to regulate all matters civil and military agreeable 
to the Order and Notification inclosed, during our continuance 
here; and we intend on our departure to invest him with such 
further authority as may seem necessary, until the King's pleasure 
shall be known ; of which we hope you will approve. 

The Public Eevenue has suffered much since the Capture of the 
Colony from the want of proper persons vested with requisite 
authority to collect the several duties; an evil increasing daily, 
which called for some immediate remedy : finding from the best 
information the time afforded that the mode of collection under 
the Dutch Government ran into an extensive establishment of 
useless and expensive Offices, we have thought proper, for the 
security, support & improvement of the Eevenue to appoint, John 
Isaac Ehenius, Christopher Brandt and John Peter Baumgardt, 
three gentlemen of knowledge, & weight in the Country to under- 
take the receipt and management of it, with an Annual Salary of 
Four hundred Pounds each, until the King's pleasure be known. 
They will be empowered to employ proper Clerks, and are directed 
to lay before us, with all expedition, the particulars and amount of 
the former Eevenues, the practised mode of collection, with their 

Records of the Cape Colon;). 1 ( J3 

thoughts on the means which may be deemed most efficient for 
collecting them in future, and generally to represent anything 
that may appear conducive to the improvement of this materi il 
object ; and in the mean time they are diligently to support and 
gather all Revenues, Duties, & Imposts for His Majesty's use. 

It having been thought proper that the Inhabitants who continue 
under His Majesty's Protection should take an Oath of fidelity to 
Him, a public notification to that effect was issued ; and we have 
great pleasure in acquainting you that all the most respectable 
Inhabitants, and a much greater number of the People than we 
had reason to expect, assembled on the Square of the Castle, and 
took the Oath in their usual manner. We have &c, 

(Signed) Alured Clarke, 

G. K. Elphinstone. 


Schedule of Inventories and Accounts descriptive of the Property 
belonging to the late Dutch East India Company .at the Cape 
of Good Hope. 

No. 1 Inventory of Houses, Fortifications, Estates &c. 

2 Ordnance Ammunition &c. 

3 Naval Stores (Cordage Anchors &c.) 

4 Do. (Timbers Spars &c.) 

5 Timbers & Spars landed from the Dutch Ship Castor. 

6 Coopers Stores. 

7 Grain. 

8 Dry Provisions, bale goods, & small stores. 

I Specie, Paper Money, and Stamps in the Treasury & 
I Offices connected therewith. 

12 Medicines in the Company's Hospital. 

13 Beds, Linen & Clothing in do. 

14 Tools in the Workmen's shops. 

15 Furniture in the Government House. 

16 Slaves and Convicts. 

17 Utensils belonging to the slave lodge. 

18 Utensils in the Potters workhouse. 

Cape of Good Hope the 12th of October 1795. 

194 Records of the Cape Colony, 

The account of Stores in Simon's Bay is also transmitted here- 
with, as reported by the Surveyors. 

(Signed) H. M. Gordon, 
John Jackson, 
H. Ross, 
James Brown. 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Evan Nepean, Esqre. 

His Majesty's Ship Monarch, Table Bat, 

Cape op Good Hope, 12th October 1795. 

Sir, — I beg leave to acquaint you for the Information of the 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, that there are in Simon's 
Bay very large Storehouses in which the Dutch Company kept a 
constant supply of articles for the use of Ships, with a Barrack 
at one end and adjacent Cooperage, Forge, Carpenters Shop and 
excellent Wharf and Crane ; the Plan is sent to the Eight Honble 
Secry. of State. There is also an Hospital on a great scale, and 
a detached House for the Surgeon. There is also a large com- 
modious House, where the Dutch Storekeeper resided, and kept 
his office, late the property of the Dutch Company. These 
Buildings being immediately connected with and heretofore used 
and possessed by the Navy, I have directed them to be taken 
possession of by the Storekeeper, Master Attendant and Surgeon 
for their use and such Clerks as may be required, and I have 
directed the Surgeon to divide the Hospital with the Army for 
the accommodation of the Sick belonging to the Party on duty ; 
but not to relinquish the whole, nor any part of the other Buildings 
without your orders, and I have further ordered that all the afore- 
said Buildings be kept in good repair. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 195 

Letter from Admiral Elhiinstone to Captain Stanhope. 

15 October 1795. 

Dear Sir, — I have this instant been told by Captain Lucas and 
others, that you have presumed to exercise the function of a 
Clergyman in this Colony, by performing the holy ceremony of 
Baptism on certain Infants, contrary to the principles of decency 
and good order, and to a certainty of involving His Majesty's 
Officers in disputes with the Church here. 

I am therefore to request an explicit information on this head 
that I may take the earliest opportunity of laying the same before 
the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. I am, Dear Sir, &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

Letter from C. Seward to Captain Spranger. 

KCBT, 9 A.M. 

Dear Sir, — Agreeable to your wish I have inquired respecting 
the Christg. of the Child. Wm. Walker and Susah. his wife with 
the two Godmothers informed me that Capn. Stanhope christened 
the Child by the name of Maria at Capn. Stanhope's lodgings. 

Your most obedient Servt. 

(Signed) C. Seward. 

Letter from Captain Stanhope to Admiral Elphinstone. 

Earl Howe, Table Bay, October 15, 1795. 

Sir, — In reply to the honor of your letter received this evening 
I am to say that I neither have done, nor am I capable to do any 
thing " contrary to the principles of decency and good order." 

I am, Sir, &c. 

(Signed) H. E. Stanhope. 
o 2 

196 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Captain Stanhope. 

Cape Town, October 15th 4 O'clock p.m. 

Sir, — I am this instant Honored with your Letter of a most 
extraordinary Tenor, because it contains no one word in reply to 
mine of this Date. I have, &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Evan Nepean, Esqre. 

Monabch, Table Bay, Oct. 15, 1795. 

Sir, — I have the Honor to inclose you a Correspondence betwixt 
myself and Captn. Stanhope of this day's date, for their Lordships 
information, as it is rather of an extraordinary nature and not 
very respectful to myself, the particulars I shall send more at 
large if the Earl Howe remains an hour or two longer in the 
Eoads, and I am sorry to add that this is the second irregularity 
that hath taken place, the first by a very Irregular Marriage, the 
second in the present instance which has involved Genl. Clarke 
and myself in great difficulties with the regular Clergy of this 
Colony. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Evan Nepean, Esqre. 

His Majesty's Ship Monarch, Table Bay, 

Cape of Good Hope the 15th Octr. 1795. 

Sir, — I have the honor to inform you for their Lordships 
consideration that by the Surrender of this Colony the Inhabitants 
were to enjoy their Eeligion, Laws & Customs, it was therefore 
unfortunate that a few days after we had taken possession a 
Clergyman from one of the Ships married a Couple who .had been 

Records of the Cape Colon//. 197 

refused by the Established Church on suspicion of the Man being 
married to another woman; this threw the Settlement into a 
ferment, but it being alledged by the Priest that the Man had 
deceived him, pretending to have previously obtained General 
Clarke's and my permission, the Clergy were appeased & the 
marriage rendered void. 

This is scarcely subsided before another Infraction of the Treaty 
is discovered in the person of Captain Henry Edwin Stanhope late 
of the Kith)/. 

On the evening of the 13th he came to the house of Colonel 
l)e Lisle, and having assembled many persons belonging to the 
Ships, he retired into a room, desiring a table, water &c. to be 
placed in the middle, and after praying or preaching he took an 
infant child into his arms and performed the ceremony of Baptism 
in the presence of Mrs. De Lisle and others, to their great astonish- 
ment as there are many Clergymen, Calvinists & Lutheran, in the 
place, besides four Chaplains in the Squadron. 

Thus we are a second time involved in difficulty with a body 
of men who have great influence among the People, and had not 
Captain Stanhope quitted his Ship before it was communicated 
to me, I should have considered it my duty to have ordered his 
conduct to be enquired into by a Court Martial. The circum- 
stance took place after he had received my dispatches. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 


Letter from the British Commanders to the several Landdrosts 
of Stellenbosch, Zwellendam, and Graffc Rcynet. 

Sir, — You will receive herewith a Copy of the Capitulation by 
which this Colony surrendered to the Arms of His Britannick 
Majesty on the 16th last Month. 

You will likewise receive a power from us to continue the 
Office of Landdrost till His Majesty's further pleasure therein be 
communicated to you by us or any other Governor or Commander 
in Chief, and these will be accompanied by several Proclamations 
on different Subjects. 

198 Records of the Cape Colony. 

For the sake of example as well as to qualify you for the 
Execution of the trust hereby reposed in you, it is indispensably 
necessary that you do yourself take the Oath of Allegiance and 
fidelity as contained in the Proclamation hereunto annexed, and 
as you are impowered to administer it to the Inhabitants, you 
will observe in so doing to take an exact account of them so as 
to be able to transmit to us at the expiration of a Month the 
names of those who have given this testimony of their allegiance. 

You will take the earliest opportunity of publishing the Articles 
of Capitulation, as well as the several Proclamations inclosed, in 
the usual form, and we require you to exert your utmost endeavours 
to convince the Inhabitants committed to your care, of the Benevo- 
lent and paternal intention of the British Government, and of our 
earnest wish most Punctually to fullfill our instructions, by pro- 
moting the General welfare of the Colony, and the happiness of 
the Inhabitants. You will at the same time add your best ex- 
hortations to those contained in our Proclamation for the preserva- 
tion of good order and the Publick peace and the Maintenance 
of the Laws, and in so doing you will assure the people of our 
determination to enforce and support the latter by every vigorous 
exertion which may be necessary. 

His Majesty the King of Great Britain being now Sole Sovereign 
of this Colony, you will carefully attend that no other power of 
what nature soever, be acknowledged or permitted to exercise any 
Act of Sovereignty within your district and you will observe that 
the Laws and all other Publick proceedings are in future to be 
executed in the Name of His Majesty, instead of that of the 
United States or the East India Company. 

You will correspond with the Commandant of the Colony on 
all matters relating to the discharge of your Duty as Landdrost, 
giving him the earliest and true account of all such matters as 
shall occur in your District which may in any wise concern the 
King's Government the interest of the people or the Publick peace. 

We are, &c, 

(Signed) Alured Clarke, 

G. K. Elpmnstone, 
J. H. Craig. 

Castle of Good IIorE the 15 day of October 1795. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 199 


By General Alured Clarke, Vice Admiral Sir G. K. Elphin- 
stone and Major General Craig &c., &c., &c. 

Whereas the good order and Government upon which depends 
the peace prosperity and happiness of the People, require that the 
Magistrates and officers of Justice should continue in their present 
employments and administer Justice in the name of His Britannick 
Majesty in the usual form and according to the Laws Customs 
and usages, which existed in the Colony previous to its Surrender 
untill the same be otherwise provided for, these are therefore in 
His Majesty's name to authorize, appoint, and require you . to 
continue to exercise the office of Landdrost of the district of 
(Graffe Eeynet): hereby investing you with all rights, powers, 
and authorities heretofore to the said office belonging, untill His 
Majesty's Pleasure signified to you by us, or by any Future 
Governor or Commander in Chief of the Colony for the time 
being, be known, and the Several Inhabitants of the said district 
as well as all others concerned, are hereby required and enjoined 
to pay all due obedience to you in all Manner of things relating 
to your said office as Landdrost and we do further direct that all 
other Magistrates and others heretofore enjoying offices of Police 
in the said district of (Graffe Eeynet) do continue to exercise their 
several Employments as usual till otherwise ordered, for which 
this shall be to you and to them a full and sufficient warrant. 

Given under our Hands and Seals at the Castle of Good Hope 
15th day of October 1795. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke, 

G. K. Elphinstone, 
J. H. Craig. 

200 Records of the Cape Colony. 


By General Alured Clarke, Vice Admiral Sir G. K. Elphin- 
stone and Major General Craig, &c, &c, &c. 

Whereas upon enquiry we find that various Land Rents and 
other Duties arising from Lands, due to the Dutch East India 
Company Late Possessors of this Colony, have been suffered to 
run into arrears, some of them for a great length of time, and that 
the collection of them has of late been the subject of much trouble, 
and disquietude to a number of families in the Province, we being 
desirous to quiet the minds of the several persons concerned, do 
think proper to give this Publick intimation that altho considering 
these dues as being now devolved on His Majesty we do not feel 
ourselves authorized without power for so doing to remit the same, 
yet relying on our knowledge of His Majesty's Gracious and 
benevolent intention towards the Inhabitants of this Colony, we 
shall abstain from enforcing the collection of any arrears of rents 
of Lands or other Duties arising from Lands due for more than 
one year back untill such time as we receive His Majesty's 
Intentions thereon. 

We do however at the same time think it incumbent on us to 
express our hope that no person will in future suffer any rent, or 
other Duty due to His Majesty, to run in arrears, it being our firm 
intention that such shall be regularly levied and that all who 
shall fail therein be proceeded against according to Law, and this 
we are the more fully resolved on from the just expectation that 
the Superior benefits now enjoyed by the Colony in the establish- 
ment of a free internal trade and the extension of its Commerce 
will enable the Inhabitants the better to pay the Just due to 
the King. 

Given under our Hands and Seals at the Castle of the Cape of 
Good Hope this 15th day of October 1795. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke, 

G. K. Elphinstone, 
J. H. Craig. 

Records of the Cape Colony ; 20 1 

Regulations for Licensing of Wine Houses. 

1st. The Vintners shall have the exclusive priviledge of selling 
Cape Wine and Brandy by retail to be drunk in the house, as also 
of all Cape Wine and. Brandy sold in quantities less than half an 
anker, and they may buy their Wine and Brandy of whom they 

2nd. They shall be bound to sell good & pure Wine and 
Brandy, for which purpose the Fiscal or other proper Officer shall 
be authorized to visit their Taverns or Cellars when he judges it 
necessary to examine their measures & to seize such unwholesome 
or adulterated Wine as he may find there. 

3rd. They shall not have their houses open or suffer any 
drinking in them after 9 o'clock at night or on Sunday during 
divine service on penalty of Twenty Dollars. 

4th. They shall not suffer any gaming in their houses either 
with Cards, dice or any other game, for which they shall not have 
a Special Licence on penalty of fifty Dollars. 

5th. They shall not purchase or take in Pledge from any British 
Soldier or Sailor any arms, accoutrements, Cloaths, shirts, shoes, 
stockings or in general any necessaries, nor shall they receive 
from any British Soldier or Sailor any article whatever on pay- 
ment for Wine or Brandy except money under penalty on Con- 
viction of Two hundred Dollars and on a Second Conviction to 
forfeit their Licence. 

6th. They shall not harbour or conceal any British Soldier or 
Sailor, but on the contrary shall be bound to give notice to the 
nearest guard of any British Soldier or Sailor who may be in their 
houses and persist in remaining there after nine o'clock under 
penalty of one hundred Dollars with the addition of forfeiture of 
their Licence if convicted of concealing any such. 

7th. Wine house men situated near a guard must be cautious 
with respect to the men of that guard, because if it is perceived 
that they are permitted to drink there while on Duty the Licence 
of such house shall not be renewed. 

8th. Every licensed wine house shall have on a board over the 
door in large characters Vergunt om Wijn en Brandewijn tc ver- 
konpen, and in English Licenced to sell Wine a ad, Brandy. 

202 Becords of the Cape Colony. 

9th. They shall be bound to follow such directions for the 
public tranquility and good order as may be found necessary & 
which may be issued by the government, the Fiscal, or any other 
proper officer so authorized. 

Castle of good Hope, 15th Day of October 1795. 

By Order of Major General Craig. 

(Signed) H. Eoss, Secretary. 


By James Henry Craig Esqr., Major General of His Britannick 
Majesty's army and Commandant of the Cape of Good Hope 
and its Dependencies, &c. } &c., &c. 

To all those that shall see or hear of these presents Salutation. 

Whereas we have taken into our consideration the necessity of 
an ordinance forbidding the Purchase or receiving in pawn of any 
Arms, Ammunition, Accoutrements, or Clothes, from Soldiers or 
Sailors, and to prevent any assistance being given to Deserters, 

We have therefore thought expedient to ordain and to forbid, 
and we forbid by these presents, every one to Purchase, to 
Exchange, to take in pawn or to detain upon any other pretext 
any Arms, Ammunition, Accoutrements, Clothes, Caps, or any 
other Furniture belonging to the King, or Shirts, Shoes or any other 
necessaries whatever from any Soldier or Sailor on penalty of 
Fifty Eixdollars for each offence or article thus bought, exchanged, 
taken in pawn or detained in any other wise. We also forbid any 
assistance being given to any Deserted Soldier or Sailor or any 
persuasions to be used to entice any Soldier or Sailor to desert His 
Majesty's service on penalty that those who might be discovered 
to have assisted harboured concealed or enticed any of the said 
Soldiers or Sailors shall forfeit for each offence and for each person 
Five hundred Eixdollars. 

Given under our Hand & Seal this 16th October 1795. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig, Major General. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 203 

[Copy of Translation.] 

Letter from the Members of the Council of Justice to 
General Craig. 

In the Council of Justice at the Cape of Good Hope, 
16th of October 1785. 

Honourable Sir, — The undersigned President and Members of 
the Court of Justice having been reestablished on the 9th instant 
in their former Functions and having taken the oath for that 
purpose, they have resumed their usual occupations to administer 
Justice to the Inhabitants of this Colony, so as the undersigned 
have been assembled extraordinarily today to determine a Lawsuit, 
which, concerning a forreigner and an Arrest upon an American 
Vessel, called Nancy, required an extraordinary speed. By this 
occasion the undersigned have agreed and they beg leave to 
represent to your Excellency by writing 

That the Court of Justice having consisted till now of a Pre- 
sident, who was at the same time a Member of the Council of 
Police, and of twelve Members, six of which were in the Service 
of the Company and the other Six were chosen from the Burghers. 
The President and the first mentioned six Members had Salaries 
from the said Company, but the six Members of the Burghers have 
born the said office without any particular Salary. 

That the President who had formerly only the salary and 
Emoluments of a titular senior Merchant, amounting to 534 Rix- 
dollars a year, considers that the office of Bookkeeper of the 
General Revenues of this Colony has been given to him on purpose 
as an equivalent for the extraordinary and important occupations 
of a President of the Court of Justice, because the Bevenues 
arising from the office of the said Bookkeepership surpassed very 
much the Salary of 4,000 Rixdollars a year of the other Members 
of the Council of Police. 

That some of the six Members who were in the service of the 
Company had above their usual small Salary of titular Merchants 
the Revenues arising from those offices which they bore besides 
that of Councellor of Justice, as for instance the first undersigned 
as Fiscal, the fifth as public Salemaster and Commissioner of the 
Lombard, and the eighth as Storekeeper which offices provided them 
with a reasonable Reward for their office of Members of the Court 

204 Records of the Cape Colony. 

of Justice, whilst the other three members, although they had not 
more than the salary of a Junior Merchant, amounting to 23 Bix- 
dollars 5 Schellings 2 Styvers a month yet they had always not 
only the prospect and could lay claim upon every vacant office 
convenient for a Member of Justice, but also upon a Seat in the 
Council of Police and consequently upon the usual Salary of 
4,000 Kixdollars a year. 

That the Members from the Burghers must declare that although 
they have the charge of the office of Judges permanently, yet they 
have forborne for particular reasons to insist upon any Salary, but 
that although they have thought to prove thereby their Dis- 
interestedness and that they could not be kept back by any 
consideration of self interest from answering the purpose for which 
they were placed as Members in the Court of Justice, they never 
have been so happy as to receive any thankfullness on the part of 
their fellow Burghers. 

And whereas now at the Eeestablishment of the Court of 
Justice, the above mentioned revenues of the President and of the 
prospects of a Seat in the Council of Police of some of the other 
Members formerly Servants to the Company, are stopped, and that 
the other Members chosen from the Burghers are now on the same 
footing as all the other Members, so that the Difference which 
existed heretofore between the Servants of the Company and the 
Burghers is now ceased, and whereas the undersigned hope that 
Your Excellency will find but just that all the Counsellors of 
Justice may have a salary proportioned to their trouble, Besponsi- 
bility, and to their quality, they take the liberty. to request Your 
Excellency will be pleased to appoint the salary which you will 
allow as well to the President as to the other Members of the Court 
of Justice for the future. 

The undersigned submitting this request to the equitable con- 
sideration of your Excellency excepting the Fiscal who considers 
the office of a Member of the Court of Justice as a natural 
consequence of his office of Fiscal and therefore is to regard 
himself paid for the first mentioned office by the salary of the 
office of Fiscal, they beg further leave to represent to your 

That whereas by the Surrender of this Colony a natural change 
has taken place concerning the government of the same, and the 
usual Businesses in the office of the Secretary of Police are now 

Records of the Cape Colony. 205 

ceased and thereby caused an interruption in the necessary 
Transactions of the Commissioners of the Court of Justice relative 
to the transferring of Immoveables sold between the Inhabitants, 
the passing of Mortgages or other stamped Acts, and the keeping 
of the general publick Eegisters of Debts, as all the aforesaid is of 
the utmost importance to the Inhabitants and especially to the 
administration of Justice, wherefore the undersigned have thought 
it incumbent upon them to lay it before your Excellency in order 
that you may be enabled to reestablish also these very important 
and necessary Transactions. 

The undersigned beg leave to observe on that point, which is 
on all sides very important, that the Commissioners, who have 
been always present at the said transferrings, passings of Mortgages 
and Eegisterings, have been also answerable for the same and that 
it has happened more than once, that Immoveables having been 
transferred without liquidating beforehand the Mortgages on the 
same the said Commissioners who had trusted themselves upon 
the Exactness of the first sworn clerk, have found themselves, 
several years afterwards, troubled with expensive Proceedings at 
Law, because the said Eegister being in custody of the Secretary 
of Police the said Commissioners had no such opportunity to 
oversee the same as their responsibility and the good order 
required, whilst from an irregular Direction of the said Eegister 
more than once have arisen such Proceedings at law as have caused 
the ruin of several rich people, — as also have arisen more than 
once many troubles because of the slow Despatch of transferrings, 
Mortgages, &c, without any possibility on the part of the said 
Commissioners of remedying a matter of such infinite importance 
for the publick security because the officers employed in the office 
of the Secretary of Police depended not from the Court of Justice 
but Directly from the governor. 

The undersigned take therefore also the liberty to request your 
Excellency will be pleased to order so well the acts of transferrings 
of Immoveables and other such publick and Stamped Acts as the 
said Eegister of Debts to be delivered by a due Inventory to the 
Court of Justice to be Deposited in the office of it's Secretary and 
to qualify the said Court of Justice to cause the above mentioned 
acts henceforth to be passed in it's Council Chamber or in the 
said office of it's Secretary to the end that the said Members of 
the Court of Justice may be enabled to direct themselves all what 

206 Records of the Cape Colony. 

concerns the said transactions, for which they are answerable not 
only but also to take the necessary care of the Dispatch and 
Exactness of the same. 

The undersigned take finally the liberty to lay before your 
Excellency, that before the Surrender of this Colony, the Sentences 
of the Court of Justice were subject to appeals, so that any body, 
who might think himself grieved by any Sentence, had a right to 
appeal to the Court of Justice at Batavia, in which terms there 
are yet some Matters, but of which the papers have not as yet 
been forwarded to Batavia, and as the parties apply usually to the 
Court of Justice here for the prosecution of their appeal and the 
undersigned not being longer in any relation with the Govern- 
ment of Batavia, they request your Excellency will be pleased to 
provide them with such orders and to make such Dispositions on 
that point, as your Excellency will judge expedient for the wel- 
fare of the Colony, without prejudice to the government of His 
Britannick Majesty. The undersigned have the honor to be &c. 

(Signed) 0. G. de Wet, 

W. S. VAN Byneveld, 
Johs. Smuts, 

B. J. van der Biet, 

C. Matthiessen, 
H. J. de Wet, 

J. P. Baumgardt, 
A. Fleck, 
C. Cruywagen, 
P. J. Truter, 
H. Warnecke. 


£y JaMES Henry Craig, Major General, Commandant of the 
Town the Colony <fe Dependencies of the Cape of Good Hope, 
Sec, (fee, &c. 

Whereas it is judged expedient that the revenues arising from 
the Stamp paper should for the present continue on the same 
footing as heretofore, 

Records of the Cape Colony. 207 

We herewith make known to all persons that the same Stamps 
as heretofore used will be issued at the regular office, but that no 
transaction bearing date after the day of surrender of this Colony 
to the Arms of His Britannick Majesty will be legal where the 
stamp used on the occasion has not been countersigned by the 
Secretary to the Commandant. 

Given in the Castle of Good Hope this 20th Day of October 

By order of Major General Craig. 

(Signed) H. Eoss, Secretary. 


By James Henry Craig, Esquire, Major General, Commandant 
of the Town, the Colony and Dependencies of the Cape of Good 
Hope, &c, &c, &c t 

Whereas information has been received that depredations are 
daily committed upon the Wood lands of this Government, 

Notice and Warning is hereby given that any persons hereafter 
detected in cutting or carrying away such wood will be apprehended 
and punished as the law directs, and that any Carriage, Slaves or 
others so employed will be seized and not restored to their owners 
till the penalty enacted by the Law be satisfied, and 

Whereas it has been discovered that Slaves have taken away 
the palisades surrounding the works of the Castle, 

Notice and Warning is hereby given to them and to their 
Masters, that the Gentries, Guards & Patroles have express 
directions to fire on any one whom they may detect in the 
commission of such offence. 

Given in the Castle of Good Hope this 20th Day of October 

By order of Major General Craig. 

(Signed) H. Ross, Secretary. 

208 Records of the Cape Colony, 

[Copy of Translation.] 
Letter from the Burghers of Graaff-Eeinet to General Craig. 

October 29th 1795. 

Honble Sir, — The undersigned supposing that the Inhabitants 
of this District may perhaps be represented in a very bad light to 
Your Excellency by the one or other revengefull Servant of the 
Company, without touching upon any one of their legal Grievances, 
have therefore thought expedient to demonstrate the principal 
reasons of their Discontent and their Grievances to Your Excel- 
lency by these presents, viz. 

That the Inhabitants would rather never have meddled with 
any Disturbance, if the Taxes were not become intolerable, and 
if we had been able to suffer our Country, which we love as 
ourselves, to be reduced to a state of poverty, hunger and of 
wretched Widows and Orphans, and to become the prey to the 
barbarous Heathens. And as this extensive District can only be 
defended by Cavalry, the Burghers alone have borne the charge 
since 26 a 28 years, of what the Company would otherwise have 
cost several Millions, namely the Defence, with our Goods and 
Blood, of this District, which the Cape Town and the Navigation 
cannot dispense with. 

Notwithstanding the said Services and the humblest Eepresenta- 
tions, the Burghers have been from time to time more oppressed 
with Taxes, whilst the principal Products have been farmed 
out and thereby kept at low prices, nay! whilst the Burghers 
have been interdicted on various penalties to sell their Products 
to or to purchase something of Foreigners, and have received only 
paper Money, which the Company had promised to exchange as 
soon as the Ships would arrive from Holland, and by which 
Money the Burghers have 'been deprived of every opportunity 
to get their necessaries from Europe or from elsewhere, whilst 
the Immoveables of the Inhabitants have been caused to be sold 
with great loss for the said base Money, and whereby the whole 
Country has been rendered insolvent. This has been at first, not 
much perceived but afterwards very well conceived to have been 
practised in order to get all the Money in a subtle and deceitfull 

Records of the Cape Colony. 209 

manner in the Treasury of the Company, whilst it is none of the 
Faults of the said Inhabitants that the Company has lost so many 

On that account the Honble. Company, with all its unlawfull 
Servants, has been dismissed, as we have resolved not to obey 
any longer the Laws of, nor to pay any Kevenue of Lands, Excise, 
Stamp duty nor the 2£ per Cent for the Immoveables which are 
sold, to the Company ; and as we judge it not legal to pay any 
Taxes for Lands and Places which we have always been obliged 
to defend at our own expences, with danger and loss of much 
Goods and blood. But we have never thought that the said 
District could be without any Protector ; The Burghers have also 
therefore never opposed themselves against Their High Mighti- 
nesses the States General, nor against the Honble. Commissary 
Sluysken, nor against all those who are not guilty of the Destruc- 
tion of the Country, and if we are insimulated to the contrary, we 
declare, as the Vote of the People, that it is not true but false. 
Also it has never been our Intention not to pay any Tribute to 
a lawfull Government, which has in view the wellfare of the 
Country, but we will pay nothing to those who work out its 

The reason why the Landdrost Maynier has been sent away 
is because that, standing for a higher Office, he has reduced the 
Burghers to poverty, not only in behalf of the Company but 
by his own covetousness, and the District would partly have 
been lost to the inlandish Enemy by his perverse Direction, if 
we had not prevented it betimes by stopping the Transgressions 
of the said Enemies, as we are daily busy to chase the Caffres 
from our District. 

And the Burgher War Officer Cornells Coetzee and two Heem- 
raden named Hendrik Meyntjes van den Berg and Stephanus 
Naude have been dismissed on account of their sacrificing, con- 
trary to their Oath and Duty, the general Wellfare to the vain 
Friendship of the Landdrost, by agreeing always with the same, 
so that in this case neither Burghers nor servants of the Company 
have been spared, altho' they have been very moderately and thus 
not deservingly dealt with. 

Thereupon it has been judged expedient by the general Vote of 
the People to choose Representatives to maintain the Eights and 
Interests of the Burghers before the respective Colleges, which our 


210 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Heemraaden and War Officers having agreed to, and who have 
moreover approved that the said Eepresentatives shall always 
take place in the Assembly. 

Further it has been judged expedient to appoint the Burgher 
lieutenant Carel David Gerotz, in expectation of approbation 
or till further Orders, as provisional Landdrost, the Messenger 
of this District J. V. Oertel as provisional Secretary, and the 
Servant J. B. Wiese as provisional Messenger, and by these 
means to take care of the Maintenance of the Constitution 
of this District, whilst the Discontent of the Burghers is 
thereby changed in good order. All which is now left to Your 
Excellency's approbation ; as the Decay of this District has 
the greatest influence upon the whole Colony of the Cape of 
Good Hope, upon the Navigation and upon the Agriculture, 
since this District is the Storehouse of Meat and Cattle for 

The Undersigned request therefore very pressingly Your Excel- 
lency will be pleased to appoint for our District, as soon as 
possible, proper Magistrates and to provide the said District 
with the necessary Gunpowder and Lead for the preservation 
of the same. 

The Undersigned request Your Excellency will also be pleased 
to provide our Church, which is extructed and already half finished 
at the expence of the poor Inhabitants, with a Parson, and as 
we know but as yet chuse to forbear speaking of the reasons 
why our Parson, in a subtle manner, is gone from us, notwith- 
standing we had assured him under our Colour of his safety, 
we hope that he will repent of it and return again to his forsaken 

We are still destitute of Your Excellency's respectable Orders, 
which we expect in order to know how to behave ourselves in 
our present critical Situation, whilst we have the honour most 
humbly to assure Your Excellency that, according to our Oath 
and Duty, we will not fail to contribute to the preservation and 
wellfare of this Country and to chuse as soon as possible some 
Persons to have the honour to give Your Excellency a verbal and 
nearer Account of this District. 

We have been commanded by the general Vote of the People 
to represent all the aforesaid to Your Excellency and expect a 
favourable answer, and after having recommended Your Excel- 

llecordx of the Cape Colony. 211 

lency in the Protection of the Supreme Being, we have the 
honour to be most respectfully, Honble. Sir, 

Your Excellency's most obedient Servants, 

(Signed) Carel David Gerotz, provisional 
A. van Jaarsveld, Captain, 
Andries Adriaan Smit, Cornet, 

From the Burghers : 

(Signed) A. A. Smit, senior, 

Georg Frederik Enslin. 

As Representatives : 

(Signed) A. H. Krugel, 
J. Joubert. 

[Office Copy.] 
Letter from the War Office to Major-General Craig. 

Horse Gcabds 30 October 1795. 

Sir, — Your Dispatches of the 16 & 27 June reached me on the 
20th September last, and I have had the honor to lay them before 
the King. I have since received Vice- Admiral Sir George Keith 
Elphinstone's Letter of the 18th August communicating the 
satisfactory intelligence that the pass of Muysenberg and the 
Dutch Camp by which it was defended had been taken possession 
of by His Majesty's Troops under Your Command. The possession 
of tliis Post I trust will materially improve your position, and 
facilitate your future operations against the Cape, and, altho' 
nothing appears to have occurred to require any particular 
Instructions from me, I avail myself with pleasure of the 
opportunity of the Dart Packet to signify to you His Majesty's 
perfect approbation of your conduct in the transactions in which 
you have been engaged since your arrival off the Cape. I have 
in addition only to inform you that the Sum of about £20,000 
Sterling will be forwarded on board of the Dart in chests con- 
signed to you, containing Dollars to that amount. 

I cannot however close my Dispatch without expressing my 

r 2 

212 Records of the Cape Colony. 

satisfaction at the prospect which the Vice Admiral's Letter 
affords that the same concert and activity which have hitherto 
directed your joint operations will have ensured a favorable issue 
t ) them in that quarter of the World. 

[Office Copy.] 
Letter from the War Office to Vice- Admiral Elphinstone. 

Horse Guards 30 October 1795. 

Sir, — Your Dispatches of the 17th and 27th June were received 
on the 20th September last, and the Hornet Sloop which arrived 
a few days ago brought me Your Letter of the 18th August with 
the satisfactory intelligence that the important Post of Muysenberg 
had been taken possession of by His Majesty's forces. 

The several communications transmitted by you relative to 
the proceedings of the Force under your Command in concert 
with Major General Craig since your arrival off the Cape do not 
appear to require any particular Instructions from me ; but I 
cannot omit the opportunity of the Dart Packet to express to you 
His Majesty's perfect approbation of your conduct in your trans- 
actions with the persons in the command at the Cape, and my 
firm reliance that the same prudence and activity will have 
brought our operations in that quarter to a favorable issue, and 
that you will have been enabled to proceed to the accomplishment 
of the other objects of your Instructions. 


,By their Excellencies General Alured Clarke, Vice- Admiral 
Sir George Keith Elphinstone, K.B., and James Henry 
Craig, Esqr., Major- General of His Britannick Majesty's 
Army and Commandant of the Cape of Good Hope and its 
dependencies &c, &c, &c. 

Whereas it has been judged expedient to throw open the 
business of auctioneering to all Persons willing to exercise it, 

Records of the Cape Colony. 213 

under no other restrictions but such as may appear necessary 
both for the Security of the Publick and that of His Majesty's 
Revenue, — the Publick is therefore hereby informed that for these 
purposes no one will be permitted to act as Auctioneer without 
having taken out a licence, the conditions of which may be seen 
by application at the Secretary's office, and one of which is, that 
they shall give good & sufficient security in the sum of 12,000 
Rixdollars for the faithfull discharge of their Duty to the Publick, 
and all Persons are hereby strictly prohibited from exercising the 
business of auctioneer, without such licence signed by the members 
of His Majesty's Board of Revenue, to whom the security afore- 
said is to be given. 

And whereas of the usual Taxes of Five per Cent on moveables 
and 2£ per Cent on immoveables heretofore paid on all sales by 
auction \\ were received on behalf of the Dutch East India 
Company, in order therefore to continue the receipt of the same 
revenue of His Majesty, as near as is possible without those 
fractious which would be troublesome in calculating and col- 
lecting, — all moveable goods sold by auction are in future to 
pay 3£ per Cent and all immoveables If per Cent, for the 
collection and payment of which the Auctioneer is answerable 
as prescribed by the Conditions of his license. 

And whereas it has been represented to us that the Stamp Duty 
paid on the sale of all goods by auction, which was collected by 
the sale bill being made out on a stamped paper in proportion to 
the amount thereof, has been found to be extremely oppressive 
and to bear particularly on the poorer purchasers of small lots 
who are less able to pay any additional price than the purchasers 
of large lots can on the higher amount of theirs, we therefore in 
furtherance of His Majesty's gracious intentions towards the 
Inhabitants of this Colony, and in the wish to afford them such 
relief as in such cases may be in our power, do hereby abolish 
such Stamp Duty on all bills of sale the amount of which is less 
than One Hundred Rixdollars, all such bills of sale as are for 
sums under One Hundred Dollars as aforesaid being to be made 
on cum men paper, Provided however that no bill of sale be 
delivered to the purchaser until the entire sale be ended altho' 
such sale should continue for several days, and the amount of 
all the lots purchased at one sale are to be contained in one bill 
on the penalty of 500 Dollars on the Auctioneer failing herein 

214 Records of the Cape Colony. 

and of ten times the amount of the Duty which would be evaded 
by such practice on the purchaser. The Bills of Sale for all sums 
amounting to One Hundred Eixdollars and upwards are to be 
made out on the same Stamp as usual. 

Given under our Hands in the Castle of Good Hope this 30th 
day of October 1795. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke, 

G. K. Elphinstone, 
J. H. Craig. 


Conditions on which Licences will be granted to Persons desirous 
of becoming Vendue Master. 

1. Every Person desirous of following the Business of Vendue 
Master must take out an annual Licence from the Eevenue on a 
Stamp of 50 rds. 

2. Such Person must find good and sufficient security of two 
Persons, each equally bound in the Several Sums of 12,000 and 
8,000 Eds. between them, the first being intended as a Security 
to the Publick to be applied to answer the demands which may 
be against him in case of Bankruptcy or otherwise, the remaining 
Security of 8,000 Eds. to answer any demand which may be 
against him on the part of the revenue. 

3. The Vendue Master must be answerable to the Persons 
employing him for the amount of the sale of the Property after 
deducting the duty payable to Government and his fee, He shall 
be obliged to pay such Money as shall arise from the sale of 
Property situated in the Cape Town or within two hours of it, 
within tjie space of three Months, and for all Money which shall 
arise from tjie sale of any other Property within six Months after 
the sale of the goods. 

4. The duties to Government shall be 3 \ per Cent on Moveables 
and 1| per Cent on the Sale of Lands and Houses, which the 
Vendue Master must pay into the hands of His Majesty's Eeceiver 
General in the same period of Three Months and Six Months after 
the sale upon which they became due. 

5. He must send to the office of the Collector of duties not 

Records of the Cape Colony. 215 

depending upon Land, within the Space of 48 Hours after every 
Sale, a Sale Bill specifying the name of the Person whose Property 
has heen sold, together with the exact amount of the sale of each 
separate Article or lot, this sale bill must be signed by himself, 
and any willful omission or deviation from the truth in it shall 
subject the Vendue Master to a penalty of ten times the sum so 
omitted or which may be the amount of the article on which any 
deviation of the truth may have taken place. 

6. He shall keep exact and regular Books which shall be subject 
to the inspection of the Government, of the Board of Revenues, 
and of the Collector of Revenues not dependant on Land, as often 
as he or they shall send for them, for which purpose the Vendue 
Master shall be obliged to produce them at any Hour specified 
after 12 hours notice delivered in writing, under a penalty of 
500 rds. 

7. The Auction Bill must be written on Stamp Paper as hereto- 
fore, which Stamp Paper the Vendue Master must purchase as 
usual, but all bills of sale where the amount is less than an 
Hundred rds. are to be made on unstamped Paper. 

8. Auctions must be held in the most Publick manner, and 
leave must be first obtained as usual. All articles purchased by 
the same person in any one sale altho' such sale should continue 
several days, are to be included in one Bill of Sale, on the penalty 
in failure hereof by the Auctioneer of 500 rds. to which said 
penalty the auctioneer shall also be liable in case of any practice 
tending to defraud His Majesty's revenue by any seperation of 
Lots or otherwise to evade the payment of the Stamp duty in all 
Bills amounting to 100 rds. & upward. 

9. The Vendue Master being responsible for the proceeds of the 
Sale shall as has heretofore been customary have the right of 
speedy execution (Parate Executio) where found necessary and 
shall within the time of one year have the first claim on the 
goods sold by him. 

Having read and duly considered the above conditions, we the 
undersigned bind ourselves to strictly follow the same and to 
bring the security required of us. 

Castle of Good Hope 30th October 1795. 


Records of the Cape Colony. 


Return of Requirements for Slaves. 

The present Number of Slaves & banished Indians belonging to 
the Slave Lodge consists of 516 but 42 thereof serve as Caffers & 
receive their allowance in Money, therefore 474 are the actual 
number of those who are nourished & Provided with Clothes in 
the said Lodge, for whom the following quantity of several articles 
will be required yearly according to their Usual Allowance as 
near as the same can be computed, viz., 



. St. 

197,180 lbs. Bread @ 8 lb. per week 

. 3765 



129,575 lbs. Meat @ f lb. per day . 

. 4049 



3,600 lbs. Eice .... 


156 Muids of Pease 

. 780 

156 Muids of Beans 

. 624 

156 Muids of Meal . 

. 468 

1 \ Leaguer Wine . 


2£ „ Vinegar 


1 „ Brandy 


360 lbs. Powder Sugar . 


200 lbs. Pepper . 


Salt, Train Oil, &c. . 


4200 Bunches of Herbs . 

. 175 

For Physick 


36 ps Lint for Wounds . 



120 Ells Linen for do. . 


6 lbs. Tea . . . . 



12 lbs. Soap 


730 Watch Candles 




Clothes for 299 Man Slaves 


31 Boys. 


„ 117 Women Slaves . 


27 Girls. 


Salary for the Surgeon 


„ „ Writer , 


„ „ Gatekeeper . 


„ „ 6 Drivers , 






Records of the Cape Colon//. 217 


Memorandum relative to tlie Salaries and Emoluments enjoyed by 
the Governor of the Cape of Good Hope under the Dutch East 
India Company. 

Mr. Sluysken who we found in the Seat of Government here 
was never appointed Governor. He was one of the Commissioners 
General who in the year 1792 came here on special commission 
from the Company to regulate their affairs in the Indies. 

This Settlement with which they began was found to be in such 
a state of disorder and to require so many reforms that it was 
thought expedient that one of the Commissioners should remain 
here. Mr. Sluysken enjoyed extraordinary Power, having a right 
to act for himself independent of his Council and was looked on 
in every respect as superior in rank to what had been usually 
considered as attached to the station of Governor. He never had 
any express salary affixed to his situation. He as well as the 
other Commissaries looked forward to a future remuneration for 
their Labours, which w r ere certainly highly beneficial to the 
Company's Interests. What he received was an allowance fixed 
on by himself with the other Commissaries for his maintenance, 
and was 30,000 Dutch florins per annum, together with his 
Costgeld, the whole amounting, as given to me by himself, to 
1,116 dollars 5 schellings and 2 stivers per month, besides which 
he had 2,400 fl. per annum paid him in Holland. 

The pay and allowances of Governor Van de Graaff, who was the 
Governor before the arrival of Mr. Sluysken although Mr. Rhenius 
was in the temporary command during a short time between them, 
was as follows : — 

Pay 200 fl. per month . . per annum Rds. 1,000 

Emoluments, an allowance paid in money 

though under this denomination . 3,967 18 

Allowance upon 1493 Leaguers of wine 
and 204 of Brandy taken for the service 
of the Company, computed one year with 
another at 20 Cape florins per Leaguer 11,313 16 

Extra allowance of 18,000 florins com- 
puted by means of exchange at . . 9,000 

Rds7~25,280 34 
or Pounds Sterling 5,056 


Records of the Cape Colony. 

Governor Van de Graaf and his Predecessors had every expence 
attending their household paid by the Company who also provided 
Servants, Slaves, horses and furniture, while several farms and 
country houses were reserved solely for their use. These were 
struck off by the Commissaries and the farms and country houses 
sold with the exception of one or two, which were left and which 
Mr. Sluysken enjoyed. 

(Initialed) J. H. C. 


Return of Duties paid at the Cape Town. 

On Impoktation. 

For every Slave Eds. 10 

For all Commodities imported by English 

Ships ...... 5 pro cent 

Do by Foreign Ships . . . . 10 pro cent 

But the produce of the Colony transported by Sea in vessels 
belonging to the Inhabitants must be exempt from the said Duty, 
and only the usual Tythes of the Corn and Duty of the wine and 
Brandy are to be levied, as if the same were brought to Town 
by land. 

On Expoktation. 

For all Commodities not herein specified & which are exported 
from the Table Bay, False Bay & any other Bay of this Colony 
5 pro cent of the Cost is to be paid. 

1 Muid (about 4 bushels) of Corn, 
Barley, Pease or Beans 

1 Muid of Bran 
100 lbs. Flour, Butter, Tallow, 

grease and aloes 
100 lbs. Candles 
100 lbs. Biscuit . 
100 lbs. Salted Pork or Beef 
100 Tanned Sheep Skins 
100 lbs. Elephants Teeth . 

2 Seal Skins . 

16 Stivers. 












. 1 Rd. 


. 1 Rd. 



Records of the Cape Colony. 


1 Hide of an Ox 

3£ Stivers 

1 Leaguer of Wine . 

. 5 Rds. 

1 „ of Brandy 

.5 „ „ 

1 Ham .... 

6 „ 

1 Cheese . 

6 „ 

Whale Fins 5 pro cent. 

The produce of this Country and Europe Commodities on being 
transported from one Bay of this Colony to any other shall be free 
of duty of import or export, but a regular permit must be taken 
out of the Custom House, or Certificate from the Collector of 
duties in any of the Bays that such goods Merchandize or wares 
have been regularly entered. 

Land Revenue at the Barrier, viz. 

For 10 Sacks of Corn . 

. . 

Eds. 2 



„ 10 „ Barley. 





„ 10 „ Pease . 

.. • 


„ 10 „ Beans . 

• . 


„ 1 Leaguer Wine or 



Four per cent upon houses that are sold. 


Letter from General Craig to the President and Members of 
the Court of Justice. 

Castle of Good Hope, 1th November 1795. 

Gentlemen, — I have had the Honor of your letter of the 16th 
Ultimo requesting that I will appoint the salary which I will 
allow to the President & Members of the Court of Justice. 

An ardent wish to spare the Inhabitants the inconvenience of 
being governed by martial Law, which however competent to the 
decision of such criminal matters as might come under it's cogni- 
zance, is however but ill adapted to the determining of the more 
complicated cases of civil suits, made us extremely sollicitous 
that the Court of Justice should be restored to their functions as 
speedily as possible, and that they should proceed according to the 

220 Records of the Cape Colony. 

known & established Laws -& usages of the Province, this therefore 
became the object of our earliest attention and you were in 
consequence empowered to resume your offices exactly as you had 
exercised them under the Government of the Dutch East India 
Company. Under that government I do not find that any Salary 
has been annexed to your offices, and altho' His Majesty's Com- 
manders have in the instance of an entirely new appointment, 
thought themselves authorized to pay such Salary as appeared 
expedient to them till His Majesty's pleasure shall be known, yet 
they by no means think themselves at liberty to make any 
alteration in such as are already established or to grant any to 
offices which have been formerly exercised without. I shall 
however Gentlemen take the earliest opportunity of representing 
the case to His Majesty's Government & requesting Instruction on 
it. I must at the same time observe to you that if the King is to 
pay Salaries for the administration of Justice here it will doubtless 
be an object of consideration to His Majesty whether the same 
administration of Justice may not take place without the employ- 
ment of so great a number as 12 Members in the Court. 

With respect to the business which fyas been usually carried on 
at the Secretary's office particularly the Eegister of Debts and 
Mortgages I have given the necessary direction that it should be 
continued exactly in the same manner as formerly as I do not 
think it would be proper to make any change in the mode of 
conducting a business which appears to be of importance. The 
Strictest Injunctions are given to the Secretary to observe the 
utmost attention to the regularity of the proceedings as well as 
that the necessary access to the Books may be readily afforded to 
the Members of the Court of Justice. Whatever inconveniencies 
may have formerly happened I shall hope that none such will be 
now experienced and I should apprehend that still greater to the 
Public might occur from any change which might take place from 
the usual mode. 

The usual appeal from the Courts here to those at Batavia can 
no longer take place, and it is unquestionably expedient that some 
mode be adopted as speedily as the due consideration of so weighty 
a matter will admit, for providing in future for appeal which the 
parties may think necessary. However sensibly I may feel this, 
yet I cannot take upon me any part of the administration of 
Justice not warranted by the practice of the former government by 

Records of the Cape. Colony. 221 

admitting of an appeal to myself, nor can I authorize any such to 
His Majesty untill I receive His Royal Instructions upon it. 

I am, &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

Memorial of Officers to General Clarke. 

Cape Town, 8th November 1795. 

To His Excellency General Alured Clarke, Commander in Chief 
of His Majesty's Forces employed or to be employed on a Secret 

The Memorial of the Officers commanding Corps on the said 
Expedition in the names of themselves, the Officers, Non-Com- 
missioned Officers, and Soldiers of their respective Corps employed 
on the same Expedition, states 

That considering the manner in which this Colony was taken 
possession of, and that probably such changes may have taken 
place as may induce His Majesty in His goodness to award the 
publick property belonging to the late Dutch East India Company 
taken in False Bay and Cape Town or other parts of the Colony as 
a prize to the Detachment of His Majesty's Forces which composed 
the conjunct Expedition, under the command of Your Excellency 
and Sir George Keith Elphinstone ; 

Your Memorialists in behalf of themselves and the respective 
Corps under their command do earnestly petition Your Excellency 
may so represent them to His Majesty that they may become 
sharers of His Majesty's Royal Bounty. 

(Signed) John H. Yorke, Major comg. R. Artillery, 
G. Bridges, Captain comg. R. Engineers, 
R. C. Ferguson, Lt.-Col. 2nd 84th Rt., 
G. N. Vansittart, Lieut.- Col. comg. 95th Rt, 
Dun. Campbell, Lieut. Col. comg. 98th Rt., 
Mich. Moneypenny, Major 2nd 78th Rt. 

222 Records of the Cape Colony. 


By J. H. Craig Esqr. Major General and Commandant of the 
Colony of the Cape of Good Hope &c., &c., &c. 

It having been the declared. Intention of His Majesty's Com- 
manders now exercising the Administration of Government in His 
Eoyal name that all Matters shall remain on the same footing as 
when under the Government of the Dutch East India Company, 
unless otherwise ordered, untill His Majesty's pleasure shall be 
known, and it appearing that certain distinctions of Hank and 
certain Titles have been allotted by the former Government to 
their Servants and Burghers according to the several offices which 
they enjoyed, which distinctions of Hank and title were directed 
to be continued altho such Persons quitted the service of the 
Company or their office. These are therefore to direct and require 
that all Persons do conform to the intentions aforesaid of His 
Majesty's Government, and that such distinctions of Bank and 
titles according to their several offices be continued to the Officers 
of the Dutch East India Company and to the Burghers in the 
same manner as heretofore. 

Given at the Castle of Good Hope the 10th of November 1795. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

Memorial of General Clarke to His Majesty. 

To the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 

The Memorial and humble petition of Major General Alured 
Clarke in behalf of himself, Major General James Henry Craig, 
and all the Officers, Soldiers and others Serving on the Conjunct 
Expedition under his Command, 
Most Dutifully Sheweth 

That Your Majesty's Memorialist was Honored with a Special 
Commission appointing him General and Commander in Chief of 
all and singular your Forces employed and to be employed on a 

Records of the Cape Colony. 223 

Secret Expedition for your Service, agreeable to such Instructions 
as Your Majesty should think fit to give for that purpose, which 
Instructions were given through the Right Honorable Henry 
Dundas, One of Your Majesty's^Principal Secretaries of State, and 
amongst other things direct the Conjunct Forces to proceed in the 
manner and for the purposes therein pointed out to the Cape of 
Good Hope ; and in the event of not being able to obtain Posses- 
sion of that Settlement upon the terms that Your Majesty was 
pleased to offer, Your Commanders in Chief were directed to make 
an immediate and vigorous Attack, and by such means take 
possession of it in Your Majesty's name, which was done and 
effected by Capitulation on the Sixteenth of September 1795, 
whereby the whole Colony submitted to Your Majesty, and all the 
public property belonging to the Dutch East India Company was 
placed in their hands, consisting of great Variety of Articles afloat 
and ashore, amongst others two Dutch East India Ships and some 
Stores and Merchandize found at Simon's Bay, and three more 
Ships that came to and were taken possession of in False Bay after 
Your Majesty's Squadron commanded by Vice Admiral Sir George 
Keith Elphinstone, having Major General Craig and the Troops 
with him on board, had arrived there, but previous to your 
Memorialist and the Chief Body of your Army having joined 
them. All which public property has, as far as was in the power 
of the Memorialist, been deposited agreeable to Your Majesty's 
Commands expressed in Mr. Secretary Dundas's letter of the 
sixteenth of February on that head, to wait Your Royal pleasure 
respecting the further disposal of it. 

That, though neither Your Majesty's petitioner nor any part of 
the Army under his command presume under the peculiar cir- 
cumstances of the case to lay the smallest claim to any portion of 
the aforementioned public Effects that have been captured by the 
Conjunct Expedition but what may arise from Your Majesty's 
paternal goodness towards them, He and they nevertheless have 
thought it right and their Duty thus, with all Submission and 
humility, to approach the Throne, to offer themselves to Your 
Majesty's Gracious Consideration, and solicit to be partakers of 
Your Royal Bounty in the Event of the before mentioned Effects 
being disposed of in the manner that is pointed out in the Act of 
the 23rd of your Majesty's, Cap. 66, with regard to prizes taken 
by Your Forces employed on a Conjunct Expedition under Your 

224 Records of thx Cape Colony. 

Instructions for that purpose, to such extent and in such propor- 
tions as Your Majesty in Your great wisdom shall be graciously 
pleased to determine and direct. 

All which is most Dutifully and most humbly submitted. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke. 

Cape of Good Hope, 12th November 1795. 


Letter from General Clarke to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Cape Town, Cape op Good Hope, November 1795. 

Sir, — Having been honored with His Majesty's Commission as 
General and Commander in Chief on the Secret Expedition to the 
Cape of Good Hope, in conjunction with Vice Admiral Sir George 
Keith Elphinstone, to which place Major General Craig and Captain 
Blankett had preceded, I arrived there with the Troops under my 
more immediate command on the 3rd of September ; and finding 
that all Overtures made to the Dutch Government had been 
rejected, and Major General Craig with the Soldiers, Seamen, and 
Marines were on shore in open hostility against it, I lost no time 
in carrying His Majesty's Orders, communicated to me by you, 
into Execution, and through the zeal and indefatigable Exertions 
of the Forces employed, the Town and Colony surrendered by 
Capitulation on the 16th of September; whereby all the property 
of the Dutch East India Company found therein was made subject 
to His Majesty's Will. And it became my duty, as it has been 
my care to the utmost of my power, to have all the public 
property captured within the Limits of the Settlement deposited 
in security for His Majesty's determination, agreeable to the 
Instructions contained in your Secret Letter of February the 16th, 
which Instructions I had flattered myself would, by leaving the 
decision of all other points respecting it where alone they ought 
to rest, have prevented any distinction being made by any part of 
the Army or Navy as to what steps should be taken with regard 
to what was captured in this, that, or t'other situation ; but as this 
is not the case, and there has been some discussion respecting two 

Records of the Cape Colony. 225 

Ships and some Stores found at Simon's Bay on the first division 
of the Conjunct Expedition arriving there, which the Navy think 
none of the Army but those on board the men of war with General 
Craig should in any event participate, and three Ships more richly 
laden that came there afterwards, which the Admiral says he 
means to Libel for the Navy exclusively, I think it a duty (which 
however I find myself obliged to undertake reluctantly as the 
subject in my opinion should not have been stirred at all) that 
I owe to every individual composing the army under my com- 
mand, thus early to draw your attention to these circumstances, 
in order to their being fully understood and considered whenever 
His Majesty shall think fit to give any directions respecting the 
disposal and distribution of the property in question, if he should 
ultimately be pleased to consider it prize for the benefit of the 

And in the idea that such may eventually be the case, I have 
likewise thought it a duty incumbent on me, as being honored 
with the command of the Army that has by His Majesty's orders 
and instructions communicated through you Sir been made instru- 
mental in the acquirement of it, to draw up an humble and dutiful 
Memorial and Petition to the King upon the subjects which if it 
is not improper and meets with your concurrence I am to solicit 
you will be pleased to offer at the foot of the Throne in the most 
respectful manner, and by so doing you will confer an obligation 
on the Army in whose behalf it is preferred, and particularly on 
him who is with the highest respect and esteem, Sir, &c. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke. 

Instructions to Commodore Blankett, 

By tlic Honble. Sir George Keith Elphinstone, K.B., Vice 
Admiral of the Blue and Commander in Chief of His Majesty's 
Ships and Vessels employed and to be employed on a particular 
Service including all the Indian Seas. 

You are hereby required and directed to take upon you as 
Senior Officer the charge of the Ships and Vessels mentioned in 

226 "Records of the Cape Colony. 

the margin, whose Commanders have received orders for that 

You are to take charge during my absence of all matters 
relative to the King's Naval Service, and in conjunction with 
Major General Craig, upon whom the Government will devolve on 
the departure of General Clarke and myself, you will use your 
best endeavour according to your original Instructions for the 
Security of the Colony. 

You are to keep His Majesty's Ships always ready for Sea and 
victualled up to four months, for which purpose I have directed 
the Contractor to be at all times provided with a supply of every 
Species of Provisions for the immediate wants of the Ships which 
may be here. 

I recommend the greatest care and attention in the Expenditure 
of all Stores, and have directed the Storekeeper not to supply any 
demands but in lieu and by your orders. 

It is necessary that you keep a Ship of War in Simon's Bay for 
the Protection of the Naval and Publick Stores as well as the 
Security of the Bay. 

You will be pleased to use the Star brig or any other more 
convenient Vessel for the purpose of examining the Coast from 
hence to Whalefish or Waalvis Bay, reporting the Soundings, 
Wood, Produce, Water, &c, and preventing Strangers from fishing 
as forbidden by the Publick Order, and as at the proper season of 
the year similar Instructions will become applicable to the Eastern 
Coast as far as the Colony extends, you are to cause the same to 
be complied with, carefully minuting and recording all remarks 
and observations thereon, and reporting the same to me, which 
you are also to communicate to the Eight Honble. Secretary of 
State and the Secretary of the Admiralty by every favorable 
opportunity, with every other requisite Information. 

In the event of any Ships or Dispatches arriving from Europe, 
you will forward the Ship or Vessel as hereafter described to 
Eendezvous No. 7 or 8, being Trincomalee or Madras. 

You are to see that the Storekeeper and Master Attendant are 
careful in discharging the duties entrusted to their charge here 
and at False Bay during the proper season, and you are not to 
order or to permit the purchasing of any Stores unless there shall 
be an absolute necessity for so doing. And as the trust and 
good husbandry of the Publick Effects must in a great measure 

Records of the Cape Colony. 227 

depend on your good management until my return, I commit 
and confide it to your charge, requiring you to account to me 
respecting the same for the Information and Satisfaction of my 

If from Information or Direction you find there is little Risk of 
a Force to endanger this Settlement, now so strong in Land Forces, 
you may use any of the Ships under your immediate orders for the 
purpose of intercepting the Trade of the Isles of France, or to 
disturb the Forts on Madagascar from whence the French draw 
their Provision. 

You are as fully entrusted with respect to captures and the 
detention of Vessels as I am. Instructions on those points are 
therefore unnecessary, but you are not to suffer Foreigners to 
remain in the Harbour longer than necessary, nor to traffick for 
the supply of the Enemy or to the detriment or disadvantage of 
the King's subjects, to which point your attention will be par- 
ticularly requisite, as too many foreign vessels are continually 
appearing under various fictitious Flags. 

You are to assist the Major General in levying the Eevenue, to 
prevent all misdemeanours on the Seas, and to preserve the Rights 
of the Admiralty. 

You are to be attentive to the Dutch Vessels now detained, 
or which may hereafter arrive, until orders shall be received 
respecting them or some favourable opportunity shall offer for 
sending them to Britain either under Convoy or manned by 
Invalids or otherwise as you may see fit, consigning them as may 
be directed by His Majesty or in default thereof to our joint 

I recommend the Princess as a fit ship for the defence of Hoots 
Bay in case of attack and other times on the various Services of 
the Coast. 

You are by the first opportunity to cause one of the Sailing 
Lighters and the Gunboat to be sent to Simon's Bay, where 
moorings are to be laid down for them. 

As it may be necessary to sell perishable parts of Cargoes, and 
for that purpose to land such also as may be on board ships in- 
sufficient for their preservation, you are in such cases to remit the 
money arising therefrom, being conjunct capture, to the Honble. 
William Elphinstone, with instructions that he is to place the 

Q 2 

228 Records of the Cape Colony. 

same in the Bank agreeable to my directions, there to remain for 
the King's pleasure. 

The Ruby, Princess, and Star will be ordered under your 

To Commodore Blankett, 

12th November 1795. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 
Attested copy. 

(Signed) John Jackson. 


Letter from General Clarke to tlie Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope, November \2ih 1795. 

Sir, — I did myself the honor of writing you on the 12th Ultimo, 
by Lieutenant Colonel Mackenzie who was charged with Copies of 
my dispatches dated September 23rd transmitted by Lieutenant 
Colonel McMurdo, and herewith you will receive duplicates of 
those sent by the former Gentleman. 

The Admiral conceiving the Monsoon will be over before he can 
reach the coast of Coromandel, purposes sailing from hence for 
Madras with the Monarch, Arrogant, Rattlesnake, and Prince of 
Wales armed Transport on the 13th Instant, and he has been good 
enough to direct Lieutenant Charlton who commands the latter to 
prepare that Ship for the accommodation of myself and Family, 
which, upon the whole, was thought a better mode of conveyance 
for me and them, than accepting the invitation the Admiral gave 
me to go in his Ship, which, being as usual where there is a 
Flag, pretty much filled already, must have been attended with 
considerable inconvenience. 

His Majesty's Commands expressed to us through you, Sir, 
having demonstrated his anxious desire that the operations which 
might become necessary against this Place should be carried on 
with as much moderation and little distress to individuals as 

Records of the Cape Colony. 229 

possible, it became our bounden Duty, as the Instruments of his 
Will, to do all we could towards the accomplishment of that 
benevolent intention ; and I have great satisfaction in saying that 
I believe there never was an instance where Possession was taken 
of any Country by Force of Arms, with so little distress or in- 
convenience to every description of People as in this — indeed I 
can scarcely say there has been any to this Period, as I am 
persuaded you will learn from every Person that has had an 
Opportunity of seeing or knowing the conciliatory line of Conduct 
that has been adopted and successfully followed towards them, 
for which I have the best reason to think they feel extremely 

All the Affairs of the Colony having been placed in the Hands 
of Major General Craig as Commandant, I have interfered no 
further in the Appointment of Persons to Offices, or other 
Management of them, than appeared necessary to forward what 
I conceived or understood to be his wishes, as the most likely 
means of promoting the public Interests ; they will therefore 
suffer no change that can be disadvantageous on my departure ; 
but it is one amongst other reasons why I must beg leave to refer 
you to him for all the necessary Civil and Military information 
respecting the Affairs of this Country, which I know he is anxious 
to procure, and will transmit as soon as he can do it in a useful 
and satisfactory manner. 

My attention has been necessarily called to the very awkward 
and distressful Situation in which the King's Interest and every 
Person here is placed respecting the Receipts and payments of all 
public Monies that go through, their Hands, from the Paper Money 
which is current in a much greater proportion than Cash, having 
a very inferior value (say from fifteen to Twenty per Cent) to it, 
though nominally the same. This would open the Door to great 
imposition on the public, if those who are charged with the ex- 
penditure of public Money are not perfectly upright, and the 
greatest Care is not taken. I have therefore on this account as 
well as for many other reasons thought it necessary that all 
disbursements should be made through the Commissary General, 
who I have talked with and cautioned particularly upon the 
Subject, though we really do not, at present, know how to devise 
any means to remedy it — for if Government was either by an 
Order, Advertisements for Contracts, or in its Payments, to make a 

230 Records of the Cape Colony. 

distinction in the value of what is procured for either hard Money 
or Paper, it might cause such a depreciation of the latter as would 
become very detrimental to the People of the Colony who possess 
it in general, and to Government, in particular, who probably 
will not receive any other in payment of Taxes &c. for some time 
to come. This business is of a very delicate nature, and as I have 
before observed not easily to be remedied in the present Situation 
of Affairs, but I have thought it necessary thus early to apprize 
you of a circumstance that appears to me of great importance to 
the public Welfare, for the information and consideration of the 
Lords of the Treasury if you think proper to communicate it to 
them : and in the meantime I am persuaded that General Craig 
will exert his best endeavors to relieve this difficulty, and by 
adding his Cautions and advice to what I have thought it necessary 
to say to the Paymaster and to the Commissary General upon 
the subject, prevent any improper gain to individuals on public 
Payments, and secure as much advantage to Government as 
possible on Exchange for Bills on the Pay Office when such 
mode of acquiring Paper Money shall be thought necessary and 

It is with much concern, though I was not acquainted with the 
Gentleman, that I inform you of the Death of Colonel Gordon 
who commanded the Dutch Troops in this Colony, and who, 
having been in a very low and desponding State of mind ever 
since its surrender, put an end to his existence with a Pistol on 
the 25th Ultimo leaving a Wife and four Children to lament his 
Fate and their own helpless Situation. 

I think it necessary to observe that I have, on the recom- 
mendation of Major General Craig and the Admiral who informed 
me that he was useful to them on their first arrival at Simons 
Town, appointed Mr. De Lille, late Lieut. Colonel of Gordon's 
Eegiment, to be Barrack Master here, with an allowance of ten 
shillings a day ; which, as such an Office was necessary from the 
great extent and value of the buildings and he is thought very fit 
for it, I hope may meet with His Majesty's approbation ; indeed I 
am of opinion that nothing would contribute more to forward the 
King's Service, by conciliating the affections of the Inhabitants of 
this settlement, than employing some of the Gentlemen here, and 
particularly the younger parts of the Families who are by the 
Change of Affairs deprived of all the employments they held 

Records of the Cape Colony. 231 

under the Dutch East India Company, in the various branches of 
His Majesty's Service, which I would take the Liberty of recom- 
mending if it is determined that He is to retain the Possession 
of it. 

The Admiral having ordered the Loyalist Hospital Ship to be 
fitted out and proceed to Europe as a Cartel, Mr. Commissary 
Sluysken, late Governor here, and upwards of 200 Prisoners 
of War are to sail from hence for Holland in a few days, which, 
with those that I have enlisted for the East India Company's 
Service, will rid Major General Craig of the greatest part of the 
Trouble and inconvenience they occasioned. I have &c. 

(Signed) A'lured Clarke. 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Evan Nepean, Esqr. 

His Majesty's Ship Monarch, Table Bay, 

Cape op Good Hope the \Sth November 1795. 

Sir, — I have the honor to inform you for the information of my 

Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty that the Squadron under 

my command being completed in their 

Monarch - r . ,.. ., . . . , 

Arrogant Victualling, it is my intention to depart 

Echo immediately for Madras with the Ships 

Rattlesnake named in the margin, leaving Commodore 

Armed Trans " rt' ^lankett at this place with the Ships also 

Tobckft ' tt6P0T ' named - 
America The Stately and Victorious sailed from 

Ruh v hence on the 27th October with Orders 

"* to cruize off the French Islands three 


weeks and then to join me at Madras. 
On the 10th ultimo Captain Piamage of the Rattlesnake took the 
Maria Louisa, a Dutch Packet from Batavia bound to this place 
and Amsterdam, by her I have received sundry voluminous Dutch 
dispatches & much useful & curious information, all which 
I have left with the Commodore to be forwarded to the Right 
Honorable Secretary of State by the first opportunity. 

232 Records of the Cape Colony. 

The late Governor of this Colony the Commissary Sluysken 
applied to me for a Cartel to convey him and other Prisoners 
of War to Europe. I therefore ordered the Loyalist Transport to 
be equipped for that service, and she sailed yesterday with the 
Commissary on board and two hundred other prisoners of War. 

By an American Vessel from St. Salvador, I learn that the 
Sphynx was there in safety on the 7th of September last and 
ready to sail for this place. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 


Letter from General Clarke to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Cape Town, Cape op Good Hope, 14th November 1795. 

Sir, — Without considering the public property captured here in 
any other point of view than is ordered by His Majesty, it may 
become necessary to employ the Agency of some Persons in 
England in remitting the Money found in the Treasury here and 
other Sums that must arise from the Sale of such Articles as are 
of a perishable nature wanted for the use of the Garrison and 
Inhabitants or the various branches of the King's service, which 
must be brought to proper account : and as such Persons may 
likewise eventually become requisite on the part of the Army 
under my Command, if any change of circumstances should in- 
duce His Majesty to think and declare them entitled to any part 
thereof, I have in concurrence with Major General Craig, the 
Commanding Officers of Corps, and others concerned, appointed 
Messrs. Alexander Davison, George Davison, and Simon Fraser 
agents for these purposes, with orders to acquaint you of any 
value that may come to their hands, and receive such directions 
as you may think fit to give respecting the disposal of it, previous 
to their depositing it in the Bank subject to the King's pleasure, 
which they are commanded to do as the most effectual means we 
could devise of keeping it safe, and at the same time free from the 
suspicion of our being actuated by interested motives. 

As the business we have committed^ to the care of these Gentle- 

Records of the Cape Colony. 233 

men may occasion their applying to you in our behalf, I take the 
liberty of recommending them to your favorable reception, and I 
have the honor &c. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke. 


Letter from General Clarke to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Cape Town, Cape op Good Hope, November \Uh 1795. 

Sir, — Since writing my Letter in answer to that with which 
you honored me by Mr. Somerville it has been thought necessary 
to have a Surgeon attached to the particular Duties of the Garrison, 
and Mr. Somerville * being found perfectly well qualified for that 
Situation, I have promoted him from an Assistance in the General 
Hospital where his Pay was seven and six pence a day and un- 
certain as to continuance, to be Surgeon to the Garrison at the 
Cape of Good Hope, which I hope will entitle him to Ten, and 
through your kind interposition at the War Office (where this 
appointment is reported together with that of Major of Brigade 
Parkhill to muster the Troops, Captain McLeod of the 78th Eegt. 
to be Town Major, and Mr. De Lille, formerly Lieutenant Colonel 
of Gordon's Regiment, to be Barrack Master) secure his being 
confirmed a Surgeon upon the Staff, which will be very advan- 
tageous to him, and beneficial to the Service as he is really an 
extremely clever useful young man. These qualities alone were 
sufficient to recommend him to my notice, but I must also confess 
that I was happy at so favorable an opportunity of complying 
with your wishes respecting him, having an earnest desire to 
execute your Commands upon all occasions, and to prove myself 
to be, with the highest respect and regard, Sir, &c. 

(Signed) Alured Clarke. 

* This gentleman in later years was the husband of the highly talented 
authoress Mary Somerville, born Fairfax. — G. M. T. 

23-i Records of the Cape Colony. 


Letter from General Craig to Carel David Gerotz, Provisional 
Landdrost, and the Burgher Officers of Graaff-Reinet. 

Castle of Good Hope 23 Novemb. 1795. 

Good friends, — I have duly received your letter by the hands 
of Joubert. 

The Blessing of Providence upon the Arms of His Majesty the 
King of Great Britain having put him in possession of the Colony 
of the Cape of Good Hope and the Command of the Settlement 
having devolved upon me, I have not failed to turn my attention 
to the State of the District of Graaff-Reinet and altho' from the 
want of Communication with the District I have been obliged to 
take my information from others than the Inhabitants of it, yet I 
desire they will rest assured that no impression could be made 
on my mind by any representation to their prejudice, while I was 
deprived of the means of an impartial examination by a personal 
communication with themselves. 

But as it is as far from the intention of His Majesty's Govern- 
ment to revenge the quarrels of the Dutch East India Company 
as it is to make itself answerable for the Acts of Injustice or 
oppression of which it may have been guilty, I desire to drop all 
notice of what has passed and only to look forward to days of I 
trust greater prosperity to the Colony and more happiness to the 
Inhabitants with a due confidence on their part in the exertion of 
Government for these purposes which are the only objects it can 
ever have in view. 

The exigency of the case will excuse any informality in the 
proceedings by which you have been chosen to the offices under 
the Titles of which I address you, and as no situation can be more 
deplorable or more pregnant with the worst consequences, than 
the state of anarchy which must ensue from the want of Magis- 
trates, I approve of the provisional nomination to the office of 
Landdrost which has taken place and desire Mr. Carel David 
Gerotz to continue in the exercise of the duties of it until the 
arrival of Mr. Bresler, whom I have chosen for that employment 
as a Man of honour and integrity, unconnected with every party 
and desirous only to render his duty compatible with the happiness 
of all. He will set out very shortly for the Colony and will be 

Records of the Cape Culunij. 235 

provided with every information necessary to enable you to judge 
of the benevolent and paternal tendency of the Instruction under 
which I act. 

In the meantime it may be expedient that I should inform you 
that the British Government, not being a Commercial Government 
has no private emolument in view, and wishes only to draw a 
Revenue from the Colony competent to answer the expences of 
the Civil Establishment of it. The Monopolies and restrictions on 
the Internal trade of the Colony which have been so oppressive 
on the Inhabitants are done away with, and the latter is entirely 
free. Every man may sell his produce to whom and in what 
manner he pleases and as best suits his interest. All persons so 
disposed are at liberty to exercise any trade or profession which 
may suit their inclination, subject only to such controul as in 
some particular instances the general benefit of the community 
may require. The Navigation of the Coast from Harbour to 
Harbour of the Colony is perfectly open and free, as is the fishery 
in its utmost extent, and there exists no restraint on the possession 
of boats or vessels of any sort by which the produce of any part 
of the Colony may be conveyed to a ready market at the capital at 
a twentieth part of the expences and in a tenth part of the time 
that is now required. I have thought it right to give you this 
general information, tho' I refer you to the arrival of Mr. Bresler 
for a more particular knowledge of our Intention towards you. 

I have already intimated to Mr. Manger my intention that he 
should resume the functions of his Ministry in your Colony, and 
should he decline returning to a situation which has been attended 
with some inconvenience to him, I shall use my endeavours that 
his place may be supplied as speedily as possible by some other 

Referring you to a more full communication by Mr. Bresler I 
have now only most earnestly to exhort you and the Inhabitants 
in general to continue in the sentiments of moderation and 
Patriotism which so evidently appear to have dictated your letter. 
Be persuaded that the true love of our Country is best shown by a 
conduct founded upon the principles of Religion and Virtue and 
by a due submission to the Laws of that Society in which 
Providence has placed us. Avarice and private ambition working 
upon the unenlightened minds of the people under the specious 
pretence of Liberty has plunged the half EurojHi in an abyss of 

23 G Records of the Cape Colony. 

Horror and Misery which ages will not recover it from, and I am 
well aware that there are People even here whose views from the 
same Motives tend to no less than an attempt to introduce similar 
effects into this Colony by the same means. I shall rely on the 
good sense of the Inhabitants for the rendering abortive such 
iniquitous attempts. His Majesty's Government has no object in 
view but the prosperity of the Colony and the happiness of the 
Colonists. All my instructions are expressly founded on those 
principles, and my greatest Pride will be to be able to carry to the 
feet of my Koyal Master the assurance that I have succeeded in 
fulfilling His Intentions ; for this purpose the tranquility of the 
country must and shall be my first and chief object. The Laws 
being re-established shall be impartially but with energy adminis- 
tered; their protection shall be afforded to all as I trust their 
vengeance will overtake all who attempt to disturb the public 
peace. The Military force I command, shall ever be ready for 
both purposes. 

I make no doubt but that Mr. Bresler will be received on his 
arrival with the Eespect due to his appointment and the office he 
bears : I am confident that he will on his part answer the just 
expectations I have formed of him by a conduct becoming a Man 
of Honor, an impartial Magistrate and a Minister of the Intention 
of a benevolent and gracious Sovereign to whom his best recom- 
mendation will be his having promoted the happiness of his 
people. I am 

Your good Friend, 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 



Return of Monies received at the Cape Town to the end of November 
by His Majesty's Receiver General of the Revenue agreeable to an 
account delivered in by Mr. Rhenius. 

Tythes Corn 

. Eds. 1,237 26 

Duty on Wine & Brandy collected at the 

Barrier ..... 6,862 6 

Duty of Import & Export ... 298 
Duty on the sale of immoveable property 

called Heeren Gerechtigheid . . 2,040 

Duty Stamps for October and November 843 42 

Eent arising from Lands . . . 1,165 4 

Eds. 12,446 30 

Cape Town 30th November 1795. 

Letter from Commodore Blankett to General Craig. 

America, Table Bay, 3rd December 1795. 

Sir, — The Danish ship Alexander who reported herself bound to 
Tranquebar has made known to an Officer I sent on board her, 
that she is going to take in a Cargo, the Produce of this Colony. 
I think it necessary for my own Justification to represent to you 
that the doing so is in direct violation of the Colony Laws and the 
act of Navigation, and as no plea of necessity can be urged for 
the exportation from hence unduly, it cannot fail to encourage an 
illicit trade, contrary to the Interest of the English fair trader 
who may soon be expected here, and extremely detrimental to the 
interest of the Honourable East India Company to whom this 
trade in Danish bottoms has been long obnoxious. This ship I am 
informed has landed Cloaths and a variety of Merchandise. I 
have &c. 

(Signed) J. Blankett. 


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240 Records of the Cape Colony. 


Memorandum by Mr. W. S. van Eyneveld. 

Abstract of the functions of the Magistrates and other persons 
employed in the Public Service in the Colony of the Cape of Good 
Hope before it was surrendered to the Arms of His Britannick 
Majesty on the 16 September 1795. 

At this period the Colony was divided into four Districts, viz. 

1. The Capital or the Town of the Cape, and its environs, 
extending several leagues into the Country. 

2. The District of Stellenbosse and Drakenstein. 

3. The District of Swellendam. 

4. The District of Graaff Eeinet. 

Each of these districts had its own Magistrates, but the supreme 
direction was nevertheless carried on in the Town, where a 
Commissioner, Commander in Chief, was placed at the head of 
affairs, who by virtue of a particular instruction had the power of 
acting on his own authority when he thought it necessary for the 
interest of the Company, and in such cases he alone could issue 
orders equally valid with those which on other occasions were 
submitted to the deliberation of the Council of Eegency before 
they could be executed. 

The Chief direction of this Colony has hitherto been committed 
to a Governor, whose duty it was to carry into effect the orders 
of his Superiors in Europe or India, as well as those which he 
together with the Council of Eegency had passed. 

Then with regard to ordinary affairs, 

(a) The Governor alone had the privilege of granting leave to 


(b) No Public Act could be executed without his sanction, — 

for example the arrestment of a person, the seizure of 
effects, public sales, the Convocation of the Council of 
Justice, of the Commissioners or of the officers of the 
Burgher Militia &c. 

(c) No criminal sentence could be published or executed until 

the Governor had signed it. This circumstance arose 
from the power which he had of superseding sentences 
and sending the criminal with the proceedings of his 

Records of the Cape Colony. 241 

trial to Batavia, in cases where he found any difficulty 
in giving his assent. 

(d) In civil cases also, the Governor's signature was necessary 

to make the decision valid. 

(e) In cases of murder or other public crime it was necessary 

to report to the Governor. Besides the Governor, there 
were the following public employments in the Colony : 

1. A superior Council of Eegency, (De Raad van Politie) of 
which the Governor was President. This Council in the name of 
the Dutch Company held the superiority over the whole Colony, 
and as Eepresentative of the Sovereign had the power of making 
laws, and of issuing such orders as were deemed necessary in order 
that the Colleges of Justice and Police in their different functions 
might act for the general good of the Colony ; and the better to 
secure this end, each member of the Superior Council presided in 
one of the other Colleges. 

The Superior Council consisted of Mr. Ehenius, Second in 
Council and Chief Minister ; as Commissioner of Police he presided 
in the assembly of the Clergy and at the College of Directors of 
Public Schools, 

Mr. Gordon, Commandant of the Garrison, presided at the 
Council of Burgher Officers, 

Mr. Le Sueur, presided over the Bank of Loans, 

Mr. De Wet, Receiver General of the Company's Revenue, was 
President of the Council of Justice, 

Mr. Van Oudtshoorn, Keeper of Corn Magazines, President of the 
Council of Commissioners of the Council of Justice, and also of 
the Commissioners forming the Chamber of Marriages and of the 
Chamber of Justice which decided in suits under a hundred 

Mr. Brand, Resident at Simon's Bay, 

Mr. Bergh, who only had a voice in the deliberations of the 
Council of Regency. 

2. The Council of Justice (Raad van Justitie) was the superior 
Court which, in the name of the States General exercised the 
Jurisdiction in matters both criminal and civil, and even in cases 
purely Military, then however the Governor had the power of 
adding to the Council of Justice two Military Members, who were 
to be present at the proceedings and to have the same privileges 
as the other Members of the Council. 

242 Recm^ds of the Cape Colony. 

This Council also took cognizance of all appeals to their Tribunal 
from the Inferior Courts in the Colony, as for example from the 
Chamber of Justice above mentioned, the Colleges of Bailiffs or 
Landdrosts and Heemraaden. 

The Judgments given in cases brought directly before this Council 
were open to an appeal before the Supreme Court of Justice in 
Batavia. The party aggrieved had not only a right of appeal, but 
even in case of the former sentence being confirmed, he could 
once more bring forward his case for revision ; then however the 
Judgment was final and peremptory. 

No sentence given by this Council could be appealed from, 
which had been previously decided by the Chamber of Com- 
missioners, or the College of Landdrost and Heemraaden, because 
these Courts were only competent to judge in suits under a 
hundred Eixdollars or in local disputes which made ocular 
inspection requisite. 

The Council of Justice consisted of the Servants of the Dutch 
Company which as Proprietor Octroye of the Colony has always 
wished to maintain a superiority in all directions ; and at that 
time there were but Three Burghers in the Council (Burgerraden) 
who were inferior members, and never interfered in business when 
a Burgher was not concerned. But in the year 1784, in con- 
sequence of a complaint to the Directors of the Company against 
the Government of the Cape, on the part of the Burghers, the 
constitution of the Council of Justice was changed, and established 
on the footing on which it was at the period of the surrender. 
Then it consisted of six members servants of the Company and 
six members or Burgherraden chosen from the Burghers, who sat 
alternately at the Council, at which one of the Members of the 
Begency presided. 

The Fiscal was included amongst the Company's servants, he 
sate next to the President, and voted first, unless his duty as Fiscal 
or Public Accuser obliged him to appear as a party. When one 
of the Company's servants was dismissed or vacated his seat in 
any other way, his place was immediately filled up by the Governor 
and Council of Kegency. But in order to supply the place of a 
Burgher Member, the President of the Council of Justice together 
with the other Burgerraden chose two persons, of whom the 
Governor had the exclusive right of nominating one. 

The Council of Justice generally met twice in the month, 

Records of the Cape Colony. 243 

and amongst other business arranged and directed the affairs of 
insolvent debtors, whose effects had been publicly sold, and they 
took care that the sums arising from the sale were paid to the 
creditors of the Insolvent according to the usual manner of 
Precedents and of preference and concurrence, which formed a part 
of the Duty of the Secretary of the Council, as being Sequestrator. 

The Secretary had two sworn clerks, who were authorized to 
act as secretaries, besides eight clerks entirely under his direction 
for the ordinary business of the Cabinet. 

All these persons were paid by the Company, as well as two 
Messengers in the service of the Council, in order to execute 
warrants. The Council of Justice had likewise the power of 
admitting five or six procureurs to their court. They were bound 
by an oath, renewed at the beginning of every year, to adhere 
strictly to their instructions. It was even recommended to the 
Council to watch over the conduct of two Notaries who were in 
the town, and to inspect their registers once in six months. 

3. The Fiscal was immediately connected with the Council of 
Justice, besides being the next member to the President ; it was 
his peculiar province to attend to the administration of Justice. 
The duties of the Fiscal were, in the first place, with zeal and 
fidelity to maintain, protect, and defend the rights, jurisdiction, 
and authority of the Sovereign, to appear in criminal cases as 
public accuser, and to take care that malefactors were punished, to 
see that the laws were executed, as well as Placards and orders 
issued by the Sovereign or by those who represented him, in short 
to be watchful that neither the Sovereign of the Kepublic nor the 
Dutch Company sustained any injury in any way whatever. 

All the particulars of these functions were specified in detail in 
an instruction given at the Hague on the 2nd of July 1785. 

According to this instruction, the Fiscal had hitherto the title of 
Independent, because he was accountable for the discharge of his 
duties to the Directors of the Company alone ; but this prerogative 
has been since that time abolished t>y the General Commissioners 
who are now in the Indies. They have declared that the Fiscals 
of this Colony should in future be subject to the authority of the 
Governor, and consequently be accountable to him for the discharge 
of the office. By this change the Fiscal lost the power of acting 
officially in cases which concern the whole Colony, without the 
order or consent of the Governor or of the Council of liegency. 

r 2 

244 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Before the year 1791 the Fiscal received for his own emolument 
all duties levied on the import and export of Merchandize, but 
since that time he has been obliged to give an account of all sums 
collected in this way, and to deposit the amount in the Company's 
Treasury, after deducting four per cent. However as a compensa- 
tion for this loss the General Commissioners granted to the Fiscal 
a salary of three thousand Eixdollars. 

By the Fiscal's instructions he was allowed an assistant or 
Adjunct Fiscal, who besides his ordinary appointments received 
four hundred Eixdollars from the Company. While the General 
Commissioners were in this Colony they appointed a second adjunct 
Fiscal, but without any other emolument than his ordinary pay. 

Besides these two Adjuncts, the Fiscal had in his employ three 
Sergeants of Police, the first called d'onder sellout, and the two 
others Geweldigers, ten constables, or Gerechtsdienaaren, nineteen 
under constables under the name of Caffres, usually consisting 
of Indian Banditti, these were only employed against slaves, an 
Executioner and his servant or assistant, who were both paid by 
the Company, but also lodged and fed in the slave house. 

4. The College of Commissioners of the Council of Justice 
(Commissarissen uit den raad van Justitie) in the year 1785 was 
chiefly composed of the Councillors of Justice, as well Company's 
servants as Burghers, under the Presidency of a member of the 
Council of Ptegency, besides whom the first Burgher Councillor of 
Justice was the President of the College, and for this reason the 
Fiscal was not a member of it, although all Commissions behoved 
to be executed in his presence, because it was his duty on all 
occasions to see that the rights of the Sovereign were maintained. 
It was the duty of this College to keep in repair the streets, high 
ways, corn Mills and other public buildings erected at the expence 
of the Burghers and for their use ; it was also their charge to 
collect the imposts which the inhabitants were obliged to pay to 
the Burgher Treasury, whether they were servants of the Company 
or Burghers, they likewise received and managed the money 
contributed by the inhabitants for night watches (Eatelwachts) for 
hearth money, a tax payable for each chimney (haardsteede or 
schoorsteen geld), and of this they were obliged to give an exact 
account to the Council of Eegency once a year. 

These Commissioners watched over the conduct of the Aldermen, 
and in case of a vacancy pointed out a fit person to discharge the 

Records of the Cape Colony. 24& 

office to the Council of Regency. They administered by means of 
one of their members the corn provided for the Colony at the 
Company's expence, and sold it again to the Bakers of the Town. 
They pointed out the particular employment of the Night Watches 
and other inferior concerns defrayed at the expence of the in- 
habitants. They farmed the wind-mills for the benefit of the 
Burghers' Treasury. They attended particularly that the privileged 
trades, such as: bakers, butchers &c. did not exceed the limits pre- 
scribed for them. They took the necessary precautions to guard 
against a scarcity or dearth of provisions, and informed the Council 
of Regency if there was any reason to apprehend it. They 
examined and taxed the Company's grounds when the Government 
was about to grant the property to an inhabitant. In the last 
place they in concert with the Aldermen had a watchful eye over 
the inhabitants of the Town, in order that they might not by any 
irregularity set a bad example to others, and if they did, the 
information was communicated to the Eegency. 

All these functions together with some others of the College of 
Commissioners were given in detail in an Instruction dated the 
13th July 1792. 

The Secretary of the College usually was the second sworn 
clerk, or the third of the Cabinet of Regency. His salary and also 
that of a Burgher Messenger was paid by the Treasury of the 

5. The College of Burgher Members of Justice, called Bur- 
gerraden, composed of six Burgher members who together with 
six members chosen from amongst the Company's servants, formed 
the Council of Justice, constituted for the express purpose of 
guarding the rights of the inhabitants, and in case of grievances to 
be their organ with the Governor or the Council of Regency. The 
first of the Burgerraden was President, and the Secretary paid by 
the College itself was also a Burgher. 

6. The Chamber of Orphans was charged in the name of the 
Sovereign with directing the succession of every person who died 
intestate, and left heirs either minors or out of the Colony. After 
the successions were adjusted, the effects were administered by the 
Chamber for the benefit of the minors until they had attained the 
age of twenty-five years or became Major in some other way ; the 
effects of those who were Majors, tho' absent, were paid to the 
person legally authorized to receive them. 

246 Records of the Cape Colony. 

To this Chamber was committed the education of orphans 
according to their circumstances. Hitherto this has been but 
very imperfectly done, from a want of persons able to give 
instruction to the young, who are consequently deprived of the 
means of becoming useful members of Society ; which cannot be 
too much regretted, because owing to this defect, the education of 
the orphan must often be committed to a relation very unfit for 
the formation of youth. 

The Chamber of Orphans consisted of a President, who was a 
member of the Council of Eegency, a Vice President chosen from 
amongst the Burghers, and four ordinary members, of whom two 
were Company's servants and two Burghers. The Vice President 
and members usually remained but two years in office, at which 
period the Chamber nominated a double number of members, from 
which the Council of Begency supplied the vacancy ; this usage 
however expired from the time that the General Commissioners were 
in this Colony, when they made essential reforms in the constitution 
of the college ; and since that period the Begency could continue 
members in office as long as they thought fit, in order that they 
might attain a thorough knowledge of the functions. They were 
obliged to have recourse to extraordinary measures to correct the 
abuses which had crept in during a series of years, and to prevent 
the disorder which might be expected to result from them in the 
Colony. For this purpose in February 1793 a new Instruction 
was drawn up, by which such changes were introduced as seemed 
necessary to prevent abuses in future. The Chamber had a 
Secretary, a Sworn Clerk, an Assistant Sworn Clerk, four ordinary 
Clerks, and a Messenger. These were paid by the Company, 
but the Chamber was obliged to repay the amount of their 
Salaries from a certain fund attached to the Treasury of the 
Chamber, so that in effect the Salaries were paid by the Chamber 

7. The College of Commissioners, forming the Chamber of 
Marriages and the Chamber of Justice which decided in causes 
under a hundred Bixdollars (Commissarissen van Huwelijks en 
Klijne Gerechts Zaaken). The College consisted of a President, a 
member of the Council of Begency ; a Vice President who was a 
Burgher, and four ordinary members, two Servants of the Company 
and two Burghers. The Vice President continued three years in 
office, at the end of which the Begency discharged him and 

Records of Ike Cape Colony. 247 

appointed another in his place : the ordinary members were only 
obliged to continue two years in office, so that generally two went 
out every year: then the College made a nomination of four, of 
whom the Regency chose two new members. 

The College discharged two distinct functions : 

(a) As Commissioners of Marriages it was their duty to 
examine such persons as demanded permission to proclaim their 
marriage, and to grant permission provided that no obstacle 

The examination related chiefly to what follows — 

1st. If the parties were old enough ; and if they were minors, if 
they had obtained the consent of their parents or tutors. 

2nd. If, being widowers or widows having children by a former 
marriage, the inheritance of the deceased parent was properly 
assigned and secured to the children of the widower or widow who 
asked permission to marry. 

(6) As Commissioners of the inferior chamber of Justice, they were 
bound to terminate amicably, in as much as they could, all disputes 
under a hundred Rixdollars brought before their tribunal, and 
finding that they could not in this way settle the business, they 
could proceed to an investigation of the matter and decide upon 
it. The parties appeared in person and stated the case, without 
any other form of process, and without being permitted to employ 
an Attorney. Though the College had a right to pronounce sen- 
tence, yet it could not give sentence of arrest ; so that sentences 
passed by the Commissioners, if the case required it, behoved 
to be executed by the Superior Council of Justice, to which on 
other occasions an appeal could be brought. The Commissioners 
generally employed as their secretary the first sworn clerk of 
the Cabinet or in the Secretary's office of the Eegency, and the 
common Messengers of Justice. They were paid from the revenue 
arising from records and writs. 

8. The College or Assembly of the Clergy was composed of the 
three clergymen of the Town, two Elders, and four deacons, and 
one of the Councillors of Eegency as President, in quality of 
Commissioner of Police. 

The ordinary functions of the clergy related solely to the 
internal affairs of the Church, to the repairs of the Church and its 
dependencies. The clergy also administered alms ; took care of the 
education and maintenance of orphans left destitute, who con- 

248 Records of the Cape Colony. 

sequently fell to the care of the Deaconship ; distributed alms to 
the poor, and took care of their maintenance. 

At the end of every year, one Elder and two Deacons went ont 
of office, for they only continued two years. The vacancies were 
supplied by a nomination made by the clergy, from which the 
Kegency selected the new Members. This held good with regard 
to the reformed clergy of the city, the Lutheran clergy, and the 
cures of Stellenbosse, Eoodezand, Zwartland, and Graaff Eeinet. 

9. The College of Directors of Public Schools consists of the 
Commissioner of Police, formerly mentioned, the three clergymen, 
and two Elders of the reformed Church. 

The duty of this College is to superintend the public schools 
in the Town, and to examine when they shall think fit. Many 
attempts have been made to improve the sources of instruction 
and education. At last a fund was raised, from which a house 
was bought, in which youth are taught Latin, French and Dutch. 

It is above all things to be desired that the defects now 
subsisting in the means of Education were remedied, and that this 
subject so important to the interest of the Colony had all the 
attention paid to it which it demands. 

10. The Commissioners of the Bank of Loans established in the 
year 1793. These Commissioners administered a fund amounting 
to about six or seven hundred thousand Eixdollars, which the 
Company had advanced to the inhabitants on Mortgages, bonds 
and other securities, the interest of which at four per cent was 
deposited annually in the Company's Treasury. 

A member of Eegency and two Commissioners, one a servant 
of the Company and the other a Burgher, composed the College, 
which employed a book-keeper, who at the same time, was keeper 
of the bonds, a treasurer or cashier, and a messenger. And as the 
sums were lent out by the Bank at the rate of five per cent and 
only four per cent was paid to the Company, the salaries of those 
people employed in the Bank were paid out of the one per cent 
which remained. 

11. The Council of Burgher Officers, under the name of Burgher 
Council of War, (Krijgs Eaad), was composed of the officers of 
cavalry and infantry, together with the Commandant of the 
Garrison as their President, who until the arrival of the General 
Commissioners was also a member of the Eegency. 

The functions of this College consisted chiefly in attending to the 

Records of the Cape Colony. 249 

service and regulations of the Burgher Guard, to point out proper 
inferior officers to be appointed by the Regency, to correct such 
faults as were committed in the service, most frequently by levy- 
ing fines for the advantage of their chest, and in case of opposition 
or refusal they had a right to enforce payment by confinement. 

The Burghers of the Town and its environs were divided into 
six Companies, two of Cavalry and four of infantry, however some 
years ago all bastards and mistiches were also formed into a 
Company. A short time before the capitulation the cavalry was 
also divided into four Companies, and a Captain appointed to 
each. All persons above sixteen and under sixty years of age were 
obliged to serve, excepting only those attached to the different 

The chief part of the service was an annual exercise of eight 
days, and an inspection of fire arms, mounting guard at the town 
house to preserve tranquillity and good order during the night, and 
to be detached against troops of runaway negroes or other vaga- 
bonds that might disturb the public peace and safety. 

The Stadt House was allotted to the guard, each captain in his 
turn for two months attended to the mounting of guard, and 
during that time he was obliged to remain in the Town, lest 
anything should occur that the officer of the guard might report to 
him. Besides several other functions belonging to the officer of 
the guard, which were specified in a regulation for that purpose, it 
was his immediate duty if there happened anything of consequence 
in the night, as for example rioting or violence in the streets or in 
the inhabitants houses, or if in his patrol he found any person 
wounded, or if he was during the night obliged to put any person 
in prison, to report it himself to the Governor and the Fiscal. 

All the functions of the Burgher Council of War were given in 
detail in a Regulation dated the 16th of September 1768. 

This College had two Secretaries or Clerks and two Messengers, 
paid from the Burgher Treasury. 

12. The Aldermen or Wykmeesters. 

The increase of the Cape Town rendered it necessary to divide 
it into several parts, consequently in the year 1793 it was divided 
into twenty-three districts, and two Aldermen were appointed to 
each District. They were bound by their instruction to keep an 
accurate register of all the houses in their district, the families 
that resided in them, and even strangers who were with them, to 

250 Records of the Cape Colony. 

have the streets kept clean, to give an account to the Fiscal of all 
suspected or dangerous persons, of all conventions and secret or 
illegal assemblies, of all murders and other crimes committed in 
their districts. 

13. Brand Meesters, persons to procure assistance, in case of 
fire. According to a regulation which now exists, they were 
obliged to give the necessary orders to the Sergeants who were 
Burghers, and also to the freed slaves belonging to the fire engine, 
who had one of their own number for their Captain. 

The Captain of the Port was the first of the Brand Meesters, he 
also assisted with his crew. 

The Magistracies of the Districts of Stellenbosse, Swellendam 
and Graaff Reinet were constituted in the following manner. 

1. There was on the part of the Dutch Company a Landdrost 
or Bailiff, who at the same time presided over the Colleges of 
Heemraden and of the Burgher officers. 

When crimes or trespasses were committed, the Landdrost was 
obliged to prosecute the criminal as public accuser, before the 
superior Council of Justice at the Cape : in this however he was 
subject to the right of prevention which the Fiscal exercised over 
the whole Colony. The Landdrost likewise paid attention to the 
interests of the Company, the public peace, and the Company's 
forests. He acted as Commissioner of Sales in his District, and 
to compensate for the Hazard he ran of bad debts, he had two 
and a half per cent on all Real Estates and five per cent on all 
moveables which he brought to sale. He kept at his own expence 
a clerk, and a crier of sales. However these Landdrosts were 
obliged to deposit in the Company's Treasury a part of their 
salaries, the Landdrost of Stellenbosse £, the Landdrosts of 
Swellendam and Graaff Reinet each §, which, together with -J-£ 
of the salary of the Commissioner of Sales in the Cape, served to 
defray the expence of some extraordinary appointments and some 
servants of the Company. 

The Landdrosts were obliged once in three months to send a 
Journal of all that had passed to the Governor, principally the 
resolutions which had been made by the Colleges of Heemraaden, 
and of the officers of the Burghers. 

The remaining duties of the Landdrosts are detailed in an 
Instruction of the 20th of June 1793. 

2. The College of Heemraaden, all the members of which were 

Records of the Cape Colony. 251 

Burghers, and the Landdrost President. To this College was 
committed the Magistracy, under the approbation of the Eegency 
at the Cape, consequently they exercised the same functions in 
their districts which the Commissioners of the College of Justice 
did in the Cape. The College generally met once a month, not 
for this purpose only, but to settle disputes about pastures, lands, 
water ways and other objects of a similar nature. 

At Stellenbosch and Swellendam they judged in cases not 
exceeding a hundred Kixdollars, and at Graaff Keinet their powers 
extended to cases of a thousand florins. 

Their sentences were subject to an appeal to the Council of 
Justice at the Cape, except in matters under 25 Kixdollars, 
wherein their judgment was final. 

They received the sums arising from the annual contributions 
which the inhabitants were obliged to make in proportion to the 
number of cattle they possessed. 

These sums were expended in keeping up buildings, and some 
other necessary expenses in the district. Although this College 
was not strictly invested with the jurisdiction in Criminal cases, 
it was nevertheless authorized to exert it in particular circum- 
stances, in consequence of which it had a right to inspect the 
bodies of murdered or wounded persons, to lay the necessary 
information before the Landdrost in order to commence a process, 
and even to examine witnesses upon oath. 

There are particular instructions for these Colleges, the last for 
the District of Stellenbosch was renewed in the year 1793 on the 
20th of June. 

Each of these Colleges employed a Secretary and a Messenger 
at the Company's expence. The Heemraaden only remained in 
office two years, at the end of which the College made a nomina- 
tion from which the Eegency selected the new Members. 

3. The College of Officers of the Burgher Militia, or Krijgsraad. 

There was a College of this nature in each district, consisting 
of the Landdrost as President and all the officers of the Burgher 
Militia. Their functions were the same as those of the Krijgsraad 
in the Cape, excepting this circumstance, that neither the Officers 
nor Burghers mounted guard. The exercise of the Cavalry, 
amounting to eleven Companies in all the Districts, took place 
in October. They were obliged to take arms against the savages, 
malefactors and other vagabonds who disturbed the public tran- 

252 Records of the Cape Colony. 

quillity. The Secretary and Messenger of the Heemraaden served 
this College also, for which they had an allowance from the 

In Graaff Eeinet the College met once in three months, and in 
the other districts once a month. 

4. Veld Wagtmeesters were those persons appointed by the 
Landdrost and the College of Burgher Officers to execute some 
functions belonging strictly to the Magistrates or other persons 
whose duty it is to preserve good order in a certain part of the 
district, but which the extent of the country prevented the Magis- 
trate himself from doing, especially in cases wherein the public 
good admitted of no delay. 

In each district there were a certain number of persons who 
were authorized to call the Burghers to arms in order to prevent 
or quell tumult of any kind, to have slaves or other fugitives 
caught who disturbed the public safety, and to carry them before 
the Bailiff under whose orders they acted. In the case of murder 
or homicide they were to seize the guilty person and to deliver 
him over to the Bailiff or Officer of Justice of the District. They 
were to inspect, in the presence of two irreproachable witnesses, 
the bodies of all persons who did not die a natural death, when 
the person who died was more than a day's journey from the 
Bailliage, and to make a report of the business. They executed 
orders issued by the Eegency or the Landdrost in the College of 
the district. And in the last place they had an eye upon all 
events that might influence the laws, or good order, that they 
might immediately communicate their information to the Bailiff. 
They also informed him of Shipwrecks or the arrival of Vessels. 

Letter from General Craig to Commodore Blankett. 

Castle of Good Hope, IQth December 1795. 

Sir, — The America was under weigh when I opened your letter 
of the 3rd December, I consequently had no opportunity of 
answering it directly and not immediately perceiving the ten- 
dency of it otherwise than as giving me information that it was 

Records of the. Cape Colony. 253 

contrary to the Colony Laws and the Act of Navigation for a 
Danish Ship to load with the produce of this Colony, it is probable 
that I should not have thought it necessary to trouble you with 
any reply, had you not yourself last night informed me that you 
looked for one. 

Altho Sir I do not conceive myself in any manner accountable 
to any but the King's Government for the steps which I may 
think proper to adopt here, during the time that the command 
may vest in me, yet having no desire to conceal, or make a 
mystery of any transaction, which may occur, I shall enter pretty 
much at large into the subject of your letter and shall take the 
same opportunity to expose in the plainest terms I can, the prin- 
ciples upon which I shall conduct myself with respect to trade 
untill I am honoured with His Majesty's Instructions. 

Shortly after the arrival of the Ship in question, it was repre- 
sented to me, by several of the principal Inhabitants, that her 
Cargo was well calculated to relieve the distress which the Colony 
so notoriously labours under for many articles of the first neces- 
sity. Sir George Elphinstone & General Clarke were then here, 
to whom I mentioned the subject, and altho I can not take upon 
me to recollect what passed between us upon it, I am very certain, 
that it did not occur to either of us to see the smallest objection 
to it, the Captain having soon after presented me with a list of his 
Cargo, I gave directions to Mr. Brandt to permit him to' land those 
articles which could benefit the Colony, of which I have now the 
List by me, and I do not perceive any Cloaths contained in it, on 
the contrary 1500 pair of stockings mentioned in his account of 
his Cargo, are not included in the permit which I gave, at the 
same time, the impossibility of paying for his Cargo in paper 
Money, the difficulty and I believe impracticability of finding 
Specie to do it, and the general benefit of the settlement led me 
to give him leave to receive certain articles as a return cargo in 
lieu of what he landed without which I was led to believe, and 
do believe, the transaction on his part could not take place. 

Whether this be contrary to the Colony laws and the act of 
Navigation, I do not know further, than as you are pleased to tell 
me so, at that time I had no opportunity of seeing either. Since 
then I have seen the Navigation Act, but I am ignorant of what 
changes may have taken place in it, since the Reign of Charles 2nd, 
in which it passed, some I know have, because American ship* are 

254 Records of the Cape Colony. 

permitted to trade to our Colonies under certain restriction and 
likewise know that an act relative to trade and shipping commonly 
called Lord Hawkesbury's Act, has passed within this short time, 
of the nature of which I am entirely unacquainted, nor have I the 
means of information from any Person here, for the truth is that 
I believe neither you Sir, myself or any one here, is in any shape 
competent to judge upon the matter, and as a proof how much I 
am founded in that opinion, Mr. Trail informs me that he has 
himself carried Cargoes from England in foreign Bottoms, than 
which nothing can be more directly in opposition to the Act of 
Navigation tho' he cannot recollect the manner in which it was 
done, and I have it from the same information, that having 
mentioned the fact to you, you yourself observed, that you knew 
it was done, but was equally ignorant of the principle upon which 
it was permitted. This being the case Sir, I should find myself 
most extremely at a loss, did I think myself in any manner called 
upon rigorously to enforce the British Laws with respect to trade. 
His Majesty most undoubtedly did not send me here to be his 
Custom house officer, nor do I look for so much Injustice in his 
ministers as to think for a moment, that they can hold me 
responsible upon a subject of which, from its very nature, I must 
be totally uninformed and in which in every Step I take either 
on one side or other, I am liable to act illegally and to involve 
myself in inextricable difficulties to the ruin of my fortune, or 
what is more likely for want of fortune, to the loss of my Personal 
Liberty. I am Sir to believe both from the nature of the case and 
from the information which I have of what was practised' in the 
West Indies, particularly at Tobago, that the British Laws with 
respect to Trade and Navigation are not supposed to take place 
till the Establishment of a regular Custom house, filled by officers 
properly instructed from Europe, give the only possible means of 
enforcing them, till that happens here, I do not believe, that 
strictly and legally, either I, or any other person have a right to 
make the attempt, sure I am, that whoever does it, will commit 
innumerable errors and probably acts of Injustice, at the same 
time the invariable Custom which has prevailed here, that no 
foreign ship can trade without the permission of Government 
which however has very seldom, hardly ever indeed lately been 
refused, furnishes me the opportunity of which I shall certainly 
avail myself to restrain all foreign trade as far as possible. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 255 

I do this, not as Customhouse officer nor as knowing it to be 
my duty as Commanding Officer, under great doubts even of the 
legality of it, except as warranted by the custom of the former 
government, but I do it, as conforming to what I believe to be the 
general spirit of our Laws, which I am desirous of following on 
every occasion instead of encouraging an illicit trade, contrary to 
the interests of the English fair traders and I shall not depart 
from it, except in the case of supplying any of the great distresses 
under which the Colony labours, or of materials essentially wanted 
for the King's Service, in these cases I must be determined by 
circumstances of the moment, on which no rule can be laid down. 

I have &c. 
(Signed) J. H. Ckaig, Major General. 

Observations on the Revenue of the Cape of Good Hope. 

That Part of the Revenue which depends upon Land is by far' 
tbe most considerable of any of its branches. It consists as 
follows : — 

A. The lands (Leeningsplaatsen) or Loan Land, are in general 
granted to the farmers from year to year, so much so that they 
are every year under the necessity of taking out a sort of new 

From the great extent of Country required for the feeding of 
Cattle, in which the riches of the distant Settlements principally 
consists, these farms are very large, being at least three miles ; 
every way. 

Every Farm so granted pays a yearly Eent to the Government 
of 24 Iiixdollars. Some however upon proper Certificates being; 
produced of a great inferiority of Soil, or want of water, pay only 

The Farmers budld houses &c. upon so precarious a tenure, in 
the confidence that while they pay their stipulated rent it cannot 
be the interest of the Government to deprive them of the Land, 
an it is perfectly understood that should any extraordinary cir- 

256 Beco7'ds of the Cape Colony. 

cumstance induce the Government to do so, it would indemnify 
the Farmer for the Buildings. When they wish to dispose of 
their property, they sell the buildings, and the purchaser takes 
out a new grant of the Land. 

The Eents are payable every year at the Cape Town, where the 
new grant is taken out. The real amount of what they ought to 
produce is 41,448 Eixdollars, but it appears that so much is never 
collected, the sums mentioned under this head in the Eeturns 
include arrears of former years, which seem to be blended with 
the Eents in the accounts. 

However there does not seem to be reason to suppose that any 
alteration will be produced in the amount of this part of the 
Eevenue, by the Change of Government, unless it be such as 
may be unavoidable from our inexperience in the matter, and 
the want of fidelity in those employed, this it is hoped will not 
be considerable. 

2nd. The Eents of Lands called Eigendoms Land or Property 
Land. These are Lands given in Property, but' subject to the 
annual payment of about half a Eixdollar per Dutch acre, for 
some pay a little more than that Eent. 

3rd. Quit Eents, being for Lands granted and usually attached 
to the above described Lands, they pay the same rent of about 
half a dollar, but the grant is only for fifteen years. These two 
last seem to be but inconsiderable, amounting both together to 
less than 2,000 dollars, there appears no reason to suppose that 
there will be any alteration in the amount. 

4th. Eigendoms Land or Gratuity Lands, for a certain sum, 
principally to persons in the Cape Town desirous of building 
nouses on them, the land is valued at the Cape Town by two 
Commissaries of the Court of Justice in presence of the Fiscal 
and Government Surveyor, in the Country it is valued by the 
Landdrost and Heemraden. It is impossible to compute the 
amount of this, which must be subject to constant variation from 
year to year. 

These Eents are what are comprized under Letter A in the 

B. The Twenty- fifth penny and fortieth penny. 

The first is a tax of 4 per cent on the sale of all property land, 
the last is a tax of 1\ per cent upon the sale of all houses, out- 
• * See page 132. 

Jiccords of the Cape Colon;/. 2")1 

houses and other buildings built upon land tho' not held in 

It is a tax much complained of in the country, although it does 
not seem to be particularly oppressive or unequal. 

C. The duties on Importation and Exportation. 

These will of course, it is presumed, be subject to considerable 
alterations by orders from Home. Indeed such are at any rate to 
be expected from the total change which will certainly take place 
in the Commerce of the Colony. A Return of the articles on 
which they are levied is sent by this opportunity. 

D. Licences for selling wine and brandy by retail. Under 
the former Government this was farmed out, and varied very 
much in its produce from year to year, this farming was in fact 
a most oppressive monopoly, throwing the whole retail of wine in 
every quantity under about seventy Gallons into the hands of 
these farmers, who were four in number. It was a source of loud 
complaint, as the poorest Inhabitant was under the necessity of 
purchasing the wine he wished to drink with his family, from one 
of those people at the price he chose to put upon it. With the 
Concurrence of General Clarke and Sir George Elphinstone the 
mode of collecting this Revenue has been altered, and public 
houses have been licensed, for which they pay 1,500 Rixdollars, 
the number is limited to 32, but as yet only 16 have taken out 
licenses, probably the price is something too high. 

With only 16 licenses, this part of the Revenue does not quite 
amount to what it was computed at in the Return. 

License for selling European Wine and Beer. Excise of three 
Dollars of every Barrel of Beer brewed at the Cape Town. These 
were both farmed and brought in as follows, viz. the first 760 
Dollars and the last 1,200 Dollars. Some difficulties having 
attended these, no arrangement has as yet taken place relative 
to them, they are now under consideration, and will doubtless 
produce as much as formerly. 

All these farms are the amount of the Article D of the Return, 
and it must be observed that as they were put up to the highest 
bidder, the amount varied very much in different years, and has 
been gradually decreasing of late, so that what in the year 93-4 
produced 45,742 Dollars, amounted in 92-3 to only 42,500, and 
in 90-91 was upwards of 80,000 Dollars. It is also to be 
remarked that the Article D in the Returns includes the duty of 

258 Becords of the Cape Colony. 

5 Dollars a Leaguer, on the exportation of Wine and Brandy, 
which was then included in the articles of Eevenue which were 
farmed, but this is now collected by Mr. Brandt, and is there- 
fore considered under the articles of Duties on Importation and 

E. Duty on Goods sold at Public Vendue, being 34, per cent 
on all moveables and If per cent on all immoveables sold at 
Public auction. It is not possible to foresee the effect which the 
change of the situation of the Province may produce in this article 
of the Eevenue. The custom of selling by auction has hitherto 
prevailed here beyond what I believe has ever been the case in 
any other place, all sorts of goods and merchandize being disposed 
of in that way. British Merchants will probably follow another 
mode. It is however to be expected that the produce this year at 
least will fall off but little, if anything, there having been so great 
a stagnation of all business during these six months past but the 
sales are now very frequent and considerable. 

F. Duty on Wine and Brandy. 

Every Leaguer of wine and Brandy brought into the Town, 
pays a duty of 3 dollars, the amount from the 14th October, 
when we began to collect it, to the 30th November is 6,862 
Dollars, which appears to be rather above the proportion of the 
same period in the year 1793-4, for it is to be observed that it 
can only be collected during six months, the bringing wine into 
the Town being only permitted from 1st October to 1st February, 
in order to prevent the bringing in of excessive new wine. 

The continuance or decrease of the amount of this Tax must 
depend upon the encouragement given to the exportation of wine, 
during the present year it is thought that it will be to the full as 
much as formerly. The cultivators of vineyards complain a good 
deal of the amount of this tax, bringing it into comparison with 
that paid on the Corn. This is at all times the tenth part, the 
proportion of the tax on the wine according to the value depends 
on the price which it bears. It is. certain that of late years wine 
has been sold for 14 & even 12 Dollars the Leaguer, in which 
case the proprietor paid a tax equal to 4, of the value of the 
property on which he paid it. At present wine sells at 25, 28 
& even as high as 30 Dollars. In the last case the tax bears 
the same proportion to the commodity that that on corn does. I 
have had several applications that they may be put constantly 

Records of the Cape Colony. 259 

upon the same footing, both paying at all times the tythe, but 
have of course declined entering into it. 

G. Tythe of Corn, very little has been received on this account, 
as the old corn was brought in, and the harvest of the new is but 
just begun. The tax arises from a tenth of all Corn brought into 
the Cape Town, indeed the whole business relating to Corn is 
extremely complicated and such that I am as yet very little 
acquainted with. It was a considerable article of commerce to 
the Dutch Company, who provided for the exportation of great 
quantities. I fear if some provision be not made upon the subject 
that it will become of no value to the farmers, especially this year, 
when the harvest is abundant beyond all former example. 

H. Stamped Paper. This is in general used in almost every 
transaction which takes place in the Colony, and the amount, as 
it appears in the Eeturn is much under what I should have 
supposed it would have been. In one instance we have thought 
it necessary to abolish it, the Revenue it produced was not con- 
siderable, and it was the source of universal complaint and dis- 
satisfaction. It was an additional tax on sales by vendue, the 
bills for which were directed to be made out on a stamp, in 
proportion to the value of the articles bought. This certainly 
fell hard upon the poor purchasers of lots of small value, who 
after paying the duty of 5 per cent including the auctioneer's 
charge, could ill afford to pay an additional duty of a stamp, 
while upon purchases of considerable amount the addition of 
the stamp was of no consequence. We have abolished it on all 
purchases under the value of 100 Dollars. We found a con- 
siderable quantity of unused stamps in possession of the Public 
officers, for which they had paid the Company, and as it was not 
thought just to make them pay twice for those, the price which 
they had already paid being supposed to be delivered over to us 
in the balance of the Company's Treasury, they have been directed 
to bring it in to be countersigned by the present Secretary, and 
then to use it. This of course will lessen the receipts on this 
article a good deal. 

I. Revenue of the Lombard Bank. 

This arises from an interest of 5 per cent on money lent to the 
Inhabitants, of which 4 per cent goes to the Government, and 
the remaining one per cent pays the expenses of the Bank. It 
is the opinion of the Directors that this may be computed at 

s 2 

260 Records of the Cape Colony. 

24,000 Dollars. I doubt its being near so much, because the 

depreciation of the paper money is so great that everybody is 

taking advantage of the circumstance to pay off their debts to„ 

the Bank. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

Letter from General Craig to the Etght Hon. Henry Dundas. 

Castle of Good Hope 
18 December 1795. 

Sir, — Inclosed I have the honour to send you the most exact 
returns, which I have been able to have extracted from the Books 
of the Dutch East India Company, of the revenue of this Colony, 
for the last year and the year preceding. The difference between 
them arises principally from the situation of the Country, for the 
last three months of the first mentioned period, during which our 
being in False Bay, had a material influence upon all business 
both public and private. A third return shews the average 
amount for 10 years, as given to me by Mr. Sluysken. 

I do myself the honour to accompany the returns with a paper 
explanatory of the several heads under which the Eevenue is 
classed, as well as containing some remarks on the probable 
influence which the change of Government and its consequent 
effects, is likely to have upon it; both are the result of the best 
information I have been able to procure. 

I also inclose an account of the several sums which have been 
actually received, and which are now in the hands of Mr. Ehenius, 
who has been appointed by General Clarke and Sir George 
Elphinstone to act as Eeceiver General, till His Majesty's pleasure 
be known. 

To these I subjoin a Eeturn of the Probable Expences of the 
several Establishments of the Colony. Notwithstanding the pains 
which have been taken on this subject I fear I cannot present it to 
you as perfect, we have not found any Book, from which we could 
extract the necessary materials for forming it, and have been 
obliged in some measure to rely upon recollection for some of the 
smaller appointments. I hope however that there is no material 

Records of the Cape Colony. 2G1 

omission. It has been arranged while General Clarke and Sir 
George Elphinstone were here, to leave the Salaries of every 
Employment, the continuance of which was deemed necessary for 
His Majesty's Service, exactly on the same footing as during the 
former Government. The three Gentlemen appointed to the 
charge of the revenue, enjoy the only offices to which it was 
' necesssary to affix Salaries, as none such existed before, indeed the 
whole of that establishment is in the same predicament. 

You will easily perceive Sir, that in forming a comparative 
Statement of the Revenues and the Expences, it will be necessary 
to reckon upon several miscellaneous articles of the latter, of which 
no precise estimate can be formed, especially under the Particular 
circumstances attending this place, where expences must for the 
present fall upon the Revenue, which are elsewhere provided from 
funds, with which the Government does not interfere. The repairs 
now carrying on at the wharf are of this nature. The expences 
which must occur on account of the Buildings, Acqueducts, and 
pipes for conveying the water to the different parts of the Town, 
are of the same description. There are in short ' several articles of 
this kind, which it is impossible to include in an annual estimate, 
but which I hope will not be considerable. 

The first article of the probable expences, will not fail Sir to 
attract your attention, and it cannot be but with extreme diffidence 
and doubt, that I presume to offer it to your consideration. I 
have only to say Sir, that finding it was the regular affixed Salary 
of the late Governor here, and finding the situation of Expence, so 
far beyond the possibility of being provided for, by the Income 
which I receive in His Majesty's Service, I have presumed so far 
on His Majesty's Goodness, as to put myself on the footing of the 
other appointments, which receive the same Salary as under the 
former Government. When I mention the very heavy expences 
to which I am liable in my present situation, I trust Sir, that you 
will have the goodness to believe my assurances, that considering 
myself as merely in the temporary Command of the Settlement, I 
have by no means conceived it to be incumbent on me, to make 
any such establishment as I should from motives of respect to 
His Majesty, deem it my indispensable duty to do, were I 
honoured with His Commission as. Governor, still less have I 
thought it requisite, that I should emulate the state, and sort of 
pomp, which have at all times been displayed in the Seat I at 

262 Records of the Cape Colony. 

present occupy ; at the same time Sir, I cannot but judge it, not 
merely a personal gratification to myself, but essentially for His 
Majesty's Service, that whoever does fill that seat, should at least, 
be able to do it with decency, and I have thought that His Majesty 
will in His gracious condescension, be pleased to consider a part 
of the Expence which I incur, as being a consequence of His 
Commands, by every means in my power, to conciliate the good 
will of His new Subjects. Having nothing in view Sir, in the 
step I have ventured upon, but the wish of covering my real and 
indispensable expenditure, considered in the light in which I have 
had the honour to place it before you, I have not thought myself 
authorized to lay the smallest Claim to any other of the Governor's 
usual allowances, beyond his bare Salary, and when the enormous 
price of every article here, which except in the bare instance of 
meat and bread, exceed everything that can be imagined, together 
with the circumstance of the discount of Paper Money being 
30 per Cent are considered, I trust I shall be credited when I say, 
this is not more than sufficient. I have now Sir only humbly to 
express my hope, that in laying this at His Majesty's feet, you 
will favour me with your intercession, that His Majesty will be 
pleased to pardon and confirm the step, which without His Koyal 
permission I have presumed to take. I do myself the honour to 
inclose for your information, a paper relative to the Salary and 
Emoluments enjoyed by the Governors here. 

Upon the same principle Sir, of continuing the several salaries 
annexed to the different employments, which the holders of them 
enjoyed under the former Government, I have included that of 
Secretary to the Colony, to which I have, with General Clarke's 
concurrence, appointed Mr. Eoss, who accompanied me here in 
that capacity. It is impossible for me to do too much justice, to 
the indefatigable and zealous attention, which this Gentleman 
pays to the duties of an office, which are uncommonly extensive 
and laborious, the whole business of the Province of every denomi- 
nation, centering in that office. Mr. Eoss, upon receiving this 
appointment, has resigned his claim to the salary, which you were 
pleased to direct that I should pay him, as my Secretary, from the 
1st of October, the day on which he entered upon the duties of 
that of Secretary of the Province. The amount of all fees, and 
emoluments of every kind, enjoyed in this Office, are stated to us, 
by the former Secretary Mr. Goetz, which is the only information 

Records of the Cape Colony. 203 

we can get on the subject, to amount to about 1200 dollars, so 
that the amount of the salary and emoluments is 5,640 dollars 
under the same circumstances of 30 per Cent discount. 

To the amount of the Revenue, as it appears by the inclosed 
return, is to be added an article which I have not included in it, 
because it is not possible to form any computation of what it may 
be. It Mill arise from the letting of several parcells of land, 
which the J hitch Company retained in their own hands, or gave 
to persons, who enjoyed particular contracts. Several of these are 
now under publick advertizement, to be let to the highest bidder, 
but as the term in which proposals were to be given in, is not yet 
expired, we can form no guess of what the offer may be. I fear 
however, that they will not be considerable, principally on account 
of my not thinking myself at liberty to give any lease of them, 
for any term beyond a year. I thought it better however to let 
them, notwithstanding I had no hopes that they would produce 
much, because if not in the care of somebody, they would probably 
have gone entirely to ruin, especially when there are Buildings, 
which is pretty generally the case. There are several parcells of 
wood lands near to the Town, which I have been strongly advised 
not to let, because the w r ood being of great value, a yearly tennant 
would certainly be induced to commit more depredations, than 
could be compensated by the amount of the rent he would pay. 

To this short statement of the Revenue and Expences, I add 
also a Return of debts due to the Company, as given in to 
us by Mr. Sluysken ; at the same time I must however inform 
you, that Mr. Rhenius, who was the second here, and in whose 
department the keeping of the Company's Books more immediately 
lay, assures me, that it is erroneous in several respects, and that 
he is now employed in making out a list upon which we may rely, 
as being formed from his Books, upon which depends the settle- 
ment of his accounts. 

The Principal article of this list, is arrears of rent due for Lands, 
which I shall consider seperately. The remaining articles appear 
to be debts, bona tide due to the Dutch Company, and which they 
would infallibly have recovered, the debtors not having a shadow 
of Plea, as 1 understand, for not paying them, except in some few 
instances, in which they have some claims to sett off against them. 
Our attempting to recover them, will however be attended with 
more difficulty, — already the language is pretty publickly held, 

264 Records of the Cape Colony. 

that the Dutch East India Company being altogether annihilated, 
at least with respect to this Colony, no debts due to it can be 
claimed. I have been extremely cautious on the subject hitherto, 
avoiding every conversation upon it as much as possible, but when 
it has been indispensable to mention it, I have always done it, as 
what would be claimed, and enforced, as a matter of course, in 
which I affected to suppose there could be no difficulty. It will 
however rest with His Majesty's Government to take the matter 
into consideration, and to give such instructions upon it, as may 
be expedient. 

With respect to the arrears of rent, it is easy to conceive that 
these must have been very considerable, in a country of immense 
extent, with habitations widely dispersed, and where the great 
distance from the seat of Government, ensured impunity. It must 
however be confessed at the same time, that such is the extreme 
poverty of the Inhabitants of the distant parts of the Colony (as I 
am well assured) that in many instances, the payment of one 
year's rent is a matter of very great difficulty, but if an arrear is 
suffered to run of a second year, it becomes impossible for the 
peasant to discharge it. 

This poverty arises from the want of a market for the produce 
of their farms. It is not an uncommon thing, for a waggon with 
16 Bullocks and two drivers, to be five weeks in bringing down 
a sufficiency of Butter, and perhaps a few skins, wherewith to 
purchase the quantity of Iron necessary for the work of the farm, 
. for the ensuing year, and as to Cloaths, it is a certain truth, that 
very many of the Inhabitants wear nothing but sheep skins, as 
dressed by the Hottentots. This may alone suffice to give an Idea 
of the state in which they must be. Cattle, which is the principal 
part of their property, is from two to three months in driving to 
the Cape Town, the only market for it, and then is sold by the 
Butcher at a penny farthing per pound. I beg your pardon Sir, 
for prolonging my letter by this digression, meant however to 
convey to you an Idea of the state of the back parts of this 
extraordinary Settlement. 

This arrears of rent, was however become an object of magnitude 
to the. Dutch Company, especially in the state of distress into 
which it had fallen, and orders came out about four years ago, 
to enforce the. collecting of it with rigour, this has given rise to 
infinite complaint and dissatisfaction, and there is no doubt, but 

Records of the Cape Colony. 265 

that it has been the great source of the ferment which has existed, 
and which at length terminated in open Revolt in Graff Reynett, 
where the cause principally lay. The Company has however 
collected very considerable Sums, tho' no less than 200,000 
Dollars remain still due. 

General Clarke, Sir George Elphinstone, and myself, having 
taken this matter into our consideration, and conceiving that it 
would tend much to quiet the minds of the Feople, and allay the 
ferment which still reigned among them, at the same time that it 
might offer to their view, a contrast favourable to His Majesty's 
Interests, and convinced that little, if anything, would ultimately 
be lost by it, we took upon ourselves to inform the Inhabitants by 
a Proclamation, a Copy of which will be found amongst those 
enclosed in my general Letter, that the collecting of any arrears 
beyond one years rent, should be suspended, till His Majesty's 
pleasure should be known. I beg leave Sir to offer my humble 
representation, that this Money would certainly never be collected, 
and that it will tend much to conciliate the People to His Majesty's 
Government if His Majesty is graciously pleased to remit it 
entirely. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 


Letter from General Craig to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle of Good Hope, 23rd December 1795. 

I merely do myself the Honor by the present opportunity of 
informing you that nothing material has occurred at this place 
since the departure of General Clarke, which took place on the 
15th Ultimo when he left for Madras on board the Prince of Wales 
in Company with Sir Geo. K. Elphinstone in the Monarch. The 
Ship Alexander Capt. Thompson will sail from hence in five or six 
days at the utmost, and as the general opinion is that she is not 
only a much safer conveyance than the present but that it is also 
extremely probable that she will arrive first, Capt Pantell of the 
( J5th Regiment will take his passage in her & will be charged with 

266 Records of the Cape Colony. 

a number of letters which I have done myself the Honor of writing 
to you on the various subjects which relate to His Majesty's 
Service at this Place. I have &c, 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 


Letter from Commodore Blankett to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

America, Table Bat, 
Cape op Good Hope, 23rd December 1795. 

Sir, — Soon after the departure of Vice Admiral Elphinstone I 
dispatched Captain Alexander in His Majesty's Sloop Star, to run 
along the coast to the Northward of this place & examine the 
different bays which had been represented as affording good 
shelter. His instructions were to take possession of those bays in 
his Majesty's name, to warn off all foreign Ships from the Whale 
fishery, which, has been much practised by the Americans, & to 
use every means of conciliating the Natives to our Interests ; as 
they have been spoken of as very rude & barbarous, I directed him 
in all cases where there might be a show of violence to quit & not 
attempt to quell them. The Whale fishery along these Coasts 
will become a subject of consideration if it should be thought 
proper to encourage it, & the knowledge of the Coast, with the 
advantages it may possess, I thought essential for the information 
of the King's Ministers. As far as my present information 
extends, the general want of Wood & Water will confine these 
Fisheries entirely to a maritime branch of commerce, of which 
the Cape Town must become the Capital. These fisheries are at 
present very abundant in Whales, Seals, Sea Cows, & a variety of 
other Fish, which notwithstanding the restricted manner in which 
they have been hitherto carried on, have produced large profits, & 
they doubtless may be extended considerably if such a measure 
should be deemed proper. The men employed in these Fisheries 
might likewise be considered as affording a Becruit for the King's 
Navy & a counterbalance for the loss of Men in our Commerce 
to India. 

If I can judge from present appearances this Colony will now 

Records of the Cape Colony. 207 

become sensible of the lenity of the King's Government, and the 
ill humour that is supposed to exist in the interior must be 
attributed to the defects of the late measures, for the alteration of 
Government has hitherto been little felt by people who living at a 
great distance & much dispersed have been left almost to their 
own guidance, & it must be left to time to ameliorate their situa- 
tion, which has certainly been rendered very uneasy to them. 
One of the great distresses has been occasioned by the introduction 
& management of the Paper Currency, a subject so involved in 
mystery and so complicated in its mode of management that 
without official documents, strictly scrutinised, it is not in my 
power to explain, but I am well assured that for whatever sum the 
issue may extend, the Dutch Company do not stand amenable for 
more than one third of the sum. The rest has been issued on 
pledges to individuals without those checques which have generally 
been adopted in other Governments. 

The Government of this Colony has indeed differed in many 
respects from that of most other Countries. Those who have held 
Posts of Trust & Emolument have never been Men of any con- 
sequence or influence in the Colony, but have been generally of a 
very different description, they therefore instead of being able to 
assist the Government by their personal influence, or render it 
respectable by their character, have always on the contrary tended 
to depreciate its measures, as the Farmers & Landholders con- 
sidered them as the principal cause of the expence of Government 
& looked upon them as living in luxury in the Cape Town on the 
spoils of the Country, & if it is admitted that these men in office 
were neither from Capacity or Education equal to the proper 
exercise of their functions it cannot be denied that there was too 
much appearance of reason ; I believe on enquiry it will be found 
not so much the taxes, as the mode of levying them, that con- 
stitutes the real grievance. That mode is certainly grievous in the 
extreme, & vicious in its first principles, as it admits of corruption 
in the receipt that renders the tax unequal irregular & subject to 
every species of bribery. 

To particularise facts is not my province, to point out existing 
abuses is a duty I owe as a Servant of the King, whenever I have 
the honor to address myself to his Ministers. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. Blankett. 

2G8 Records of the Cape Colony. 


Letter from Commodore Blankett to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Cape of Good Hope, 23rd Deer. 1795. 

Sir, — The Brig Louisa Maria, formerly a Dutch Packet, taken 
by His Majesty's Sloop Rattlesnake, one of the Squadron of Vice 
Admiral Elphinstone, has been sent from this to England by 
his orders. 

She had when taken as a Packet the following boxes of Papers, 
which are likewise sent in her. 

No. 1. Letters & books for the Directors of the Dutch East 
India Company 

2. Papers & Private letters for the Dutch Company &c. 

3. Books for the Directors of the Company 

4. Various letters addressed to the Post Master of 


5. Private letters for Holland 

6.. Books for the Directors of the Company 

7. Books & Papers for His Ser. Highness the Stadtholder 

8. Letters & Books for the Committee of the East India 

I thought it necessary to give you this Information, that in 
case you think proper you may order the disposal of them. I 
have &c. 

(Signed) J. Blankett. 


Letter from General Craig to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle, Cape op Good Hope, 
the 27th December 1795. 

Sir, — General Clarke having sailed from this place on Board the 
Prince of Wales, in Company with Sir George K. Elphinstone on 
the 15th ultimo, the Command of His Majesty's Troops in this 

Records of the Cape Colony. 269 

Province has devolved upon me, as well as the Care of His 
Majesty's Interests in the Government of this newly acquired 
Colony. In both these arduous tasks, I trust I need not assure 
you, Sir, of the exertion of my best endeavours in the humble hope 
of meriting the highest reward of which I am ambitious, in His 
Majesty's Royal approbation. 

As Gerieral Clarke I know wrote to you previous to his 
departure, I take it for granted, that he will have reported to you 
the several occurrences which have taken place, as well as the 
different steps of regulation which have been thought expedient 
under the present circumstances, and untill His Majesty's Pleasure 
can be known. I have great satisfaction in assuring you, that as 
far as I can judge x the latter have in general been much approved 
of, by the thinking part of the Inhabitants, and I have hopes, 
that a steady perseverance in them will at length dispell that 
spirit of Jacobinism which certainly reigned violently here on our 
taking possession of the Place, and at least reduce its effects to 
the Exertions of those upon whom no consideration that is in 
opposition to their avarice and ambition can have any weight. 
The number at present possessing these abominable principles, is 
not inconsiderable in proportion to that of the Inhabitants. They 
will certainly require a watchful eye to be kept over them, but 
are I hope not likely to be otherwise dangerous, except in the 
event of an attack, when they would unquestionably occasion 
much embarrassment. In the consequences which have ensued 
from the capture of this place, it cannot but have happened that 
some people have been considerable loosers in the offices of 
emoluments and lucrative contracts, which they held under the 
former Government. These of course look upon us as yet with 
eyes of resentment, and tho' perhaps not at all actuated by any 
principle such as is above alluded to, would nevertheless rejoice, 
probably join in any mischief which could befall us. Unfortun- 
ately there are some families of considerable connections in the 
Province, which having been the objects of peculiar partiality, 
under the late Government, come particularly under this descrip- 
tion, this creates a humour of discontent which can only be got 
the better of by time ; I shall however not fail to do my utmost 
to conquer it by personal attention to the Individuals as far as 
their behaviour will permit me. 

Exclusive of the district of the Cape Town, this Colony consists 

270 Records of the Cape Colony, 

of three others, Stellenbosch & Drakenstein, Schwellendam, and 
Graffe Key net. The first has in general been pretty quiet. The 
people have always remained obedient to the Laws, and no 
disturbance has ever taken place, however discontented they 
might be. At Schwellendam they had dismissed their Magis- 
trates and Landdrost, and had actually assembled a National 
Convention. One of the first things we did, was to reinstate the 
former Landdrost and send him up, which has produced the 
desired effect of restoring tranquility among the People. They 
have received him to his satisfaction, have dismissed their 
Convention and at present seem only anxious to follow their 
respective occupations. I am in possession of the proceedings of 
their Convention, which however are of too trifling a nature to 
trouble you with. 

Finding that the late Landdrost of Graffe Eeynett was not well 
calculated to resume his Station in such a scene of disorders, and 
perhaps Violence, as I then supposed whoever went there would 
have to encounter, I turned my attention to finding some other 
person of spirit and resolution more adequate to the task, and 
accordingly pitched upon Mr. Bresler, an officer in Gordon's late 
Corps, whose character was represented to me to be such as was 
likely to be acceptable to the people. He is now preparing for 
his Journey, which will be of a month's duration at least before 
he reaches his place of residence. In the mean time I received 
a few days ago a letter from the Inhabitants, a copy of which as 
it may tend to show the spirit of these people I enclose as well as 
of my answer. Those to whom I allude in the latter part, are 
residents of this place, who I have reason to believe, are at this 
moment using their utmost endeavours to excite those people 
to opposition and particularly not to receive Mr. Bresler as 

It may be necessary to observe that the district of Graffe 
Eeynett is of the utmost value and importance to the Colony, as 
being the great Magazine, if I may so call it, of cattle and sheep, 
from whence we are almost entirely supplied. They would indeed 
have it in their power to starve us nearly, tho' on the other hand, 
unless they reverted to a state of nature, it does not appear that 
they could themselves exist, without a Communication with the 
Cape Town. 

The expence of a Journey to Graffe Eeynet is very considerable 

Jit conls of the Cape Colony. 271 

such as Mr. Bresler'a situation in life, has not hitherto put him in 
the way of being able to provide for, indeed it is such as would 
prevent any man from undertaking the office in these times when 
the appointment is by all considered very precarious. Mr. Bresler 
has represented to me in strong terms the impossibility of his 
proceeding thither without some assistance to enable him to meet 
the expences of his journey, which by the former administration 
was always borne by the Government, and tho' I thought I would 
be right to discontinue that Custom, yet I could not but consider 
it as reasonable to assist him in part, and I have accordingly given 
him 500 Kixdollars, which is much under the half of what the 
Journey will cost him. A dollar is about four shillings. 

General Clarke has already transmitted to you inventories of 
the different species of Property belonging to the Dutch East 
India Company, which have been found here, and which agreeable 
to His Majesty's Orders have been deposited in the Public Stores 
and other places of safety, of this the most valuable part is the 
Ordnance stores, of which the quantity is pretty considerable. 
These of course remain at the different batteries and other situa- 
tions in which it is proper they should be deposited, with a view 
of their being used if necessary in the defence of the place, some 
have also been issued to the Navy, but for this, as well as for 
every article which is expended by us, proper orders are given and 
receipts taken, so that the quantity and value can at any time be 
ascertained. At present the whole is in the care of Major Yorke, 
commanding the royal artillery, but as the quantity is considerable 
and valuable, and as it must be for the present, and it is presumed 
that it will be found expedient in future that it should remain at 
the charge of His Majesty, it would be very much to be wished 
that the Master General of the Ordnance would send a Store 
Keeper here, I feel the necessity of such an Officer so much that 
I certainly should take upon myself to appoint some person 
to act in that Capacity till I should hear from His Lordship, 
could I find any one here capable of discharging the duties of 
the office. 

Next to the Ordnance Stores, the most valuable part of the 
property in question is the Corn, of which the quantity in store 
belonging to the Company is immense, no less than 30,166 muids 
which I am informed is equal to near two years consumption. 
This is a source of great trouble and embarrassment to us. The 

272 Records of the Cape Colony. 

care of it is attended with some expence, it occupies more than 
half the Building which ought to be, and of which the remainder 
is appropriated to the lodging of the Troops, and a considerable 
part will be spoiled notwithstanding every precaution is taken in 
the turning of it constantly. We consume as much of it as we 
can for the subsistence of the Troops, but I should think it right 
on every account to dispose of the greatest part of it, did I not feel 
myself restrained by His Majesty's Instructions. The Harvest 
which is now beginning to be got in is the most plentiful that has 
been on the ground these many years. It is apprehended that the 
Farmers will be ruined from the richness of their produce. Grain 
will be almost given away to those who will take it unless some 
market is pointed out to which it may be sent. Formerly Batavia 
consumed a considerable quantity and some was also sent to 
Holland, but the people have been so restrained in their commerce 
that they do not seem to have an idea of what to do with it, now 
that those markets are shut against them. 

Among other articles of property belonging to the Dutch 
Company are 534 Slaves. Every expence attending these is 
defrayed by the Commissary General, but I have directed it to be 
kept in a seperate account. Enclosed I do myself the honor to 
send an abstract of it as it stood under the former Government, 
and which will be very nearly the same now. They are employed 
on different works in His Majesty's Service ; tho' there is no doubt 
that a certain number of these people may be useful in a country 
where the great heats will always render it dangerous to employ 
the Troops much in work, yet I imagine it will never at any rate 
be thought necessary to employ near the number which we now 
have. Even under the former Government whose commercial 
transactions required a greater number in their different ware- 
houses and stores, it was still found that a considerable part could 
be spared for the private benefit of the Governor and principal 
Servants of the Company. In the mean time I have continued' 
the establishment in this respect exactly as it was, because I have 
not found any expence which could be retrenched. 

Among the Slaves are still a number of what are called banished 
Indians. These are criminals of various descriptions, including 
however several for political reasons without any criminality, who 
have been sent here from Batavia. Some have been here 20 and 
25 years, and as no account was ever sent with them, even the 

Records of the Cape Colony. 273 

Government was ignorant of the cause of their detention. Some 
of them we have sent away in the India Ships in order that they 
might return Home, some who were capable of gaining their 
livelyhood here I have discharged, seventeen we were obliged to 
keep in the slave lodge because from age and infirmities they are 
incapable of providing for themselves, and thirty-eight still remain 
at work as before. These are mostly men of the most abandoned 
and desperate characters, who it would be dangerous to let loose 
on the community, where they would have no means of sub- 
sistence. As however I do not imagine that it can be thought 
just to detain in slavery people over whom we cannot have a 
shadow of right, I propose to continue to discharge them, only to 
do so by degrees where opportunity may offer of sending them 
away towards their own homes. 

I fear the expence in the fitting up the Barracks for the Troops 
will be considerable. There is a very large and extremely com- 
modious Building, which will with conveniency hold three 
Begiments, tho' at present they are very much crowded in it, on 
account of the best part being occupied by the Corn, this will 
require very little alteration or fitting up, except to one part, to 
make it capable of being used as quarters for Officers. The other 
Begiment and the Artillery are in the Castle, where the repairs 
wanted are rather more considerable, but they will still not be 
attended with any very great expence, as nothing shall be done, 
but what is indispensable to their being habitable. The great 
expence will be in bedding and barrack furniture and utensils, of 
which there did not exist a single article when we took possession 
of the place, with respect to the first, extraordinary as it may 
appear, it is a fact, that the bedding was the private property of 
the Soldiers which of course they took with them ; hitherto our 
men have lain on the bare floors in their blankets, to which the 
sickness which has lately prevailed among them is chiefly attri- 
buted, but bedding and platforms are now in some forwardness, 
and I hope will be soon compleated; we are however totally 
deficient in Blanketts, what the men now have are those of their 
Camp Equipage, all in extreme bad order and a very great many 
are without any at all. As I do not see any prospect of getting a 
supply here, I must request that a sufficient number may be sent 
to us — 1800 pair will leave us a few in store to answer for 
accidents. I must also desire that you will be pleased to direct 

274 Records of the Cape Colony. 

that 300 Iron Pots each calculated for 12 men, may be sent at the 
same time. Every other necessary can be procured here, tho' at a 
great price. It would likewise be requisite that between four and 
five hundred Camp Kettles should be sent here, those we have by 
being in constant use are very nearly worn out, and in case of 
attack it would be absolutely necessary that we should encamp. 
I am going to repair our Tents, which I hope will serve in case 
of need. 

The Building to which I have alluded as capable of holding 
three regiments, was in part occupied as an Hospital by the Dutch, 
and there were upwards of four score patients in it when we came 
here ; by ordering inspections by our own Physicians and Surgeons, 
we got rid of these by degrees, except thirteen whose cases from 
age or infirmities were such that they were totally incapable of doing 
anything for themselves. It was equally necessary to remove 
these from the room which they occupied, and from the use of 
which they as effectually debarred us as if the whole were in it, 
and as I could not turn them into the streets to starve, I have 
given them a small room and allow them a skilling each for 
their maintenance daily, till they are otherwise provided for, 
which I shall direct to be paid out of the revenue. 

There are here a number of Store Houses and other buildings 
belonging to the Company, which are not occupied as Barracks. 
The Public canals, Pumps, Conduits, "Wharf and water pipes, will 
also require constant attention and care. I mean till I receive His 
Majesty's Instructions to seperate these entirely from every building 
occupied either as a Barrack or as a military store, and to pay all 
expences relative to the former out of the Eevenue. It is totally 
impossible that the Engineer can give the necessary attention to 
these objects, which of themselves, especially the wharf and water 
pipes, are of considerable importance and require very great care. 
There are several lots of wood land near the Town which have 
been constantly kept in the Company's possession, these cannot be 
hired out, as I propose doing with the remainder of the lands 
belonging to the Company because consisting entirely of wood it 
is evident that tho great value of that article here, would induce a 
yearly tennant to cut it for sale in such a manner that no tennant 
would be found for them the second year. These are however 
valuable and require care and attention for their preservation, 
which was under the former Government considered of so much 

Records of the Cape Colony. 275 

consequence, as to be put in the immediate charge of a member of 
the Council. For these reasons I mean Sir to appoint an Officer 
under the description of Inspector of His Majesty's lands and 
Buildings, whose duty is to be the care and superintendance of 
these several articles. Altho' being but lately that I have felt the 
indispensable necessity of such an appointment, I have not yet 
pitched upon a proper person to fill it, yet I have thought it my 
duty to mention my intention, and am to hope that the utility of 
it will induce His Majesty to approve of my having done so. The 
Wharf is an object of the first importance here, it is formed of 
piles, which are however so immediately eat through by the worms 
that several which I have myself examined, and which are marked 
1792, are now so compleatly worn away, as to depend on a sub- 
stance not exceeding an inch in breadth. The whole is in danger 
of being carried away by the first gale of wind, a thorough repair, 
such as would be substantial and effective would as I am assured, 
not be effected under an expence of several thousand Pounds, but 
if this settlement should remain in His Majesty's possession at the 
Peace, I have no doubt that it will be found expedient to make it 
of Masonry at once, as being by much the most oeconomical plan, 
in the mean time as it would be impossible to do without a wharf 
and as the repair must be immediate, or we shall run great risk 
of being deprived of it altogether, I have thought myself obliged 
to give directions to repair it in such a Way as will give hopes of 
it's standing at least till there shall be time for further considera- 
tion upon a subject, which I may take the occasion of saying is 
of the first importance to the settlement. The estimate is now 
before me and it comes to about 16 dollars daily expence, ex- 
clusive of the Materials which must be taken from the property 
of the Company in our hands, but the value of which I can at 
present have no idea of. The man who undertakes it reckons 
upon finishing it in six weeks, but allowing that it takes him 
eight, the expence will be about £200 exclusive of the Materials and 
the labour of 30 men, which will be supplied from the Slaves. 

As it appeared impossible to do the necessary business of the 
Port without the assistance of some officer charged to visit all 
ships coming in and going out, not only for the purpose of revenue, 
but also as a preservative against the introduction of infectious 
disorders, particularly of the small pox, of which the Inhabitants 
are under the utmost terror, not being in the habit of inoculation 

T 2 

276 Records of the Cape Colony. 

and the former Government having observed the strictest rules on 
this subject, I have thought it necessary for His Majesty's Service 
as well as for the quiet of the Inhabitants, who were under great 
alarms till I did so, to appoint Mr. Trail to be Harbour Master 
with a Salary of five shillings per day, payable out of the revenue. 
Mr. Trail is left here by Sir George Elphinstone as Master attendant 
of the Navy, and I have Sir George's concurrence to the appoint- 
ment, having consulted him as to the compatibility of it with that 
which he has in the naval service. 

The paper money bears considerable discount at present, upon 
an average from 20 to 30 per cent. As it appeared to me to be 
extremely absurd that His Majesty's Government should loose 
so considerable a benefit by the Commissary General making his 
payments all in hard money, which in many cases was not even 
expected, I have directed by a warrant the Paymaster General 
to procure by his Bills the sum of £1000 at 30 per cent premium 
which he is to furnish the Commissary General with, and which 
the latter is to disburse on such occasions as may offer themselves. 
I shall continue occasionally to direct Paper Money to be drawn 
for, as long as I find it can be disposed of to the same advantage. 
It is become extremely difficult to procure money for the Payments 
of the Troops, but I know that before his departure General Clarke 
represented to you the necessity of sending Money here, without a 
speedy supply of which, I fear that we shall be much distressed. 

I am concerned to have occasion to say, that we have had 
rather an alarming degree of sickness among the Troops lately. 
It has not however been very fatal, and is now much decreased, 
after a thorough investigation of what was most likely to be the 
cause, we have been led to ascribe it in some measure to the 
Climate and the effect of the Wine, upon men unaccustomed to 
either, but principally to the want of Bedsteads and bedding 
especially as the floors on which the men lay are all of stone. As 
I hope this deficiency will soon be remedied, I trust the effect will 
cease also. I do myself the honour to inclose a monthly return of 
the Troops. 

I also inclose a paper which contains a short account of the 
duties of the several Magistrates and other persons in this Colony. 
This paper was drawn up at my request by the Fiscal and altho 
the wish I expressed of having it speedily would not permit his 
extending it so far as it might have been, yet I have thought that 

Records of the Cape Colony. 277 

it may perhaps be useful in any consideration which His Majesty's 
Ministers may think proper to have on the subject. 

Not knowing what General Clarke has done in this respect, I in- 
close Copies of every proclamation which has been issued here on 
the part of His Majesty's Government. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 


Letter from General Craig to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle, Cape op Good Hope, 
the 27th December 1795. 

Sir, — You will have already been apprized of the existence and 
nature of a paper currency here. The actual amount of it, as 
given in to us by Governor Sluysken previous to his departure, 
is 1,291,276 Rixdollars, for the security of which, by an article 
of the Capitulation, the Lands and Buildings late belonging to 
the Dutch East India Company stand engaged under certain 
conditions, but of this Sum 677,366 Rixdollars are lent to 
Individuals through the medium of the Lombard Bank, for which 
that Bank is in possession of security upon Estates or moveables 
so that the real Sum for which the Lands and Buildings, late 
belonging to the Company are answerable, is 613,910 Rixdollars. 

Having had occasion to inform myself of the mode which has 
been followed in stamping and signing this money, during the 
time of the late Government, I do not find that it has been 
conducted with quite that degree of caution, which I should have 
expected, and I am far from thinking it improbable, that there 
exists in fact a greater quantity than what appears in the 
Company's Books. 

This paper money has always been a source of great discontent 
among the People, and it has at all times I believe been at a 
discount, — at present it is at 25 and even sometimes 30 per cent 
under its value, while the specie which we brought with us, and 
which has been put into circulation, has totally disappeared as 
indeed I expected it would. 

278 Records of the Cape Colony. 

The lower species of this paper passing continually through the 
hands of the blacks, is very soon defaced, so as to become illegible, 
and requires continual renewal, as has always been the custom, 
two days in the week having been set apart for that purpose 
when all persons having paper of that description brought it to 
an appointed office, where it was exchanged for new. This seems 
to be indispensably necessary. Nothing of the kind has however 
taken place since our arrival, and the Stamps still remain in the 
state in which they were delivered over to us, but the business is 
now become pressing and must soon be provided for. I have 
accordingly turned my mind to it, but have not as yet been able 
entirely to arrange a plan satisfactory to myself, as to the security 
requisite both to His Majesty's Government and to the Public. 
As however it is a measure of indispensable necessity some mode 
of carrying it into effect must be adopted, and in doing so, I beg 
to assure you Sir, that I will pay the utmost attention, that it 
shall be such, as shall afford the best grounded security against 
the commission of any fraud, that the nature of the transaction 
will admit of. 

A very considerable difficulty is experienced in the Province, 
for want of a smaller currency than a skilling (6d.) which is at 
present the lowest in circulation, this is a difficulty, which is not 
less felt by the Inhabitants than by the Troops, and which 
frequently leads to serious inconveniences. If a currency of less 
value than a skilling could be put into circulation, and if means 
could be adopted for substituting a coin in the room of all paper 
money of less value than a Eixdollar, I have little doubt but that 
the paper would regain it's credit and serve every purpose of the 
internal circulation of the Colony, till means are fallen upon for 
it's final annihilation, if thought proper in the course of time, for 
it is the easy destruction by the continual circulation of the 
smaller species, and the frequency of imposition among the blacks 
who cannot read, which is the greatest source of complaint. 

The Principal Coins which we have introduced are Portugal half 
Johannes, Pagodas, Spanish dollars and Roupees some Guineas 
and a few coins of other denominations have also been put into 
circulation, but not however in any quantities. The roupee passes 
for half a Spanish dollar, which is more than it's value, and will 
probably prevent its exportation. If His Majesty's Government 
does not see objections to it, of which I am not aware, I should 

Records of the Cape Colony. 279 

think it would be highly beneficial to the Colony (and I am 
confirmed in this idea by the opinion of the principal inhabitants) 
that a coinage of small money made expressly for this Colony 
should be sent out and issued as pay to the Troops. This coinage 
should be of some composition of higher value than Copper so 
as to reduce it in bulk from what it would be if of that Metal and 
yet to be near the intrinsic value of it's denomination. The Stiver 
here passes for a penny, the skilling for six pence, — the most 
convenient coins would probably be stivers, skillings, two skillings, 
and 4 skillings. 

If this should be established, it would be necessary at the same 
time to adopt some method for withdrawing the paper money 
under the value of a dollar, from circulation, this might be 
accomplished by calling it in, and exchanging it for paper of a 
higher denomination, or it might be also done by the sale of 
several lots of woodland that lay near this Town, which cannot 
be hired out, because the property is of such a nature that a 
yearly tennant would for his own profit be induced to commit such 
waste as would render it of no value at the expiration probably of 
the first year, but which from the very same reason would bring 
in a good price if sold outright. The applying this to the 
redemption of the smaller specie of money would be strictly in 
the spirit of the Article of the Capitulation which makes the 
Company's Lands the security for the Money, would diminish 
the quantity in circulation, tend to raise the credit of it, and 
would ease the revenue here of an expence which must be at 
present incurred for the care of the lands in question, whilst with 
every caution the depredation on these will always be more con- 
siderable than the value of what we are able to draw from them. 

I have thought it my duty to submit this to the consideration 
of His Majesty's Government, and have &c, 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

I do myself the honor to enclose two or three pieces of the 
Paper Money, that you may see Sir, the little security which it 
derives from it's own nature. 

280 Records of the Cape. Colony. 


Letter from General Craig to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle, Cape op Good Hope 
the 21th December 1795. 

Sir, — Amongst the earliest subjects which demanded the 
attention of General Clarke and Sir George Elphinstone, that of 
the re-establishment of the Court of Justice could not but occupy 
them most seriously. I imagine that General Clarke will not 
have failed to inform you of the steps which were judged neces- 
sary to be taken on this subject, and in consequence of which, the 
College of Justice, which is the highest Court known in the 
Province, has been in the exercise of it's usual functions, since the 
members took the required oath of allegiance. 

There existed an inferior Court called the College of petty Civil 
and Matrimonial matters, — this College, the nature of which is 
explained in the paper which I have the honour to inclose in my 
General letter, has not yet resumed it's functions, for reasons 
principally arising from the personal dispositions of some of it's 
members. I am now attempting to prevail on them to commence 
their sittings, and I have some reason to hope I shall succeed, as 
it is a Court of great conveniency to the Inhabitants. 

With respect to the College of Justice, it consists of a President 
and twelve members, six of which were Servants of the Company, 
and the other six were chosen amongst the Burghers. As 
Members of the Court of Justice, they received no salary or 
emolument, so that the latter literally served for nothing, the 
same cannot however be said of the Servants of the Company who 
were members of this College, most of whom had other employ- 
ments conferred upon them, as a compensation for their trouble in 
that respect. One who had nothing but his bare salary as Senior 
Merchant, considered the promise of the first seat which should 
become vacant in the Council as his remuneration. The President 
was superintendent of the Companies Eevenues, the salary and 
emoluments of which amounted to 8,000 dollars. One of the very 
first acts of this College after their reassembling was to apply to 
have salaries attached to their office. I do myself the honour to 
inclose a copy of their application, as well as of my answer. The 

Becords of the Cape Colony. 281 

President, Mr. De Wet, has pressed me on the subject since, but 
has always received answers to the same effect, from the other 
members I have not heard anything further. Mr. De Wet repre- 
sents that his office as President is attended with a considerable 
expence, as he is under the necessity of living in a certain style, 
beyond what he otherwise should do, indeed it seems hardly to be 
expected that these Gentlemen should give the attendance which 
is necessary, and be under the responsibility which in many 
instances is attached to their office, without receiving some 
allowance for it; and on the other hand as 12 Members seems 
scarcely to be requisite for the Administration of Justice, I 
humbly presume that it will be thought worthy the consideration 
of His Majesty's Ministers, whether if His Majesty is to bear the 
expence, it may not be considerably lessened by diminishing the 
number of the objects of it. I am not at present aware of any 
inconvenience which can arise, whilst justice is administered in 
it's present form, from reducing the number of members to six, 
or at most to eight, besides the President, except indeed in the 
advantage which in criminal cases, the prisoner may be supposed 
to have, in being tried by- a greater number of Judges, when his 
sentence is determined by the plurality of voices. In Holland 
I am informed that some of the Courts consist only of 7, and 
several of only 9 members, and it so happens at this moment, the 
number actually sitting on the Bench here, amounts only to 10, 
for Mr. De Wet the President having a Brother among the 
Burgher members, it has been decided that it would be improper 
that two persons bearing that affinity to each other should have 
voices in the determination of any suit, the consequence of 
which is, that the younger never acts, and as it appear'd to be 
the intention of the Government in Holland that the number of 
members should be equal on the part of the Company and the 
Burghers, one of the members servants of the Company has always 
withdrawn himself from acting. As to the duty required of them, 
it cannot be such but that six members are fully competent to it. 
The Court assembles once a fortnight, the number of members, 
whose attendance is requisite, is not fixed, and the ordinary 
Business is frequently done by two or three. It has not however 
been usual for any sentence to be passed, or other business of any 
importance to be concluded, in presence of less than six members, 
exclusive of these ordinary meetings, the members are liable to 

282 Records of the Cape Colony. 

extraordinary calls, in cases of murder, and on some other occa- 
sions, when it is necessary that they should attend to view the 
Corpse, and take information on the subject. This they take by 
turns monthly, so that two of them are always obliged to remain 
in Town. 

The Fiscal's salary under the Dutch Company was 3,000 dollars, 
and his emoluments amounted one year with another to about 
1,000 more, making £800, which is however paid him in paper 
money. This Gentleman, whose name is Eyneveldt, is one of the 
ablest and I really believe one of the best men in the Colony, 
perfectly acquainted with the Laws and usages of it, much 
respected by the Inhabitants, and filling his office, the duties of 
which are of a most extensive nature, and require his constant 
and unremitting attention, in a manner highly to his honour. His 
situation is also attended with some expence, and he has a large 
Family. Having early waited upon me here, and informed me 
that he thought it right to acquaint me, that finding his salary 
inadequate to his situation, it had been his intention under the 
former Government to resign the latter, unless some addition 
were made to the former, and that he had already apprized the 
late Governor of it. As General Clarke and Sir George Elphin- 
stone were then here, I communicated his application to them, 
and by their concurrence, I returned him for answer, that it was 
our intention to continue the same salaries as were at present 
enjoyed, to all officers of the late Government who continued in 
their employments, and that when we found it necessary to create 
new employments, it was extremely proper, that the persons 
appointed to fill them, should receive some compensation, till 
His Majesty's pleasure were known, yet we could by no means 
consider ourselves as authorized to make any augmentation to 
salaries already appointed, but that I would transmit his applica- 
tion to His Majesty's Government at home. He expressed himself 
perfectly satisfied, and assured me that he would continue in the 
exercise of his functions, with the same zeal as he had always 
shewn, and contribute the utmost in his power to the arrangement 
of the affairs of the Colony, till I am honoured with His Majesty's 
instructions upon this subject, his application is for an augmenta- 
tion of 1,000 dollars. 

You will doubtless observe, Sir, that the inclosed letter from 
the College of Justice touches upon two other points besides that 

Records of the Cape Colony. 283 

of their Salaries. The first was merely a renewal of an attempt, 
which I understand was made once before and the principal object 
of which was, to transfer a small emolument to the Secretary of 
the Court of Justice, for which I saw no reason ; on the contrary, 
it appears clearly to me that it has been wisely determined that 
the Register alluded to should not be in the hands in which they 
proposed to put it, and I have therefore continued it where I 
found it, viz. in the Secretary's Office. 

The other point is of greater consequence. Under the former 
Government Appeals lay both in civil and criminal cases to the 
Supreme Court at Batavia, that is now impossible, and it will 
remain with the wisdom of His Majesty's Government to provide 
some remedy for this deficiency. It is already pretty well under- 
stood, that it is probable that they will be to have recourse to His 
Majesty in Council, for sums of a certain amount, but there will 
probably be still wanting some intermediate Court for appeal in 
cases of less value, or some Court similar to the Court of Chancery 
in other Colonies. I have &c, 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 


Letter from General Craig to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle of Good Hope 

the 21th December 1795. 

Sir, — Inclosed I have the honour to send you a return of all 
vessells which have arrived and sailed from hence since we took 
possession of this Place. 

In considering the different situation of this Settlement from 
that of His Majesty's other Colonies, particularly in the circum- 
stance, that at present all the expences of the Civil Establishment, 
Courts of Justice, Churches &c. which are elsewhere borne by the 
Inhabitants without the interposition of Government, must here 
be defrayed out of His Majesty's Kevenue, untill in His Wisdom 
he is pleased to adopt some other regulation on the subject, 
. General Clarke and Sir George Elphinstone as well as myself felt 
it to be proper to pay attention, that the Revenue should fall off 

284 Records of Hie Cape Colony. 

from its established produce as little as was possible. "We have 
therefore judged it indespensably necessary, to continue to levy 
the same duties upon export and Importation as were paid during 
the former Government, with the single difference, of no longer 
considering British Subjects as Foreigners, but to put them upon 
the footing upon which the subjects of the States General were 
during the last period, and hitherto no difficulty has been made 
by the very few from whom we have had occasion to demand this 

I do myself the honour to inclose a return of the Duties on 
Export and importation, as they now stand,* upon which I shall 
at present only remark that, that which appears to me as the most 
prejudicial to the Colony, is the Duty upon Wine, which having 
already paid three dollars per leager Inland duty, upon it's being 
brought into the Cape Town, is charged with 5 more, upon it's 
Exportation. This Wine with a little more attention in the 
making of it, would be an excellent wine, and the quantity being 
■ considerable, there is no doubt that it might become an article of 
great exportation, to such parts, as it might be thought proper to 
permit it to be sent to, but I fear that this tax of five dollars, 
in addition to the great charge of freight and Insurance, will 
prevent it from being able to bear the competition with foreign 

When we arrived here we found the Colony destitute of almost 
everything, but the distress for many articles of indispensable neces- 
sity, such as Iron, Coals, Staves, and Canvas for Sacks for the Corn 
was particularly severely felt, especially by the inhabitants of the 
back country, many of whom made a regular Journey once a year 
to obtain them and other necessaries, which they cannot repeat, as 
some of them come from a distance, which requires three weeks 
and some even as much as double that period to accomplish the 
Journey. Under these circumstances and knowing the length of 
time which must necessarily elapse before a supply can arrive 
from Britain, I took upon myself, with the concurrence of the 
.Admiral and General Clarke, who were here at the time, to permit 
the Danish ship Alexander which came in here, to land a cargo of 
these articles, which had been in fact assorted for this place, in 
the presumption, that the Dutch Government would have per- 
mitted it to be landed, as was usually done at all times, but never. 

* See page 218. 

.Uncords of the Cape Colony. 285 

refused in times of similar distress. I had also given a verbal 
permission to the Captain, to carry a return Cargo of Aloes, Hides, 
Tallow, Wine and Brandy, articles with which the Colony abounds 
in such plenty, that the people are in great distress to know what 
to do with them. This I did, because the Cargo, which the wants 
of the Colony had induced me to allow to be landed, could not be 
paid for in Paper Money, and so much specie as was necessary 
for the payment in Cash, could not be procured, however finding 
there is a disposition to seize the vessell under the power of the 
navigation laws, I informed the Captain of the predicament in 
which he would stand, so that, he has for the present desisted 
from loading his ship. I am aware of the General purport of the 
Navigation Act, altho' I was not at the time possessed of a Copy 
of it, nor did I know where to procure one, and have constantly 
refused the various applications which have been made by 
American and other vessells for liberty to trade. I am myself 
doubtful how far those laws which relate to the trade of our 
Colonies, can be legally enforced untill the establishment of a 
regular Custom House takes place, nor can I, uninstructed and 
unassisted as I am, venture to undertake what I feel myself so 
totally incompetent to. However tho' I must imagine Custom House 
Officers to be alone properly and really authorized, to enforce the 
laws of Trade, I shall nevertheless on the principle of acting up to 
what I know to be the spirit of them, continue to restrain, as far 
as is in my power, and as the distresses of the Colony will permit, 
all foreign trade, untill I receive further instructions, trusting 
that what I have done with respect to the Alexander will not be 
disapproved of. 

At present Mr. Brandt has the charge of collecting that part of 
the revenue, which arises from all duties not proceeding from 
Land, and of course that which arises from the importation and 
exportation, but I am persuaded, that the necessity of sending out 
some person more acquainted with the forms of our proceedings, 
together with proper subordinate Officers will be seen. 

The Business relative to the Alexander has occasioned a corre- 
spondence of which I have the honour to send you copies inclosed. 

I have &c, 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

28G Records of the Cape Colony. 


Letter from General Craig to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle of Good Hope, 27th December 1795. 

SiH, — General Clarke has transmitted to you a Keturn of the 
several buildings delivered to us by the Officers appointed for the 
purpose by the Dutch Government as being the property of the 
Dutch East India Company. All those which were empty have 
been appropriated to various uses in His Majesty's Service, the 
remainder are occupied by the property of the Dutch East India 

Sir George Keith Elphinstone having deemed it expedient to 
erect a Naval Establishment here, it became necessary to give 
over to him certain buildings which were thought the most 
conveniently situated for the purpose. The Navy have accordingly 
been left in possession of a considerable range of buildings, which 
they took to themselves immediately upon our marching into 
Town, and which contain a large Dwelling house together with 
several stores and workshops, mostly occupied during the former 
Government, by the Officer which with them answered nearly to 
the Master Attendant in our Docks. Sir George having since 
applied for a Naval Hospital, the only building which we could 
find convenient for the purpose, was pointed out to him, and pro- 
mised to be given as soon as vacated by the German Troops 
of the Garrison who were then in it. He then applied for a 
Victualling Store, a Mast house, and boat house, all of which were 
immediately given. His next demand, which was for a dwelling 
house for the Surgeon of the Naval Hospital, it was impossible to 
comply with, as we have not a single quarter for an Officer out of 
the Castle. 

I thought it my Duty to give every accommodation in my 
power to His Majesty's Naval Service, considering however what 
I did in this respect as being merely till His Majesty's pleasure 
should be obtained. 

At Simon's Town there is a pretty considerable range of Stores, 
which were used by the Dutch Company for every purpose, Naval, 
Military, and Commercial ; besides which a few rooms are fitted 

Records of the Cape Colony. 2R7 

tip expressly for barracks. There is also a large building admirably 
situated and adapted for an Hospital, a small house adjoining to 
it, in which the Surgeons lived, and a house and stable occupied 
by the Resident or Deputy Governor, — this last was in fact the 
Governor's house, in which he himself was supposed to reside, if 
ever publick business required his going there. There was indeed 
formerly a very large house more immediately considered as the 
Governors, but which has been sold some time ago. 

Upon our Landing at Simon's Town it seems that the Navy 
as such (for I was totally ignorant that it had been done until 
lately), took possession of all the Storehouses as what they call 
Naval property. I knew indeed that Mr. Farquhar, who has 
since been appointed Naval Storekeeper, was in charge of the 
stores there, but I considered he was so because it was indispen- 
sably necessary that somebody should take care of them, and I 
acquiesced to the Admiral's proposal of appointing him for that 
purpose, as I really knew nobody more, fit for it, but I never had 
any idea at the time, of his or anybody else, considering these 
Storehouses as Naval property. 

Upon a conversation sometime after our arrival here, I myself 
pointed out the expediency of allotting the Hospital there for the 
use of the Navy, together with the Surgeons house, as we could 
never want it as such. 

We have a detachment under the command of a Field Officer 
at Simons Town, and Major Orde who happened to be there, 
having sent to ask my permission to take a room in the Residents 
house I gave it to him, expressly pointing out that especial care 
must be taken of Mr. Brandt the former Eesidents furniture, and 
that his slaves who I knew to be in the house, and who I imagined 
to be the only inhabitants in it, must have access to it whenever 
they thought necessary. It may be proper to observe, that upon 
my landing at Simons Town in July, I naturally took up my 
Quarters at this house, as being publick property, and then 
unoccupied, and when I left it and marched to Muisemberg, the 
Admiral landed and went into it, after which, as there were no 
troops ever there, it remained I suppose occupied by the Officers 
of the Navy, for to acknowledge the truth I never heard or 
thought about it, and latterly when everybody was come away 
from Simons Town 1 conceived the House to be in the charge 
of Mr. Brandt, whose furniture I knew was still in it, and whose 

288 Hecerds of the Cape Colony. 

Wife was there at the time I gave Major Orde leave to take 
apartments for himself and two Captains in it. 

Under all these circumstances, it could not but be with great 
surprize, that I found that the Navy laid claim to this House as 
Naval property also: this account I received by a letter from 
Mr. Farquhar to Major Orde, which that officer transmitted to me. 

Had the claim been laid by Mr. Farquhar only, I should cer- 
tainly not have been surprized, but I own I was very much so, 
when I found that this house was included in a schedule of 
Naval property, given into charge to that Gentleman, by Sir 
George Elphinstone, and which in fact includes every building, 
of every sort or denomination at Simons Town, except the very- 
few rooms fitted up as a barrack. 

This Sir has occasioned a correspondence, a copy of which I 
have the Honor to enclose. I have every inclination to give 
all the accommodation in my power to the Navy, but I should 
have thought myself under the necessity of resisting a claim to 
a right, which is founded upon Grounds, that with equal justice 
might be applied to the Castle, even if the house in question were 
not wanted for our own service, but during the Winter season I 
propose to have a Eegiment, or at least 400 men at Simons Town, 
and if the Naval Storekeeper is to have the only house in the 
Place which remains to His Majesty's Government, I must not 
only hire Quarters for the Officers, bat even for part of the Men, 
for the Stable, which is a large building upon which I depended 
for holding at least 100 men, is a part of their claim being ex- 
pressly pointed out in Sir George's schedule. 

As I have been informed that the Eight Honble. the Lords of 
the Admiralty are to be written to on this subject, I have thought 
it my duty to give you all the information upon it in my power, 
and have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 289 


Letter from General Craig to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Cape of Good Hopb, December 21th 1795. 

Sir, — Having very maturely considered the nature of the Post 
committed to my charge, and the measures to be pursued for its 
defence, in case of the appearance of an Enemy, I remain firmly of 
the opinion, which I have already had the Honor of offering in a 
former letter, that its safety must ultimately depend upon the 
issue of an action, for such is the nature of the Position of the 
Town, that it does not appear to me to be possible to construct 
any works, in the time which it may reasonably be supposed that 
our danger will continue, by which it could be put in a State, to 
resist an attack of any vigour. 

The repairing of the French Lines might indeed be so far of use, 
as to procure us a temporary pause, during which some accident 
might occur in our favor, but the position of them is extremely 
bad, and the repairing attended with every difficulty which can 
arise from want of materials, and a loose soil which cannot stand 
of itself. 

If the Province remains in His Majesty's possession, I think 
a position on a hill over the Town, might be fortified so as to be 
rendered nearly impregnable, in as much as depends upon situa- 
tion ; from this, the Harbour may be so far commanded that it 
would be impossible for an Enemy to make use of it, and as the 
Town is at the foot of the hill in question, it would be equally 
impossible for him to remain in it. The expence of all works 
here, must ever be considerable, from the scarcity of materials, 
and the works required would in this case be rather extensive, 
from the necessity of occupying the whole of the summit of the 
hill, about 1200 men would however be a sufficient Garrison in 
time of War. I have not failed, to make all the inquiries neces- 
sary, to enable me to judge of the possibility of our occupying 
it by temporary works at present, but have hitherto only had 
reason to think it, far beyond our means, as it would be necessary 
to erect buildings for every purpose, — for lodging the Garrison, for 
Hospital, for Ordnance Stores, for Provisions for at least twelve 
months, and Tanks must be made for water. 


290 Records of the Cape Colony. 

These buildings, in the present case would be indispensable, 
because it would be totally impossible to make use of tents on the 
hill, for these works, even executed in the manner in which I 
would propose in a moment of exigency, we are in want of almost 
every material, particularly of timber of every sort, and Iron, nor 
have we even a sufficiency of Tools, either intrenching, Carpenters, 
or Masons, while the Colony is so destitute, that not an article of 
the kind can be procured here. 

A good Fort, with the necessary detached works to preserve the 
command of the top of the hill, would in my opinion render the 
possession of the Cape perfectly secure, I do not think it could be 
taken, while the Provisions in it lasted. 

Even with such temporary works as we could construct, had 
we the materials necessary, I should not despair of baffling the 
attempts of every enemy, not possessed of uncommon perseverance 
and ability. Should there be a probability of a continuance of the 
War, perhaps it may be thought expedient, to send here timber, 
Iron, indeed every necessity for building, stone and lime excepted, 
together with a quantity of Coal, with such assistance, I have no 
doubt of executing the work, or should it at last turn out that the 
materials would not be wanted, they could at all times be disposed 
of here, certainly without loss. 

However Sir, to return to the consideration of our situation as it 
is, — not as it may be, — I am most earnest in my request, that a 
small Corps, from two to three hundred Light Cavalry, may be 
sent here as soon as possible. If the men with all their appoint- 
ments come here, I can mount them with facility, and at an easy 
rate, nor do I find that the expence of maintaining them, will be 
considerable, their saddles should be light, and calculated for small 
horses. The great extent of the Coast, will render it impossible 
to hinder an Enemy from landing ; my object is to oblige him to 
do so, as far from the Town as possible, and I am not without 
hopes of putting him under a necessity of doing it, at a distance of 
several miles. In this event, an object of the first importance to 
us, must be to deprive him of the resources of Horses and Cattle, 
which the Country will afford him. If we can succeed in this, 
His movements in a Country which for miles around us is a 
barren sandy Desert, must be very slow indeed, and must offer us 
advantages which it will be our business not to suffer to pass. 
British Sailors alone are capable of dragging Guns and ammunition, 

Records of the Cape Colony. 291 

in the way in which it was done, when we marched from Muisem- 
berg to this place, nor should we have been able to do it, but for 
the assistance of the Sailors from the Indiamen, of whom we had 
420 appropriated to that service. 

To effect this first object, it will be necessary to drive the 
Country, the moment that by his operations the place of the 
Enemy's disembarkation is pointed out, to this, every opposition 
must be expected on the part of the Country people, the operation 
must therefore be strong and sudden, to which Cavalry alone is 
equal. It will then be necessary to watch the Enemy, even within 
musquet shot of his centinels, to prevent his sending Detachments 
out to supply his wants, to deprive him of every possible com- 
munication with the numerous friends which he will have in the 
Country, and to oppose those, who are to a man mounted, in their 
attempts to join him, — to these various and extensive services, no 
Infantry is equal ; and at last, what may not be expected in a 
moment of action, from 300 determined Cavalry, against an Enemy 
who cannot possibly have any. But it is not only with respect to 
an Enemy, that Cavalry will be useful, nothing will impress the 
people here with so much terror, and prevent all Idea of rising 
against us, and nothing will act more effectually against them, 
should they at any time actually revolt. 

Feeling the very great importance of this subject, I should have 
endeavoured to have supplied the deficiency, by mounting a small 
number of the Men belonging to the Regiments here, — but it has 
not been possible to procure the necessary saddles and accoutre- 
ments, besides which, it would diminish our actual strength, in 
the most efficient part of the Garrison, and notwithstanding the 
numbers on our Returns, we can ill afford any decrease. In 
another letter, I do myself the Honor to send you a Monthly 
Return, but for your more particular information, I enclose a state 
of the Troops, noticing only those actually here. The number of 
sick you will perceive Sir is considerable, and I am very sorry to 
observe, that it has never been much lower since our arrival, the 
truth is, that a considerable part of it is composed of Men, who 
never will be out of that Column of the Returns. 

Having very lately inspected the Regiments closely, I have 
found 230 men unfit for service, from age and other defects, not 
including those who may be rendered so, by the disorders which 
now keep them in the Hospital. This will reduce our effective 

u 2 

'-292 .Records of the Cape Colony. 

strength to 2,600 Rank and file, for the sick I fear we must at all 
times allow 250 at least exclusive of those who are included in 
the 230 above mentioned, and our Commands, and the Posts it 
would be indispensably requisite to keep, even while collecting 
everything for the purpose of action, particularly the Castle, 
together with the necessity of watching the Inhabitants, would 
require considerably more than the other 350, so that it may be 
laid down as a certainty, that we should meet the Enemy under 
2,000 strong. 

It is not to be supposed, that any Armament will come here, 
with less than 3,500 or 4,000. All we can promise, under such a 
disparity of numbers, is that it shall not deter us from making 
every effort the King's Service may require from us, and I have 
every confidence, that the Troops will acquit themselves to His 
Majesty's approbation : with what probability of success, I will 
not presume to say. 

It is indeed to be hoped, and expected, that the effects of a long 
voyage, and the possibly consequent sickness amongst the Enemy, 
may give us an advantage over them, but I still fear, not such as 
would compensate for the difference in our numbers. 

Having a force here already, so far beyond what it was supposed 
that the place would require, it is with the utmost reluctance and 
hesitation that I venture even to mention the word reinforcement. 
I cannot however dispense with submitting it to the consideration 
of His Majesty's Ministers whether such may not be a mode of 
securing this Colony, if it be really of the importance which we 
suppose, preferable to the expenditure of large sums of money in 
works, Which untill constructed on the permanent plan, which can 
. alone be pursued in the leisure of peace, can never, in my poor 
judgement, afford the security, that the small Corps of Cavalry, 
which I request at any rate, and another tolerable Regiment of 
Infantry, would give to it. 

In the consideration which may be given to this subject, it is 
necessary particularly to advert to one article of expence, usually 
attending our Troops on foreign stations, which is here almost 
done away, I mean their maintenance, which at this station costs 
almost nothing, the actual expence of a Ration exceeding by a 
trifle the two pence halfpenny which the Soldier pays for it. I 
doubt indeed whether it will exceed it at all, when the harvest is 
got in. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 293" 

Our supply of Stores of every sort, taken from the Dutch, is so 
ample, that we want for nothing except a few small arms, to 
replace such as the Regiments from the various accidents incident 
to the service in which they were engaged so immediately on their 
arrival, have lost or destroyed, about 300 will be amply sufficient 
for this purpose. 

I should likewise request a further supply of Intrenching Tools, 
which are not in any shape to be procured here. I have, &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

To the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 

The Humble Memorial of Major General James Henry Craig, in 
behalf of himself and the Officers, Non Commissioned Officers 
and Private Men of six companies of the 2nd Battalion of the 
78th Regiment, Sheweth 

That by Your Majesty's Command your Memorialist embarked 
with six Companies of Your Majesty's 78th Regiment on Board 
three of Your Majesty's Ships of War in the month of February 
last, and proceeded to False Bay in the Settlement of the Cape of 
Good Hope where they arrived on the 12th of June. 

That in obedience to Your Majesty's Instructions your memo- 
rialist used such efforts as appeared to him to be practicable with 
the Force under his Command to reduce the Cape of Good Hope 
to Your Majesty's obedience. 

That in the course of this service Your Memorialist drove the 
Enemy from a strong Position which they had taken between 
Simons Town, where Your memorialist landed and the Cape 
Town, which was necessarily the object of Your Memorialist's 
enterprize, and was occupying the same position, using his best 
efforts in preparation to enable him to proceed when Major 
General Clarke with a further and more considerable Force arrived 
and accomplished what Your Memorialist had begun, in the final 
reduction of the Cape Town by a Capitulation which took place on 
the 16th September. 

291 kecords of the Cdpe ColoniJ. 

That a considerable Property of Shipping in the Bay tts well aS 
of Effects and Merchandize in Storehouses belonging to the Dutch 
East India Company, was taken possession of at Simons Town 
long before the arrival of General Clarke, by Your Majesty's 
Memorialist in conjunction with a Squadron of Your Majesty's 
Ships of "War commanded by Vice Admiral Sir George Keith 
Elphinstone, which together with what was afterwards captured 
at the Cape Town, has in obedience to Your Majesty's commands 
been secured as far as is practicable, and now waits Your Majesty's 
further directions. 

That those in whose behalf this Memorial is humbly presented 
to Your Majesty, join with their Brother Officers and Soldiers 
who composed that part of the Army which arrived under Major 
General Clarke in the fullest confidence in the wisdom which 
will direct Your Majesty in the final disposal of this property, on 
which they have no other claim but such as may arise from Your 
Majesty's graciously condescending to notice their endeavours for 
Your Majesty's Service. 

But in the contemplation of the possible effects of Your 
Majesty's attention to their services ieading Your Majesty to exert 
Your Eoyal Bounty towards them there has arisen a division of 
interests and hopes between the two parts of Your Majesty's 
Army employed upon this Expedition, which however with the 
utmost truth, they can assure Your Majesty has created none in 
the harmony with which all have united in their best efforts for 
Your Majesty's Service, or in the good understanding, which they 
believe to be so conducive to it, that they would justly merit 
Your Eoyal displeasure were they to suffer it to be disturbed by 
any object of interest personal to themselves. 

But Your Memorialist trusts that Your Majesty will think, 
that he is only discharging a duty which he owes to himself and 
to those whose Interests he considers himself as charged with from 
the Moment that Your Majesty put them under his Command, 
If believing that they possess a superior share in the very humble 
Claim which the whole have on Your Majesty's Eoyal considera- 
tion, he thus presumes to lay it at Your Majesty's feet and with 
all humility and Eespect on their behalf and his own to pray 

That, if Your Majesty in Your Eoyal "Wisdom & Bounty is 
graciously pleased to consider the services of your Land Forces, 
by the bestowing oh them such part of the property taken on 

Records of the Cttpc Colony. 295 

this Occasion as to Your Majesty may seem proper, in the regard 
which Your Majesty will in that event pay to those of Your 
Naval Force employed on the same Expedition, Your Majesty 
will make a distinction between the property captured at Simons 
Town and that taken at the Cape Town, and that as Your 
Memorialist with the Officers Non Commissioned Officers and 
Privates of the 78th were alone concerned in the capture of the 
former Your Majesty will judge them to be solely entitled to the 
share of Your Majesty's bounty which may arise from that part 
of the Booty. 

And as in duty bound Your Majesty's Memorialist will ever 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 
Cape of Good Hope, 27th December 1795. 


Letter from General Craig to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle of Goon Hopb, 3Ut December 1795. 

Sir, — Since writing the within letter the Merchants who had 
purchased the entire cargo of the ahip Alexander mentioned in it 
and who found themselves extremely distressed from the diffi- 
culties which arose in the only mode by which they could pay for 
it, finding that she had been a prize to His Majesty's Ship Thetis, 
and as such is entitled to all the privileges of a British built ship, 
have purchased her and have loaded a cargo of Wines and other 
Articles, with which she is to proceed immediately to London. 
I have been applied to both on this and other occasions to grant 
a Register but as I do not conceive myself to be in any shape 
authorised to perform any act of that or a similar nature until 
properly instructed so to do, I have declined acquiescing in it. 
The Gentlemen concerned however having made oath of their 
having really and bona fide purchased the Vessell and having 
myself no reason to doubt its being a fair transaction on their 
part, I have not hesitated to grant them a Certificate relative to it, 

296 Records of the Cape Colony. 

as well as of their having taken the Oath of Allegiance to His 
Majesty which they have personally done. I have &c. 



Letter from General Craig to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle of Good Hope, 31s< December 1795. 

Sir, — The delay of the Ship's sailing since I closed my letter on 
revenue, furnishes me with the opportunity of acquainting you, 
that the offers for the lands and Saltworks which were advertized 
to be let for a year, have exceeded by much what I supposed they 
would be, they amount to something more than 5000 Eixdollars 
which is to be added to the amount of the revenue. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

Census Returns. 

It appears by the Books that there were in 1795 

At the Cape Town it's District 1,294 Men, 1,057 Women, 1,265 
Boys, 1,341 Girls, 15 Servants, 6,068 Slave Men, 2981 Slave 
Women, 4,125 Horses, 8,681 BuUocks, 12,967 Sheep, 27 Swine, 
898,030 Wine plants, 939£ Leagers Wine, 1,813 Muids Corn 
sowed, 22,780 Muids Corn gained, 51 Muids Rye sowed, 187 
Muids Rye gained, 133 Muids Barley sowed, 1,715 Muids Barley 

At Stellenbosch 1,309 Men, 880 Women, 1,207 Boys, 1,258 
Girls, 4,300 Slave Men, 1,690 Slave Women, 6,772 Horses, 22,220 
Bullocks, 118,318 Sheep, 98 Swine, 9,074,380 Wine plants, 5,332 
Leagers Wine, 1,523 Muids Corn sowed, 10,156 Muids Corn 
gained, 3 Muids Rye sowed, 29 Muids Rye gained, 5 Muids Barley 
sowed, 20 Muids Barley gained. 

At Zwellendam 848 Men, 337 Women, 581 Boys, 477 Girls, 

Records of the Cape Colony. 297 

4 Servants, 818 Slave Men, 403 Slave Women, 2,348 Horses, 
14,490 Bullocks, 65,052 Sheep. 

At Graafl'e Beinet 808 Men, 596 Women, 910 Boys, 761 Girls, 
4 Servants, 369 Slave Men, 210 Slave Women, 1,278 Horses, 
26,273 Bullocks, 222,480 Sheep. 

Total 4,259 Men, 2,870 Women, 3,963 Boys, 3,837 Girls, 23 
Servants, 11,555 Slave Men, 5,284 Slave Women, 14,523 Horses, 
71,664 Bullocks, 418,817 Sheep, 125 Swine, 9,972,410 Wine 
plants, 6,271£ Leagers Wine, 3,336 Muids Corn sowed, 32,936 
Muids Corn gained, 54 Muids Eye sowed, 216 Muids Bye gained, 
138 Muids Barley sowed, 1,735 Muids Barley gained. 

Extracted from the registers of the late Government laying in 
my Oflice. 

(Signed) H. Boss, Secretary. 


By James Henry Craig Esquire Major General and Commanding 
at the Cape of Good Hope and its dependencies &c. efce. &c. 

Whereas there are sundry Lands and Buildings in this Colony 
belonging to His Majesty the care and preservation of which are 
of much importance and will require great vigilance activity and 
attention, These are therefore to appoint you to be Inspector of 
His Majesty's Lands and Buildings, and to direct you as Inspector 
to take into your charge and under your care all Lands, Woods, 
Houses, and Buildings of every sort together with all Wharfs, 
acqueducts, water pipes, and generally of all His Majesty's property 
of what nature, not occupied as Military Store Houses, Barracks, 
or Hospitals, or not dependant on any Castle Battery or fortifica- 
tion, and in pursuance of the trust hereby reposed in you, you are 
to be carefull and vigilant to prevent any depredations or waste 
being committed in the woods or other property put under your 
Care and Inspection but are to use your best endeavour for the 
preservation of the same reporting from time to time to me or His 
Majesty's Governor or Commanding Officer, the State and Con- 
dition of the several objects committed to your charge as well as 

298 Records of the Cape Colony. 

such repairs thereto as may be necessary, observing that you are 
not to incurr any expence either in repairs or otherwise without 
having made such Eeport and received directions thereon. 

For the Several Services hereby required of you His Majesty's 
Eeceiver General will be directed by warrant to pay you a Salary 
of Three Eixdollars per day, and all His Majesty's Officers and 
Soldiers together with all other His Majesty's subjects are hereby 
expressly commanded and directed not to molest or hinder you in 
the execution of your duty but on the Contrary to give you all 
assistance of which you may stand in need, for all which this shall 
be to you and to them a full and sufficient Warrant. 

Given under my Hand & Seal at the Castle of the Cape of Good 
Hope this 1st January 1796. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig, Major General. 
By Command of Major General Craig. 

(Signed) H. Koss, Secretary. 
To Wm i Somerville Esqre. 


Letter from General Craig to the President and Members of 
the Court of Justice. 

OxsTtE of Good Hope, 7 Jany. 1796. 

Gentlemen, — It having been thought expedient for the benefit 
of the Colony that the Court of Justice should resume their 
functions and that the Laws and usages which were in force under 
the former Government should still continue to be the rule of their 
conduct untill His Majesty's pleasure upon this head be known, 
It would be with extreme reluctance that I should adopt any 
measures which might have an appearance or give even cause to 
ill disposed persons to insinuate that the intention existed of an 
arbitrary interference on my part to change or prevent the Law 
from its usual course. Notwithstanding however the very great 
repugnance which I feel to every step which may have this 
tendency, yet having lately had occasion to consider the Criminal 
Jurisprudence which has obtained in the Colony, the nature of the 
punishments inflicted on the blacks in capital cases has so forcibly 

ltccords of the Cape Colony. 200 

Impressed itself on my mind, that I cannot dispence with offering 
some observations upon it to your consideration. 

It is not my intention to draw any comparison between the 
Laws of Britain and those which direct your proceedings, each 
may possess it's peculiar excellence and each may be attended 
with some inconveniencies. It is not my business at present to 
enter into any discussion upon therrt, but in nothing can they 
differ more than in the infliction of capital punishment ; with us 
the privation of life is considered as the extreme of punishment, in 
the manner of which we know no gradation ; while with you the 
magnitude of the crime measures the severity of the mode by 
which the Criminal is put to death. This spirit of humanity even 
in the article of punishment, has so Universally obtained with us, 
that it is now become a part of our Constitution, and in whatever 
light His Majesty's Government may be disposed to view the 
future Constitution which it may be necessary to form for this 
Country, I am persuaded that both the Ministers who compose it 
as well as the people of Britain in general, would have singular 
pleasure in feeling that there existed no necessity that any part of 
the King's Dominions should in the dispensation of Justice act 
otherwise than in the same spirit of Humanity, which they are 
accustomed to consider as essential to their own happiness. 

Under this impression I am desirous of offering to your con- 
sideration Gentlemen, the propriety of your so far relaxing from 
the strict letter of your laws, as in such cases as- may in future 
come under your cognizance, to look upon the privation of life as 
the extreme of punishment, and that hanging or beheading should 
be the only mode by which your Sentence should direct that 
punishment to be inflicted. 

At the same time that I request your most serious consideration 
to this subject, I am to desire Gentlemen that you will believe me 
most strongly impressed with a conviction of the necessity of 
keeping an exact subordination amongst the very numerous body 
of Slaves which exist in the Colony, the safety of the Colony 
depends upon it, and you may rest assured of every exertion of 
His Majesty's Government to enforce it, at least while I have the 
Honor of holding the reins. I am perhaps not sufficiently accus- 
tomed to a Country in which Slavery exists, or acquainted with 
the temper and general disposition of those unfortunate beings 
who are in that state in this Settlement, to form a decided opinion 

300 Records of the Cape Colony. 

upon the subject, but I should feel infinite regret if I had reason 
to believe that the diminution in the severity of punishment which 
I propose to your consideration, could operate as an encouragement 
to the increase of the Crime of Murder, and I am particularly 
desirous of leaving room to correct my error in this respect, should 
it turn out one, by a readoption of the severity which I wish now 
to mitigate ; and it is for this reason that I would at any rate 
avoid any formal abolishment of the present practice, which might 
render the reestablishment, if found indispensable, more difficult 
hereafter. But Gentlemen, I do hope that no such necessity will 
exist, and I expect that the exercise of a greater degree 
towards the blacks, will have the effect of softening their manners, 
of introducing among them which are now unknown, and 

of inspiring them with an affection for their masters which they at 
present seldom feel ; at any rate is it not worth the experiment ? 
but I leave it to your consideration Gentlemen in the persuasion 
that you will feel in its full force everything that Humanity can 
suggest to you on the occasion. I am Gentlemen, &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 


Letter from Commodore Blankett to Lord Hawkesburv, 
President of the Committee of Council for the Consideration 
of all Matters relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations. 

Cape of Good Hope, 
\2,th January 1796. ' 

My Lord, — Altho I had the honour to address you a few days 
ago by an opportunity that offered by the Louisa Maria, formerly 
a Dutch Packet, I would not fail of this occasion to repeat my 

Everything seems quiet here, the Colonists having had a very 
abundant Harvest and a great Prospect of a favourable Vintage, 
only complain of their over plenty, and look for where to deposit 
their Store. The necessity to give Directions to their commercial 
Concerns becomes every day more manifest, as the number of 
Neutrals tends very much to throw their Dependance on 

lUconh of the Cape Colony. 301 

Foreigners, and to depreciate the bills on England. It will bo 
difficult to arrange the Commerce of this Country, without full 
Powers from home, the Paper Currency from fraudulent Issues 
will become an object of great Consideration, and an Article of 
the Capitulation that no new Taxes shall be levied, will remain 
another Obstacle. To what amount the Paper Currency extends, 
is not yet ascertained, daily Frauds are practised, and the Issues 
originally were not properly chequed. In respect to their Taxes, 
they are ill laid and worse levied. The Duties on Import to the 
("ape Town, in some Articles, come near a fourth of the whole 
Value and there is a Charge of 5 per Cent on its re-export without 
any Drawback whatever. This is a great Discouragement, as well 
as the Mode of levy, which is done at the Gate, liable to the 
connivance or oppression of the Tax Gatherer who collects it, on 
the Spot, or after Sale, in proportion as he chooses to favor the 
parties ! In some such Spirit of levy are all their taxes gathered, 
so that an Officer of the Eevenue makes his Place worth his 
holding, without considering the Salary more than an Appendage 
to his Office. 

Your Lordship knows too much of the World not to see the 
Extent of these Mal-practices, and that when they have been the 
Custom for Years, they grow to serious Causes of Complaint. 

The Eevenue on the rent of Lands amounted in 1793-4 to 
upwards of £12,000, it has since fell short more than half, owing 
to the Inability of the Farmer to pay his Pent, from the small 
Profit he must receive for his Produce after all the taxes and 
Charges that attend his bringing it to Market, in this receipt the 
Collector can likewise favor his Friends, and the remission of Part 
of the rent is very well accounted for, by the Collector General of 
the Revenue, particularly when he was a Member of Council. 
This tax is the most productive. The farm or Wine Duties 
becomes the second, both Objects of Consideration. The Com- 
missaries that were sent out here did a great deal by simplyfying 
the Modes of Collection, but they had a Revenue to raise to pay 
the Expences the Colony had not to the Company they were 
therefore circumscribed in their exercise of Regulation, and were 
obliged to consider every Mode that could raise Money more 
than the easiest manner by which it could be procured, and they 
had to attend to the Recommendation from home, which favored 
Interests, they did not think prudent to trust. I am sure I 

302 Records of the Cape Colony. 

have given your Lordship several hints, you will improve on 
if they strike you. I very sincerely recommend the Colony to 
your Protection, persuaded that it is equal to become, whatever 
it may be the Wish of the King's Government it should be. I 
have &c, 

(Signed) J. Blankett, 

[Copy of Translation.] 
Letter from the Court of Justice to Major General Craig. 

In the Court of Justice at the Cape of Good Hope, 
14 Jany. 1796. 

Honourable Sir, — On receiving Your Excellency's Letter dated 
the 7th Instant, relative to the degrees of Severity with which 
capital punishments have usually been inflicted here, according 
to the Laws of the Country, we lost no time in considering with 
the attention it merited, a subject so important: and in dutiful 
compliance with the wish expressed in Your Excellency's Letter, 
we have the honour to lay before you the observations we have 
made in the course of our investigation, which in our opinion are 
worthy of some consideration. 

In the first place, we take the liberty to represent to Your 
Excellency, that the distinctions, which you seem to suppose, do 
exist between Europeans or free Persons and Slaves in this Colony, 
is by no means the cause of the gradations of Severity with which 
capital punishments are here inflicted upon Slaves ; on the con- 
trary, we can assure you, that in the Eepublic of the United 
Provinces, the Laws and customs of which have hitherto been the 
Eule of our criminal Jurisprudence, the very same gradations of 
severity in punishment are observed amongst the Inhabitants of 
those Provinces, in which there are no Slaves, which are here 
equally inflicted upon free persons & Slaves. 

The degree of Severity with which punishments are inflicted 
according to our Laws is measured by the atrocity of the Crime, 
which in proportion to it's magnitude demands a more striking 
Example : But in all cases, the following particulars are carefully 

1. The Person who commits the crime, and also the Person 

Records of the Cape Colony. 303 

upon whom it is committed ; as when a Subject murders his 
Sovereign or a Slave his Master. 

2. The Place in which the Crime is committed, for example, He 
who murders a person in his own house, which ever ought to be 
his safest Asylum, is punished more severely than he who commits 
murder to which both had an equal 

3. The quality of the Fact ; as Instrument with which 
the Murder was committed is generally esteemed a deadly 

or not. 

4. The quantity of guilt, as where the Accused has murdered 
more than one person, or has been guilty of the same Crime at any 
former time. 

5. The Design in committing the Crime ; as when it is followed 
by Theft. 

6. The Judge also pays attention to the Motives from w r hich 
the Crime w r as committed ; for instance, whether murder has been 
perpetrated in anger or premeditated, in cool Blood & in an in- 
sidious manner. 

Particular attention was paid to these and other circumstances, 
which might produce some shades of difference even in crimes 
essentially of the same nature, whether committed by free people 
or Slaves, & incurred different degrees of punishment according to 
their Atrocity. 

In our Jurisprudence it is usual to punish w r ith greater Severity 
Housebreaking and Theft, accompanied with Murder, than Theft 
alone, whether it is committed by free people or Slaves — a wilful! 
and insidious Murder is more severely punished than Murder per- 
petrated in the heat of passion when provocation has been given. 
Simple Murder is deemed less culpable than Pegicide, Parricide, 
Fratricide &c. An Incendiary is punished by Fire, &c, &c. 

These distinctions obtain so universally, that they almost 
amount to a Rule of conduct for the Courts of Judicature over all 
Europe, and in this Country they are observed equally with free 
people & Slaves. 

Nevertheless we cannot but observe, with regard to Slaves, that 
the equality of punishment ceases when they commit offences 
against Europeans or free persons, particularly their Masters : but 
this distinction is not peculiar to this Country ; on the contrary it 
is grounded upon analogy with the Criminal Law, according to 
which the distinction of persons is one of the essential points by 

304 Records of the Cape Colony. 

which the degree of punishment is measured in most civilized 
Nations, and this distinction is especially founded upon the 
Imperial Laws or the Roman Law, which from it's exactness is 
not only acknowledged as Law when other Laws are silent, but is 
particularly recommended as such in the Statutes which have 
been successively issued in the Dutch Indies, relative to Slaves, 
and are observed here. Slaves were considered by the Romans as 
Creatures, who from their enured bodies & from their rude and 
uncultivated habits of thinking were much more difficult to 
correct and to deter from doing evil, than others, who from better 
education & better habits measure the degree of punishment by 
their internal feelings rather than by bodily pain: and this 
reasoning may be justly applied to our modem Slaves, many of 
whom are descended from wild and rude Nations, who hardly 
consider the privation of Life as a punishment, unless accompanied 
by such cruel circumstances as greatly aggravate their bodily 

It may also be observed, that in every Family (with a very few 
exceptions) the number of Slaves is so great, that the safety of 
the Family depends upon them. This requires the greatest 
precautions, that they may not make use of their superior force, 
because such an event would bring the whole Colony to the brink 
of ruin. 

In order to render these precautions essential, they should 
comprehend sufficient Motives to prevent the Slaves from dis- 
turbing the tranquillity of the Family, and at the same time 
leave in the hands of the Master such power as is necessary for 
him to exercise in the Direction of his Family. Experience has 
taught that gentle means are inadequate, even amongst free 
persons to maintain good order, and of this the Military State is 
an instance, where the authority must be vested in one person, 
or in much the smaller number ; consequently, altho' strongly 
actuated by Motives of humanity, and viewing the Slaves in the 
most favourable light, it becomes necessary to adopt severe 
measures to deter them from revolting against their Masters & 
taking advantage of their superior strength. On this established 
Law in the Dutch Indies and in this Colony, in which it is decreed 
that Death shall be the punishment of a Slave 

his Master with or without and the maintenance of publick 

Order and Subordination, together with the great number of Slaves 

Records of the Cape Colony. 305 

and their less civilizod dispositions, has introduced the gradations 
in the severity of punishment in other crimes committed against 
free persons. 

In order therefore to be able to judge correctly of the propriety 
of deciding how far it is safe to fix Hanging and Beheading as the 
severest capital punishments, it is in our opinion fit to enquire, 
whether the purpose for which gradations of capital punishment 
(that is, the prevention of crimes) was introduced, can be equally 
well obtained by mitigating the severity of punishment — with 
regard to this, we observe, that altho' in general no difference is 
admitted between free persons and Slaves yet in this some dis- 
tinction is necessary : for as far as relates to free people or at 
least the greater part of them, we have no scruple in saying that 
it is our opinion that a less gradation such as Your Excellency 
has been pleased to propose, will not increase the number of 
murders, partly because such atrocious crimes are less frequently 
committed by free persons than Slaves, and partly because over 
and above the alleged political reasons for keeping the Slaves in 
subordination by extraordinary means, they are for the most part 
not only destitute of those principles which commonly restrain 
a thinking being from the commission of atrocious crimes, but 
they have not those relations in society which would induce one 
to suppose that they really valued the preservation of a life, the 
greater part of which they must spend for the advantage of those 
to whom they are subject, and however unwilling to form a bad 
opinion of our Fellow Creatures, yet it must be owned that the 
experience of all ages has taught, and daily confirms us in the 
belief that a State of Slavery is always accompanied with a 
certain Enmity against Masters, in so much that it must be looked 
upon as an extraordinary event to find a Slave who would not 
rejoice at any mischief that might befall his master, altho' fear or 
perhaps a more virtuous feeling might prevent him from com- 
mitting himself. It rarely happens that when a Slave 
sees a plot formed against the life or property of his Master, he 
endeavours to prevent the execution of it. 

These inconveniences will never be removed untill Slavery, of 
which they are the natural or at least the inseparable consequences, 
be abolished: but as the greatest part of the property of the 
Inhabitants of this Country consists of Slaves, that could not be 
attempted without being followed by the most ruinous conse- 


306 Records of the Cape Colony. 

quences to a number of Families. However, besides these 
inconveniences, there is some reason to apprehend, that mitigating 
the severity of capital punishments may be productive of an 
increase of Murders, which during the short time that this Colony 
has been in the possession of His Britannick Majesty, have been 
very frequent. Should such an event take place, it would be a 
painfull reflection to think that by too great lenity one had been 
the remote cause of another's misfortune. And as in punishing 
Crimes, it is better that ten guilty persons should escape, than 
one innocent be punished; so, on the other hand, it is more 
advisable and even more just not to hazard the painfull reflection 
but rather to aggravate the severity of capital punishments, in 
order to diminish the frequency of Crimes, whereas by lessening 
the degrees of severity it would be unjustifiable to run the risk 
of exposing one innocent Man to the vengeance of the Slaves. 

To which we may add, that it would be extremely difficult if 
not altogether impossible to ascertain whether an increase of 
crimes, should it take place, were occasioned by diminishing the 
severity of capital punishments ; for notwithstanding the present 
rigour of our Laws, sometimes murders are more frequently com- 
mitted than at others. This uncertainty would greatly embarrass 
the Legislature of the Colony, and a series of bad consequences 
might ensue before certainty could be obtained on so important 
a point. 

Notwithstanding all these reasons it would be an undertaking 
of great difficulty to demonstrate that a mitigation of the severity 
of capital punishment would be productive of no good conse- 
quences, or that such a measure, if adopted, would necessarily 
be followed by events prejudicial to this Colony. Altho' the 
Legislature of these Countries seems to have established the 
criminal Laws as they now exist for wise reasons, yet it would 
be difficult to say that the gradations of severity is the cause 
why so many and no more atrocious crimes are perpetrated than 
there now are. 

It still remains a doubtfull point whether the mitigation of 
punishments would tend to soften the Manners of the Slaves, for 
this reason, that altho' capital punishments are ordained in order 
to deter them from the commission of Crimes, yet the source of 
those very crimes, as well as the origin of that Enmity which 
Slaves bear towards free persons is to be found in circumstances 

Records of the Cope Colon;/. 307 

totally unconnected with the punishment of death. We think, 
under correction, that these causes originate from the consciousness 
which a Slave has of his condition — from the great improbability 
of his being able to ameliorate his condition — from the difficulties 
that prevent him from even using means to effect that end — from 
the abuse which Masters often make of their authority — from the 
want of those principles which might direct and comfort them in 
their unhappy Situation. It could hardly be expected that Men 
brought up in a different Climate, in a barbarous Nature and 
under a rigid Government, who retain their own ways of thinking, 
should change their manners, even if the severity of capital 
punishments were mitigated : as matters now exist, he will 
consider those very measures which are taken to lessen the 
se\erity of his fate, as additional proofs of the duration of his 
servitude — such will be his idea so long as he continues to 
depend upon the will & caprice of his Master. 

There are not wanting however other means which might answer 
the purpose of softening the manners of the Slaves, and at the 
same time save the Legislature from the necessity of seeking after 
the means of maintaining good order. 

The measures we recommend are the following, viz. that Masters 
should zealously endeavour to conduct themselves as Fathers rather 
than as Judges in their Families, and act according to the strictest 
liules of Virtue and Humanity, not only in punishing but also in 
rewarding. Altho' the Eights & Equality of Men have been much 
talked of lately, yet it certainly is true, that the detestable system 
daily gains ground " that a slave who does well does no more than 
his duty." It is but very rarely indeed that a Slave is deservedly 
rewarded. Upon these principles we would flatter ourselves with 
the hopes that it is not impossible to inspire the Slaves with 
affection for their Masters, for it is indisputably true that affection 
is a reciprocal sentiment, and always increases in proportion to 
the good actions of him towards whom such Sentiments are 

The answer to the humane question of Your Excellency, whether 
this would not be worth the experiment ? may be easily gathered 
from what has been said. We could with confidence answer in 
the affirmative, could we expect that every Master would co- 
operate to that end, by exercising his power and influence amongst 
the Slaves, in such a way as to shew them that their state of 

x 2 

308 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Slavery originated from no cause depending upon him, and also 
by softening that state lay a good & just claim for their fidelity & 

The consequence of this would be, that if not all the Slaves, at 
least the good part of them, would contribute to the maintenance 
of good order, instead of seeing it disturbed with pleasure, as it 
is the case at present, consequently the necessity for inflicting 
severe punishments would not be greater amongst them than 
amongst free persons, even of whom there are some who are 
destitute of those principles which ought to inspire them with zeal 
for the happiness of that society to which they belong. 

But every one whose knowledge of mankind is founded upon 
Experience, and above all those who are charged with the un- 
pleasant task of governing in the Society, are well aware, how 
little room there is to hope that while men can so freely dispose 
of their Fellow Creatures, they will be guided by such motives. 

However earnestly we might wish to make the experiment, it 
still remains a matter of uncertainty whether the different degrees 
of severity in Capital punishments is precisely the reason, why 
atrocious crimes are not more frequently committed. In this 
uncertainty the humane Legislature is warranted in chusing the 
mildest side, in confidence that there will remain no necessity for 
reverting to the old severity, trusting also that they who are able 
to render the aggravation of capital punishments less necessary, 
altho' perhaps not immediately, will be moved by the example of 
clemency in their Governor, to contribute as far as depends upon 
them, to soften the manners of the Slaves in this Colony. 

There still remains a difficulty which perhaps might not have 
been dreaded, but which in our opinion would probably ensue as 
a consequence of mitigating the mode of inflicting capital punish- 
ments, should Your Excellency think fit to adopt such a measure ; 
The mitigation of punishments would raise in the minds of many 
of the Inhabitants great apprehensions for their personal safety, 
a circumstance from which several inconveniences would arise. 

In the first place, malicious persons, considering the mitigation 
of punishments in a wrong light, would impute what Humanity- 
has dictated, to a desire of lessening the subjection under which 
Slaves have been kept. In the second place, the persuasion that 
more lenient treatment of the Slaves would be a necessary con- 
sequence of mitigating capital punishments would rouse fears 

Records of the Cajtc Colony. 309 

among the good but ignorant Inhabitants, which they would be 
unable to conceal, which circumstance could not fail to excite 
discontent in the Colony in proportion to the number of those 
affected with it. 

We must therefore acknowledge that we do foresee an indirect 
aggravation in the severity of domestick punishments, from whence 
perhaps there might arise a necessity for returning again to that 
Severity, the abolition of which is so much desired: for while 
there are Slaves, proper measures must be pursued for the main- 
tenance of good order amongst them. 

We trust that we have fulfilled Your Excellency's intentions, 
by what we have had the honour to represent, and submitting our 
observations to Your wisdom & humanity, we have the honour to 
wish you every sort of happiness & to be &c. &c. 

(Signed) O. G. de Wet, 

W. S. van Kyneveld, 
Johannes Smuts, 
C. Matthiessen, 
J. P. Baumgardt, 
Abraham Fleck, 
C. Cruywagen, 
H. A. Truter, 
H. P. Warnecke. 
A true copy of the translation. 

(Signed) H. Ross, Secretary. 

Letter from Captain H. E. Stanhope to Evan Nepean, Esqre. 

London, 15th January 1796. 

Sir, — I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your letter, 
inclosing copies of Vice Admiral Sir G. K. Elphinstone's corres- 
pondence, which being incomplete (probably from hurry of Service) 
I inclose a copy of my last letter. 

In detailing the positive matter of fact with all the conciseness 
and precision in my power, it becomes necessary to say, that the 
Child I am charged witli having christened, was not a native, but 

310 Records of the Cape Colony. 

the daughter of Edward Walker, a Seaman belonging to His 
Majesty's Ship Ruby then under my command at the Cape of 
Good Hope, wherein I could not combine the morality of Service, 
without a just attention to such religious obligations, as either is, 
or ought to be, the basis of all military discipline ; — the parents 
urged me exceedingly upon the indisposition, suggesting that my 
Successor might not possibly have the same sense upon the 
subject; — wherefore, as a Chaplain, for whose assistance I en- 
deavoured, was not then procurable, and as the established Church 
at the Cape, was Calvinist and Lutheran, I was induced to officiate 
in the morning of Wednesday the 14th of October, previous to my 
receipt of the Order and Dispatches, and not on the eve of the 
13th — hence it must be evident that there neither was an in- 
fraction of the Treaty, nor could offence be to the Ministry at the 
Cape, much less any intended by me; and I am sorry to be 
obliged to observe that the Vice Admiral's information was from 
Captain Lucas of His Majesty's Ship Arrogant, who mentioned in 
common conversation after dinner on the 14th at Sir G. K. Elphin- 
stone's table, in the presence of the Captains, who approved and 
defended my conduct, with exception of Captain Elphinstone. I 
received the first letter within half an hour, acknowledged by me 
that day, although my letter is made to bear date the 15th, thus 
scarcely known to the Clergy at the Cape, to whom upon the 
dawning of an acquaintance, I believe my conduct generally 
acceptable, and I learn that Baptism and even Matrimony, where 
the comforts of Society may be endangered, are solemnized all 
over India, and frequently by the Captains of the Hon. East India 
Company's Ships. 

Under the unequivocal truth of this detail, I neither wish to 
shrink from rigid enquiry, or disrespectfully to urge it, but submit 
its merits as combined with the constant tenor of my conduct, 
which I hope with due humility the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty will believe to have been influenced by the strictest 
sense of religious duty, therefore earnestly beseech their Lordships 
so to represent me to the King, as may replace me with His 
Majesty's Eoyal approbation. I have &c. 

(Signed) H. E. Stanhope. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 311 

[Office Copy.l 
Letter from tlw War Office to Major General Alured Clarke. 

Horse Guards, 16 January 1796. 

Sir, — Your Dispatches from Saint Salvador were received by the 
Chatham Brig on the 19th of Oct. Lieutenant Colonel Macmurdo 
arrived on the 23rd Nov. with the very pleasing and important 
intelligence of the Surrender of Cape Town and its dependencies 
to His Majesty's Forces, and your Letters of the 11th Oct. con- 
taining an account of your further proceedings at that place were 
delivered to me by Lieutenant Colonel Mackenzie on the 6th 

These Dispatches with their several Inclosures have been laid 
before the King. 

As you will have left the Cape long before this Letter can reach 
you it is unnecessary for me minutely to state to you the Senti- 
ments of His Majesty's Confidential Servants with respect to this 
essential establishment, or of the fortunate occurrences by which 
it has been placed under the Dominion of Great Britain. It is 
with the most lively satisfaction however that, in adverting to 
these occurrences, I feel myself called upon, in obedience to the 
King's Commands, to signify to you His Majesty's full and perfect 
approbation of your judicious and spirited conduct on this occasion, 
and of the zeal and exertion manifested by all the Officers and 
Men under your command. 

His Majesty's confidential Servants are perfectly satisfied with 
the propriety of your determination to leave the whole of the 
British force in Garrison at the Cape. The defence of this 
possession should be carefully secured, as it is likely from its 
great importance that the Enemy will (if practicable) make some 
attempt to recover it, and for this and the other reasons assigned 
in your correspondence, His Majesty highly approves of your 
proceeding to India without any of the Forces which accompanied 
you from Europe. In order however that some of the reinforce- 
ments which the present state of the European Force in India so 
evidently requires, may be forwarded thither as soon as possible, 
I think it right to inform you that a Division of 2,000 Men will 
be sent to the Cape in the beginning of February, and that on 
their arrival a Battalion complete to 1,000 Rank and File (probably 

312 Records of the Cape Colony. 

the 78th) will be immediately sent on from thence to India. This 
Battalion will be followed in the course of the Season by further 
reinforcements both of Infantry and of Cavalry, of which I shall 
transmit to you a more particular account by some early oppor- 
tunity. The names of the officers of the Land forces whose 
meritorious conduct at the Cape is particularly noticed- in your 
Dispatches have been transmitted, with your statement of their 
respective services, to His Eoyal Highness the Commander in 
Chief, for his information and consideration. 

The gratuity of 200 days Bat and Forage issued to the Troops 
for their zeal and good behaviour is approved of by His Majesty. 

His Majesty having judged it expedient, in consequence of the 
hostile conduct and disposition of the Persons exercising the 
powers of Government in Holland, to direct general Eeprisals to 
be granted against the Ships, Goods and subjects of the United 
provinces, I herewith inclose you a copy of His Majesty's Order 
in Council to this effect, and also a Copy of a Proclamation for 
granting the Distribution of Prizes taken from the Subjects of the 
United Provinces subsequent to the 15th day of September ; by 
which latter you will observe that it is His Majesty's gracious 
intention that all the effects seized at the Cape of Good Hope on 
the 16th of September last, which come within the description of 
Property allotted in the usual practice of War, and by the Laws 
and Usage of this Kingdom, as Booty to the Captors, will be 
liable to be considered as such on this occasion, and they will be 
at liberty to take such measures and to institute such proceedings 
in the competent Courts as may be requisite for obtaining con- 
demnation thereof for their benefit. On this occasion, and with a 
view to any future occurrences of a similar nature that may arise 
during your command, I think it right to transmit to you a Copy 
of a Correspondance which has passed between me and His 
Majesty's Advocate General on the nature of Booty, and the 
extent and exercise of the right of Seizure and Confiscation, in- 
closing some regulations founded on His opinions on the Subject, 
which appear consistent with the Laws of this Country and the 
Laws and practice of Civilized Nations, and by which it is there- 
fore His Majesty's pleasure that you should be governed in all 
cases in which they may be found applicable. 

Accounts having been received from India of the reduction of 
Trincomale, and that an Expedition had been sent against Malucca, 

Records of tlie Cape Colony. 313 

few offensive operations of any consequence to the Interest of this 
Country will remain to be executed on your arrival in India, and 
your principal attention will therefore be to the preservation and 
security of the Possessions lately taken from the Enemy (par- 
ticularly of Trincomale) and to the general objects of your Com- 
mand ; and I can only further assure you that His Majesty relies 
with confidence on your zeal and exertions for the faithful and 
satisfactory discharge of every duty which your present station 
can require, either in watching the motions of the Enemy and 
annoying their Settlements, or in affording protection to the 
Possessions and Interests of the East India Company. 

[Office Copy.] 
Letter from the War Office to Admiral Elphinstone. 

Horse Guards, 16 J any. 1796. 

Sir, — Captain Hardy arrived here on the 23rd Nov. last with 
your Dispatches of the 12th and 23rd Sept. containing the very 
pleasing and important Intelligence of the surrender of Cape Town 
with its dependencies to His Majesty's Forces, and on the 6th 
Instant I received by Captain Stanhope your Letters of the 10th 
& 15th Oct. with an account of your further proceedings at that 
Place. These Dispatches with their several Inclosures have been 
laid before the King. 

As you will have left the Cape long before this Letter can reach 
you it is unnecessary for me minutely to state to you the senti- 
ments of His Majesty's confidential servants with respect to this 
essential Establishment, or the fortunate occurrences by which it 
has been placed under the Dominion of Great Britain. It is with 
the most lively satisfaction however that in adverting to these 
occurrences I feel myself called upon in obedience to the King's 
Commands to signify to you His Majesty's full and perfect 
approbation of your judicious and spirited conduct on this occa- 
sion, and of the zeal and exertion manifested by all the Officers 
and Men under your command. 

His Majesty having judged it expedient in consequence of the 
hostile conduct and disposition of the Persons exercising the 
Powers of Government in Holland to direct general Keprizals to 

314 Records of the Cape Colony. 

be granted against the Ships, Goods and Subjects, of the United 
Provinces, I herewith inclose you a Copy of His Majesty's order in 
Council to this effect, and also a Copy of a Proclamation for 
granting the Distribution of Prizes taken from the subjects of the 
United Provinces subsequent to the 15th day of September, by 
the latter of which you will observe that it is His Majesty's 
Intention that all the Effects seized at the Cape of Good Hope on 
the 16th of September last, which come within the description of 
Property allotted in the usual Practice of War and by the Laws 
and usage of this Kingdom, as Booty to the Captors, will be liable 
to be considered as such on this occasion, and they will be at 
liberty to take such measures and to institute such Proceedings in 
the competent Courts as may be requisite for obtaining condemna- 
tion thereof for their benefit. On this occasion, and with a view 
to any future occurrences of a similar nature that may arise during 
your Command, I think it right to transmit to you a Copy of a 
Correspondance which has passed between me and His Majesty's 
Advocate General on the nature of Booty and the extent and 
exercise of the right of seizure and confiscation, inclosing some 
regulations founded on his opinions on the subject, which appear 
consistent with the Laws of this Country, and the Laws and 
Practice of civilized Nations, and by which therefore it is His 
Majesty's Pleasure you should be governed in all cases to which 
they may be found applicable. 

The arrangements and promotions in the Squadron under your 
Command, and the requisitions for Naval Stores or other Articles 
of Supply of which the Shipping may stand in need are matters 
for the consideration of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, 
and I have therefore referred to their Lordships such parts of your 
Dispatches as relate to these subjects, recommending the Officers 
whose services and zeal are therein particularly noticed to their 
Lordships' favourable attention. 

Accounts having been received from India of the reduction of 
Trincomale, and that an Expedition had been sent against Malucca, 
few offensive operations of any consequence to the Interest of this 
Country will remain to be executed on your arrival in the Indian 
Seas, and your principal attention will therefore be to the preserva- 
tion and security of the Possessions lately taken from the Enemy 
(particularly of Trincomale) and to the general objects of your 
Command, and I can only further assure you that His Majestv 

Records of the Cape Colony. 315 

relies with confidence on your zeal and exertions for the faithful 
and satisfactory discharge of every Duty which your present 
station can require, either in watching the motions of the Enemy 
and annoying their Settlements and Trade, or in affording Pro- 
tection to the Trade and Settlements of the East India Company. 

[Office Copy.] 
Letter from the War Office to Major General Craig. 

Horse Guards, 16 January 1796. 

Sir, — I received on the 23rd of November last by Lieutenant 
Colonel MacMurdo your Dispatches of the 21st of September 
containing a detail of your proceedings from the time of your 
landing at the Cape, of Good Hope on the 14th of July until the 
critical arrival of Major General Clarke on the 3rd September, 
followed by the surrender, on the 16th, of that most important and 
valuable Possession to His Majesty's arms. 

These Dispatches, with their respective Inclosures, have been 
laid before the King, and it is with peculiar satisfaction that I 
have now to convey to you His Majesty's perfect approbation of 
your conduct during the whole of these operations, and to assure 
you that His Majesty is fully sensible that their fortunate issue 
is, in a great degree, to be attributed to your judicious and spirited 
exertions with the small force under your command previous to 
the arrival of the reinforcements, of which the successful attack on 
the Enemy's Strong Post at Muysenburg is justly considered as an 
instance highly creditable to yourself and to the gallant behaviour 
of the Troops. It would have been more gratifying to His 
Majesty's feelings to have obtained possession of the Cape without 
effusion of Blood ; but the resistance of the Enemy having rendered 
Hostile measures necessary, it was a real satisfaction to His 
Majesty to observe that so little loss had ensued, and to observe 
by your Letters of the 9th & 12th October (which reached me on 
the 6th Instant) that the severe wounds of Major Money Penny 
have not deprived the service of that valuable Officer. 

His Majesty having judged it expedient, in consequence of the 
Hostile Conduct and disposition of the Persons exercising the 
powers of Government in Holland, to direct general reprizals to be 

316 Records of the Cape Colony. 

granted against the Ships, Goods and Subjects of the United 
Provinces, I herewith inclose you a copy of His Majesty's Order 
in Council to this effect, and also a Copy of a Proclamation for 
granting the distribution of Prizes taken from the Subjects of the 
United Provinces subsequent to the 15th day of September. By 
which latter you will observe that it is His Majesty's gracious 
intention that all the Effects seized at the Cape of Good Hope on 
the 16th of September last, which come within the description of 
Property allotted in the usual practice of War, and by the Laws 
and usage of this Kingdom, as Booty to the Captors, will be liable 
to be considered as such on this occasion, and they will be at 
liberty to take such measures, and to institute such proceedings in 
the competent Courts, as may be requisite for obtaining condemna- 
tion thereof for their benefit. On this occasion I think it right to 
transmit to you a copy of a Correspondance which has passed 
between me and His Majesty's Advocate General on the nature of 
Booty and the extent and exercise of the right of seizure and 
confiscation, inclosing some regulations founded on his opinions on 
the subject, which appear consistent with the Laws of this Country, 
and the Laws and practice of Civilised Nations, and by which it is 
therefore His Majesty's pleasure you should be governed in all 
cases to which they may be found applicable. 

Your representations to Major General Clarke on the importance 
of having a Strong Garrison at the Cape coincide entirely with the 
sentiments of His Majesty's confidential servants on the subject ; 
and his determination to proceed to India unaccompanied by any 
part of the British Force from thence has accordingly met with 
His Majesty's full approbation. From the present state however 
of the European Army in India, and with a view to the security of 
Trincomale and such other Possessions as may be captured from 
the Enemy, it becomes an object of the greatest importance to 
send forward some reinforcement with as little delay as possible. 
I am sensible that this cannot be effectuated from the Cape until 
you shall receive a considerable addition to your present strength, 
and His Majesty has therefore been pleased to signify His com- 
mands that the Regiments named in the margin should forthwith 
78th First Battalion be embarked for that quarter. This 

80th reinforcement consisting of Men 

28th Light Dragoons dis- w m enable you to spare at least 1000 

for India, according to the following 

Records of the Cape Colony. 317 

disposition, and materially improves, even after the departure 
of this Detachment, the Strength of the Garrison under your 

On the arrival of the 1st Battalion of the 78th it is to receive 
the Men from the 2nd which will be reduced. This augmentation 
will complete it to a llegiment of at least 1000 Bank & File, which 
it is His Majesty's pleasure should proceed to India as soon as 
the means of transporting it thither shall be at your disposal. 

You will be furnished by His Royal Highness the Commander 
in Chief with particular Instructions respecting the mode of 
drafting the 2nd Battalion and the Establishment of the first. 
The 1st Battalion of the 84th having been drafted in England, the 
Officers belonging to it will proceed to the Cape to receive the 
Men of the 2nd, which is also to be reduced according to a Plan 
which you will receive from His Eoyal Highness. 

I hope you will find it practicable to remount the 28th light 
Dragoons at the Cape, as I conceive that a Body of Cavalry will 
be found highly serviceable in the present state of that Colony. 

This reinforcement will be ready to sail from Portsmouth early 
in the month of February. 

The provisional arrangements which have been made by Major 
General Clarke and Sir George Keith Elphinstone for the civil 
and military Government of the Colony, and for the administration 
of the public Revenue, have met with His Majesty's full approba- 
tion. These and several other points of the utmost importance, 
with a view to a permanent Establishment, are now under the 
consideration of His Majesty's confidential servants; and, altho' 
no decision has hitherto been taken thereupon, you may, without 
reserve, assure the Inhabitants of the Colony, that the new regula- 
tions which may be adopted for the Government of that Colony, 
either Civil, Military, or Commercial, will be made as liberal and 
advantageous as possible, under the relative circumstances of the 
two Countries, and such as cannot fail materially to promote their 
prosperity and happiness, and thereby firmly to attach them to 
His Majesty's mild and paternal Government. These are the 
sentiments which you will lose no opportunity of impressing on 
the minds of the persons of most weight and consideration in the 
Colony, and of the Inhabitants in general. 

For the present I have only further to recommend to you to 
conciliate, by every means in your power, the good will and 

318 Records of the Cape Colony. 

affection of every class of Inhabitants, and, as much as possible, 
whenever it can be done without material prejudice to some 
essential Branch of the Service, not to attempt any innovations, 
tho' evidently useful, without their concurrence, as it would not be 
sound policy to enforce any provisional measures in opposition to 
the views or prejudices of the Inhabitants during the very short 
period which must elapse before Instructions can be prepared and 
sent out for the definitive arrangement of the Colony. 


Letter from General Craig to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Cape of Good Hope, 20th, Jany. 1796. 

Sir, — Nothing material having occurred since the sailing of the 
Alexander by which Captain Paullet went who was charged with 
the Originals of which I now do myself the honour to send 
duplicates, I have little to add to their contents. 

The importance of the Charge of the Buildings and other 
property not Military as mentioned in my General letter of the 
27th December pressing upon me more and more every day and 
finding that for several reasons it would be desirable that it should 
not be committed to the hands of an Inhabitant I have appointed 
Mr. William Sommerville to be Inspector of His Majesty's Lands 
& Buildings by a Warrant of which I have the honour to enclose 
you a Copy. 

The extent of the objects put under his Care with the necessity 
of frequently visiting them will of course subject him to an ex- 
pence in the keeping of Horses for the purpose and when the 
importance of His Charge is added to this consideration I trust 
that I shall not be thought to have exceeded the due attention to 
Economy in the Salary which I have annexed to his employment. 
Mr. Sommerville came out here as Hospital Mate but has been 
appointed by General Clarke previous to his departure to be 
Surgeon to the Garrison. The duties of his two employments 
are perfectly compatible with each other and His very excellent 
character for diligence activity and general information ensure the 

Records of the Cape Colony. 'M9 

exact performance of them all, nor is it a useless qualification for 
those to which I have appointed him that he has made himself 
Master of the Dutch language since his arrival. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

[Office Copy.] 
Letter from the War Office to Major General Craig. 

Horse Guards, 22 January 1796. 

Sir, — Enclosed I transmit to you the copy of an order of the 
Court of Directors to Mr Pringle, their Agent at the Cape of Good 
Hope, directing him to ship on board of the Vessels therein named 
as much Wheat as he can procure, to be brought to England with 
as little delay as possible. 

As the purchase of Grain is undertaken by the East India 
Company, not so much with a view to any commercial benefit, as 
from the laudable motive of seconding, as far as may be in their 
power, the exertions making by Parliament to diminish the high 
price of Grain, resulting from the uncommon and distressing 
scarcity which prevails in this Country and in the greatest part of 
Europe ; I feel it a duty incumbent upon me to desire that you 
will take every step in your power to enable Mr Pringle to meet 
the anxious wish of the Court of Directors in effecting this object, 
and give him every assistance that he may require for procuring 
and shipping the expected supplies, which, from your situation, 
you may be able to afford, without violence to private property or 
material injury to the Interests of the Colony itself. 


By James Henry Craig Esquire Major General and Commanding 
at the Cape of Good Hope and its Dependencies &c, &c, &c. 

The Publick is hereby informed, that William Somerville 
Esquire is appointed Inspector of all Lands and Buildings late 

320 Records of the Cape Colony. 

belonging to the Dutch East India Company and now the Property 
of His Majesty, and which are not occupied as Military Store- 
houses, Barracks or Hospitals and are not dependant on any Castle, 
Battery, or Fortification. 

As it is a part of the duty of the said Inspector, to prevent any 
Waste or depredation being committed on any Lands, Gardens, 
or Woods thus put under his charge, All persons are expressly 
warned, not to molest or hinder the said William Somerville 
Esquire in the execution of this, or any other part of his Duty, 
but on the contrary to give him all assistance and help which he 
may require as they shall answer the contrary at their Peril. 

Given at the Castle of the Cape of Good Hope the 23rd of 
January 1796. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig, Major General. 


Letter from General Ckaig to the President and Members of 
the Court of Justice. 

Castle of Good Hope, 27th January 1796. 

Gentlemen, — I have had the favor of your answer to my letter, 
relative to a mitigation in the mode practised in the execution of 
Criminals, whioh from a natural aversion to every species of 
cruelty to a fellow creature, in whatever situation he may be, I 
was induced to offer to your consideration. Strongly impressed 
with the importance of the subject, I have given every attention 
in my power to the arguments which are so ably set forth in your 
letter, nor have I suffered even the cause of humanity, which first 
led me to enter upon the subject, to prevent their having their due 
weight with me, especially as they could not but lead to the 
consideration of the possible effect of the proposed change, in the 
horrors which would attend any disorders amongst the Slaves, 
which might be a consequence of it ; & in which humanity would 
suffer ten thousand times the violations that it would from the 
mode of execution of any number of criminals. 

I have only now to say Gentlemen, that with whatever powers 
I may at this moment, from my situation, be invested, I neither 

Records of the Cape Colony. 321 

feel myself inclined or authorized to change those Laws, which it 
has been thought expedient to reestablish, & for the dispensing of 
which you have been reinstated in your offices. 

But Gentlemen, it appears to me that the Laws, by which you 
are guided, whatever consideration they may impose upon the 
Judge, as to the degree and nature of criminality in the Act which 
is under his cognizance, leave still the decision ultimately in his 
own breast, & the sentence must rest upon his discretion. If I 
am not mistaken in this, what I have offered to your consideration 
will, I trust & hope, have it's due weight with you ; at the same 
time that I feel you are more capable of forming a judgment of 
the probable consequences of such a measure than I can be — 
believing you feel in it's full force everything that can be urged 
in support of that humanity, which as Men & Christians it is 
our duty to practice on every occasion, I rest in confidence that 
nothing but superior considerations can weigh with you to silence 
it's voice, and recurring to a question which I have already put in 
my former letter, I shall desire only to add one argument to those 
which have been already discussed upon it. If the experiment be 
thought worthy the trial, it never can be made with greater safety 
than at the present moment, when the Military force in the 
Country is such as to give us the best grounded security against 
any open revolt on the part of the Slaves. 

I am Gentlemen, &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

[Copy of Translation.] 

Letter from the President and Members of the Court of Justice 
to Major-General Craig. 

In oub Assembly of the Coubt of Justice of the 
Cape of Good Hope the 2nd Feby. 1796. 

Honourable Sir, — In answer to your Letter of the 27 Jany, 
we have the honour to represent with due respect to your Ex- 

322 Records of the Cape Colony. 

That, altho' the nature of the Crimes, on account of the various 
circumstances which exist in each of them, makes very often the 
simple application of the Law so uncertain, that the Judge is 
obliged to consult his conscience & to determine the punishment 
more according to the probable I meaning of the Legislator than 
according to the Letter of the Law, the qualification for doing this 
must however be founded either upon the Resolution of the Legis- 
lator, expressed in the Law itself by any general Appendix, or 
upon the want of a Law, fit to be applied to the existing case ; for, 
besides the idea, which is formed of a Judge in general does not 
suppose more authority than to apply the Laws of the Sovereign 
to cases which come under his cognizance, it has also always in 
particular been observed in a Legislator, as a principal care for the 
wellfare of mankind, that he leaves so little as human under- 
standing does but allow, to the arbitrage of a Judge; because 
nothing than the highest necessity can justify, that the Legislator 
do yield up any part, however small, of this seminent & 
characteristical quality of a Sovereign, to others who are from 
the nature of their duty, not qualified to exercize the legislative 

As far therefore as the mode, after which some Crimes are to be 
punished, is determined by the Laws, without its being expressly 
left to the Judge to deviate from it; we find ourselves in the 
impossiblity to cause the considerations, which humanity may 
sometimes suggest to us, in any other wise than by interposition 
of the Sovereign or of those who represent the same, to prevail 
over the literal Determination of the Law — not only for the 
already alledged reasons but also particularly, because we are 
bound by oath to follow conscientiously the established Laws (to 
which belong also all reasonable customs from immemorial time 
in analogy of the said Laws) in our from whatever side 

the subject of this be considered, all what has the 

appearance of alteration of Laws shall never be permitted or 
executed upon our private authority, but will always need to 
be issued out of the breast of Your Excellency, as possessing, 
from the nature of your Station, the legislative Power in this 

As to the question which Your Excellency has been pleased 
in the said Letter of the 27th of January to propose once more, 
whether this would not be worth the Trial ? we beg leave to 

Records of the Cape Colony. 323 

observe (besides what already has been said in our Letter of the 
14th January & which is here respectfully taken to be repeated 
again) that altho' on the one side we have no sufficient ground to 
expect, that the mitigation of the Infliction of the punishment 
with Death will bring about any diminution in the crimes, & that 
also on the other side we can with no satisfactory reasons nor 
certainly suppose, that the said mitigation would be followed by 
any multiplication of capital crimes, because, the matter being 
duely considered, we would judge, that he, to whom neither the 
horror of his intended crime, nor the simple punishment with 
Death does yield a sufficient motive to keep him back from 
committing Crimes, will likewise not be moved by any more 
cruelty in the mode after which the punishment with Death is 
executed, to desist from his wicked intention — but the uncertainty 
however of all the at present concurring circumstances having 
duely been considered by us, we cannot but feel ourselves 
extremely scrupulous to avow as yet that the proposed Trial, 
however worthy it perhaps might be, would be advisable at 
present ; for, we expect from the equitable sentiments of Your 
Excellency, that you will conceive with us, how necessary it is 
that we, in our nice relation as judges in this Colony, carefully 
do avoid to insist upon any alteration in this respect & thereby to 
cause ourselves to be considered by the Publick as the cause of 
that misconceived fear of the Inhabitants, which we had the 
honour, in our former Letter on this Subject, to represent to 
Your Excellency, as a consequence of the mitigation in the mode 
of inflicting upon Slaves the punishment with Death, — as the 
quietness of mind of each Inhabitant, in respect of his Judges, 
arises principally from ness, that they being bound to 

& being of the Laws, are not permitted to indulge 

inclination, but on the contrary are obliged in the 
exercise of their authority to consult in case applica- 

tion of those Laws, which are approved & prescribed by the 
Supreme authority to each Inhabitant as a Eule for his conduct 
& actions. 

We submit these our opinions to your equitable Judgment, 
humbly requesting Your Excellency will be pleased to inform us, 
as soon as possible, of your Resolution, as the going on of the 
litispendent criminal procedures depends of it. We conclude 

y 2 


Records of the Cape Colony. 

these presents by wishing Your Excellency every happiness, 
whilst we have the honour &c. &c, 


A true copy of the translation. 


O. G. de Wet, 
W. S. van Eyneveld, 
Johannes Smuts, 
C. Matthiessen, 
J. P. Baumgardt, 
Abraham Fleck, 
C. Cruywagen, 
H. A. Truter, 
H. P. Warnecke. 

H. Eoss, Secretary. 


Letter from General Craig to the President and Members of 
the Court of Justice. 

Castle of Good Hope, 4th February 1796. 

Gentlemen, — The necessity of translating your letter of the 
2nd put it out of my power to reply to it sooner. 

It does not appear to me to be requisite that I should pursue 
the subject any further than by referring you to my former letter, 
in which I have observed that I neither feel myself inclined or 
authorised to change those laws which it has been thought 
expedient to reestablish here, in the administration of which you 
will therefore be pleased to proceed with a conscientious regard to 
your Oaths and Duty, I am, Gentlemen, &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 325 


Letter from the Governor-General and Council of Bengal 
to General Craig. 

Fort William Feby. 6th 1796. 

Sir, — The Force of the European Troops in Bengal is so reduced, 
and the prospect of obtaining an early augmentation of it from 
Europe so uncertain, that it is our indispensable duty to state 
these circumstances to Your Excellency, in the expectation that 
you may be able to spare one of His Majesty's regiments for the 
service of this country. 

It will remain with your Excellency to decide upon your 
ability to comply with our application and in making our exi- 
gencies known to you we are persuaded of your disposition to 
relieve them in the mode proposed, if you should deem it consis- 
tent with your own security and with the orders which you have 
received. We have &c. 

(Signed) J. Shore, 
P. Speke, 
W. Cowper. 

Letter from Evan Nepean, Esqre., to Admiral Elphinstone. 

Admiralty Office, 12th Feby. 1796. 

Sir, — I received on the 6th of last month and immediately 
communicated to My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty your 
two letters of the 15th of October, transmitting Copies of Letters 
which had passed between you and Captain Stanhope late Com- 
mander of the Ruby, on the subject of the extraordinary pro- 
ceedings of that Officer, in performing the ceremony of Baptism at 
the Cape ; this representation has been communicated to Captain 
Stanhope, and I have the honor of enclosing to you a copy of his 
letter to me in explanation of his proceedings, and as it is under- 
stood that some additional papers are to be transmitted by you on 

326: Records of the Cape Colony. 

this subject, their Lordships have not thought it right to take any 
further steps for the present on the occasion. I am &c. 

(Signed) Evan Nepean. 

[Office Copy.] 
Letter from the War Office to Major-General Craig. 

Hoese Guaeds, 14 February 1796. 

Sir, — Intelligence having been received through various channels 
that a considerable force was fitting out in the Enemy's Ports both 
in Holland and France for distant Foreign Service, and it appearing 
from several circumstances that the whole, or a part of it, is 
destined to act in the Indian Seas, or to make some attempt 
on the important Settlement under your command, it has been 
thought right to dispatch a Frigate to apprize you of their 
probable intentions in order that you may be constantly and fully 
prepared, as far as your force and situation will admit, to repel 
any attack which may be made by the Enemy, whose attention 
must naturally be directed to the recapture of a Post so very 
essential in every point of view. 

The Ships destined to convey to the Cape the reinforcements 
mentioned in my dispatches of the 16th and 22nd ult., have been 
detained in the Eiver by some unforeseen events, but as they are 
now ready to proceed to Portsmouth, where the Troops are waiting 
for their arrival, I hope that nothing will occur to prevent their 
being dispatched before the end of this month. The very respect- 
able Naval Force already employed in the protection of the Cape, 
and the British possessions and Trade in the Indian Seas, will be 
reinforced by three Ships of the Line in addition to the Frigate 
which proceeds with this dispatch. The proportion of this Force 
which will be more particularly allotted for the security of the 
Cape must depend on the arrangements made by the Lords Com- 
missioners of the Admiralty, but as their Lordships are fully aware 
of the importance of the possession, and of the protection an 
efficient Naval Force on that Station will afford to the British 
Settlements and Commerce in the East, I have not the least doubt 
that their Naval dispositions will be governed by these considera- 

Records of the Cape Colony. 327 

tions, and that by the zeal, vigilance and cordial co-operation of 
the Naval and Land forces any designs the Enemy may have 
formed against the Cape (if their execution should be attempted) 
will lead to their disappointment and defeat. 

The force of the Enemy, according to the intelligence com- 
municated to His Majesty's Ministers, consists of two large 
Squadrons of heavy Frigates, which are to carry Land Forces, and 
the one is said to be collected at Rochfort, and the other in the 

The Frigate by which this dispatch will be conveyed will not 
touch at St. Helena, and it will therefore be proper that you should 
by the first opportunity transmit the substance of this intelligence 
to Governor Brooke at that Island. 


Letter from General Craig to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle op Good Hope \Uh February 1796. 

Sir, — Finding -on my return from Simon's Town, where I have 
been with the Commanding Engineer to give some necessary 
directions for putting that Bay into a better state of defence 
previous to the season of the year in which it becomes our vulner- 
able part, that without having given me the least previous notice, 
the Milford is on the point of sailing for England, I have but 
little time afforded me for the honour of writing to you. 

The Dart packet arrived here on the 28th January, and has 
safely delivered the Money with which the Master was charged 
and which arrived most opportunely to preserve us from the dis- 
tress of not being able to subsist the Troops, or the necessity of 
doing it in paper money. One of His Majesty's Ships was on the 
point of sailing to St. Helena in order to obtain such assistance for 
us in that respect, as Governor Brooke should be able to spare. 
By the Dart which sails this day, I have written to Governor 
Brooke to desire that he will by the first safe opportunity send us 
still as much small specie, particularly Rupees and half Rupees, as 
he may have in his power to do, not exceeding £10,000. I have 
done this, because the arrears due on the account of the several 

328 Records of the Coupe Colony. 

regiments here will demand immediately at least half the sum 
which came by the Bart, and the money being in Dollars and 
French Crowns it will be immediately hoarded up, or exported, in 
such manner, that it will not be to be procured for Bills— small 
money is the only specie which remains in circulation. 

By the Dart I had the honour of your letter of the 30th October, 
which conveyed to me the most sensible gratification in the com- 
munication which you were pleased Sir to make of His Majesty's 
approbation of my conduct in the transactions at this place, with 
which His Majesty was then acquainted. It has been since, and 
will never cease to be, the object of my life, to merit the continu- 
ance of His Boyal approbation, which I shall ever consider as my 
best reward. 

It appearing by His Majesty's Speech, and the papers which we 
received by the Dart, that there exists a well founded apprehension 
of a scarcity of Grain in Britain, and that His Majesty's Govern- 
ment were taking the best measures for procuring supplies from 
abroad, even so far as to send for Eice to the East Indies, I could 
not but think that we should be doing an acceptable service, by 
sending home as much of the Wheat, of which we have above 
100,000 Bushels in store, besides the produce of the finest Harvest 
that this Country ever saw, as we can find the. means of trans- 
porting. I accordingly wrote to Commodore Blankett on the 
subject, who very readily acceeded to it, and means immediately 
to clear one of the Dutch prizes which will carry between 800 and 
1000 Tons, for the purpose. We shall then have about as much 
remaining, and the produce of the present Harvest would I imagine 
permit the exportation of double the quantity which we have at 
present without distressing the Settlement, had we ships for the 

Admiral Sir George Elphinstone having written in the month 
of June last to the Governor General and the Council at Bengal, 
stating that considerable supplies would be wanting at this place 
for His Majesty's Troops, that Government immediately took 
measures for sending a quantity of Eice and Eum on board two 
ships, one of which is just arrived, but as the other sailed a month 
before her, there is every reason to apprehend that she has fallen 
into the Enemy's hands. 

This supply is on the account of Government, and tho expressly 
sent for the use of His Majesty's Troops, yet it has been written 

Records of the Gape Colony. 329 

for totally without my concurrence or knowledge. As it is entirely 
useless here, the Commodore proposes to send it on to St. Helena, 
to which place the ship is by her Charter party bound to go if 

I am happy to acquaint you that everything remains quiet in 
the Settlement. Arts are still employing to act upon the minds of 
the people, in the districts of Swellendam and Graffe Reynett, and 
by the reports which I have had of the language held in the former 
lately, it would appear as if it had not been entirely without 
success, nothing however has occurred which gives reason to 
apprehend any interruption to the public tranquillity. I must 
however beg permission to take the opportunity of once more 
observing, that the arrival of the small Corps of Cavalry which I 
have applied for, will have a greater effect towards assuring the 
continuance of it, as well as the firmly establishing His Majesty's 
Government, than all the indulgences and advantages which His 
Majesty's Goodness, or the Wisdom of His Ministers can procure 
for these people. 

I inclose a monthly return of the Troops, and have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 


Letter from General Craig to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Cape of Good Hope lUh Feby. 1796. 

Sir, — I have already done myself the honor to acquaint you, 
that in obedience to the Instructions contained in your letter of 
the 16th Feby. 1795 such part of the property of the Dutch East 
India Company, as has been taken possession of by the Army at 
this place and which comes under the description of that, which 
under the circumstance of being captured by a conjunct expedition 
of His Majesty's Land and Sea Forces is usually considered as 
Booty, has been stored as safely as circumstances would admit of, 
to await His Majesty's further pleasure ; upon a consultation with 
the Admiral and General previous to their Departure for India 
upon this subject it was forseen that there would probably be a 

330 Records of the Cape Colony. 

necessity of disposing of some parts of the property, both on 
account of its being of a perishable nature, and on account of 
the wants of the Inhabitants, who had no other source of supply 
for several Articles of the first necessity, but the Stores of the 
Company; It was also judged that it might be expedient to 
use for His Majesty's service, the Money found in the Company's 
Treasury, and it was not conceived that in either of these cases 
His Majesty would look upon us as disregarding His Instructions, 
above alluded to. It was also determined at the same consultation 
that the money arising from such sale of property or employment 
of that which was in the Treasury should be by me remitted to 
Messrs. Alexander and George Davidson and Simon Fraser, who 
are appointed Agents on the part of the Army in the Event of 
His Majesty being graciously pleased to consider this property as 
booty and as such in His goodness to confer a part of it upon 
-them ; These Gentlemen are instructed to give you notice of the 
receipt of any such Bills and to ask your instructions relative to 
them, and in case you should not be pleased to give any directions 
concerning them, they are to lodge the money in the Bank of 
England, in the names of Sir Geo. Elphinstone and General 
Clarke, with a description of the nature of the property from 
whence it has arisen. 

By the Dart packet, we have received Copies of His Majesty's 
Proclamation for granting letters of Marque and reprisal against 
the Dutch, dated at Weymouth the 15th of September. This 
Proclamation, I humbly presume, will be considered as super- 
ceding the Instructions contained in your letter of the 16th of 
Feby. 1795, not only as being of subsequent date to it, and 
containing no exceptions, but also as evidently doing away the 
circumstance upon which those Instructions were founded, and 
as the capitulation of this Settlement took place subsequent to 
His Majesty's Proclamation, viz. on the 16th September we trust 
that we are well founded in the Hope that His Majesty will 
consider this property as determinable by His Proclamation, and 
that He will be pleased to dispose of it in such proportions as in 
His wisdom and Goodness He shall think proper. 

However Sir, notwithstanding the ground which there appears 
to me to be, for supposing that the Property alluded to will now 
be considered in another light, I have thought it my duty to 
inform you that having directed the Deputy Paymaster General 

Records of the Cape Colony. 331 

to receive the Sum of £3,0G8 5 found in Specie in the Treasury 
of the Dutch East India Company, and to use it for the Public 
Service, as also to take out of it the further sum of £1,000 in 
paper currency at the current exchange of the place, I have by 
this opportunity remitted his Bills for those Sums to Messrs. 
George and Alexander Davidson and Simon Frazer, with instruc- 
tions to give you Notice of their having received them. 

I have &c. 
(Signed) J. H. Craig. 


Letter from Commodore Blankett to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

America, Table Bat. 
17th February 1796. 

Sir, — When I had the honor to address you last I mentioned to 
you that I had dispatched Captain Alexander in His Majesty's 
Sloop Star, to examine the Coast to the Northward, He returned 
.Yesterday having proceeded as far as 15° South, and has found 
several Bays affording good shelter and excellent anchorage, but 
entirely destitute of Wood and Fresh Water. The names of those 
Bays are St. Hellen's in 32° 50', Angra Pequena 26° 40', Spencer's 
Bay 25° 40' Walwish or Whale fish Bay 22° 55' Wyndham's Bay 
16° 44' and Alexander's Bay 15° 22'. Wherever he landed he 
took possession in His Majesty's Name, by hoisting the King's 
Colours, firing three Vollies and turning over the Soil. He saw 
few of the Natives, and those seemed to avoid his people. In 
the Bay of Angra Pequena he found two English Whale fishers, 
who informed him that in the last Season, there were thirty Ships 
fishing from Thompson's Island (alone) which is in 27° S. and 
that they had all good success, one half of these ships were 
Americans. He found all the Bays full of Seals, so that the 
Coast seems to offer a very beneficial commerce to the King's 
Subjects, and I trust you will send your directions relative to 
the conduct to be maintained towards foreigners interfering in 
these fisheries. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. Blankett. •• 

332 Records of the Cape Colony. 



By James Henry Craig Esquire, Major General, Colonel of 
His Majesty's 4fith Regiment and Commanding in the 
Settlement of the Cape of Good Hope &c., &c., &e. 

Whereas several Instances have of late occurred, in which it 
has plainly appeared that Soldiers have been seduced by Inhabi- 
tants of the Country to desert His Majesty's Service, and Whereas 
by the Proclamation of the 16th October last, Persons so offending 
are liable to a penalty of five hundred dollars, which has not been 
found sufficient to deter evil disposed people from committing so 
high an offence against His Majesty, in violation of the duty which 
they owe to Him ; now in order that no one may plead ignorance 
of the pains and penalties to which they will expose themselves 
by such conduct in future, I do hereby give notice, that I shall 
consider all persons found guilty of seducing, assisting, or con- 
cealing Deserters from His Majesty's Forces, as the Bong's 
Enemies, and that as such I shall proceed in a Summary and 
Military way to such Punishment of them, as the circumstances 
of the case may require. 

This is not meant to supercede the former Proclamation of the 
16th October, which shall still remain in force, in such cases in 
which it may be thought expedient to levy the fine therein 

And having nothing more at heart than the happiness and 
tranquillity of the well disposed Inhabitants of this Settlement, 
I think myself called upon to take the present opportunity to 
put all such on their guard against giving credit to the numberless 
false reports which, to answer malevolent and wicked purposes, 
are daily put in circulation ; The authors and propagators of such 
merit the severest punishment, not only as manifesting thereby 
a disposition inimical to His Majesty's Government and Interests, 
but as creating publick alarm and disquietude to the terror and 
manifest inconvenience and prejudice of families and individuals. 
The difficulty of tracing reports of this nature to their sources 
will generally ensure impunity, and persons capable of spreading 
them, with either of the above views (and it does not appear that 

Records of the Cape Colony. 333 

they can be actuated by any other) must be left to the enjoyment 
of their own reflections), but as it is possible that a false report 
may be fixed upon its authors, it may not be improper to observe, 
that in such a case, He or they shall be prosecuted as disturbers 
of the Publick tranquillity, — and in order to contribute in as far 
as in me lies to that quiet and tranquillity of which it is my 
earnest wish to see all in the enjoyment, I do hereby pledge 
myself to the Inhabitants of the Cape Town and adjacent Country, 
who would be more immediately affected by such an event, that 
so far from having any reason to expect any attack on the part 
of His Majesty's Enemies, I do not believe that it is in their 
power, under the present circumstances, to fit out such an 
armament as would be necessary to make the attempt; but 
should such an event take place, the Inhabitants may rely upon 
me for every consideration which can be paid to their interests 
and safety, and in order thereto, they may rest assured that 
whenever there exist any grounds for expecting an Enemy, they 
shall receive such early intimation thereof as may enable such as 
are so disposed to retire into the Country ; till which I earnestly 
exhort them to consider all reports as maliciously intended to 
create alarm and ferment, and by so doing disappoint the wicked 
and malevolent purposes for which they are propagated. 

Given under my Hand. Castle of Good Hope this 17 February 

(Signed) J. H. Craig, Major General. 

Letter from, Commodore Blankett to Evan Nepean, Esqre. 

America, Cape of Good Hope, 4 March 1796. 

Sir, — I wrote to their Lordships lately by way of St. Helena & 
informed them of the return of the Star Brig from visiting the 
Coasts to the Northward as far as Cape Negro, & of her having 
taken possession of several bays in His Majesty's name, & request- 
ing that their Lordships would give me Instructions relative to 
the conduct to be preserved towards foreigners who might attempt 
to fish on that Coast. I must now not only press their Lordships 
for directions on that subject, but beg they will extend them to 

334 Records of the Cape Colony. 

the trade likewise of Neutral Ships that frequently arrive here, 
particularly Danes & Swedes. These Ships arrive from Europe 
with an assorted Cargo of all sorts of Goods pretending to be 
bound to India. They all stop at the Isle of Mauritius, & carry 
from hence if they are permitted, Grain, Flour & Provisions, which 
they receive in exchange for what they have landed here. Other- 
wise they drain the Colony of the little specie they have & 
continue the dependence & connection of the mercantile people 
here with foreign Merchants, instead of opening a Correspondence 
with England, so that no trade can be more detrimental to our 
interests than this, as well as its being in direct violation of the 
Navigation laws. I acquainted their Lordships in a former letter, 
that the General was of a different opinion, and I enclosed them 
the correspondence that had passed on that occasion, A second 
instance has now again happened, by a Danish Ship having landed 
a part of her Cargo without my knowledge and contrary to the 
directions I had given the Master. I enclose my letter to the 
General & his answer, by which their Lordships will observe that 
the General's permission is indefinite, written after the Master had 
actually landed his goods and after the Dane had been twelve 
days in Port in which time no application had been made to me 
on the subject. 

Altho hitherto no further difference has arisen than that of 
Opinion between the General & myself I cannot answer for the 
future, I have no inclination to enter into any disputes that can 
be avoided, Nor can I have any interest to engage in altercation 
on this subject except such as arises from a wish to conduct myself 
by such Laws & Instructions as their Lordships have given me for 
my guidance. 

All is well & quiet in this Colony, People wait anxiously for an 
arrival from England, which they expect will bring them out an 
Established form of Government, & from what I can observe 
of their general orderly behaviour, I should suppose they will very 
readily accept the King's orders of whose Lenity they are already 

deeply impressed. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. Blankett. 

Records of Hie Cape Colony. 335 


Letter from General Craig to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Cape of Good Hope, 8th March 1796. 

Sir, — I did myself the honour to write to you by the Milford 
on the 14th ultimo, and have now that of enclosing you, a dupli- 
cate of my letter. I then had occasion to observe, that by the 
accounts which I had received from the Country, there was reason 
to believe, that the practices of the ill disposed people of this 
place, to excite the peasantry of the back country to insurrection, 
had not been entirely without success. I am sorry to have to 
report to you now, that the appearances of the impression which 
they have made on the minds of the ignorant and credulous In- 
habitants of the distant Colonies, have continued to shew them- 
selves more and more till yesterday, when I received an account 
from the Landrost of Swellendam, that it had been privately 
intimated to him, that a body of the People in arms had actually 
marched to Graffe Eeynett for the purpose of expelling from the 
Colony Mr. Bresler whom I have sent there as Landrost, and that 
it was their intention on their return to proceed in the same 
manner to dispossess him and all the Magistrates of the Colony 
of Swellendam who have taken the Oath of Allegiance to His 
Majesty. As the Landrost does not enter into any particulars, 
and indeed only mentions it as a report made to him underhand, 
it is impossible for me at present, to form any Judgement of the 
extent of the insurrection, or in fact of the certainty of it, altho' 
from previous circumstances I have little doubt upon the subject. 

There can no real danger arise from anything which these 
people may attempt, altho should the insurrection be suffered to 
get a head, and become general in the Country, they would have 
it in their power to be exceedingly troublesome to us, by stopping 
our supplies of Cattle and Sheep, at the same time that the 
immense distance at which they are placed from us, and the 
nature of the country, will render any active steps for bringing 
them to their duty almost impracticable, it will however be in- 
dispensably necessary to send a detachment as far as Stellenbosch, 
which is about 25 miles to cover at least as far as that, and I hold 
300 men, with two three pounders ready for the service at a 

336 Records of the Cape Colony. 

moments warning. I have put them under the Command of 
Major King of the 2nd Battalion of the 84th Eegiment, an officer 
upon whose discretion I think I can rely as firmly as I know I 
can upon his activity and zeal for His Majesty's Service. It is 
exceedingly unfortunate that I have not been able to succeed in 
my attempt to procure a sufficiency of accoutrements to mount a 
hundred men who would strike a great terror and be of real use 
upon this occasion. 

I have already had opportunity Sir, particularly in my letter 
of the 22nd September, of giving my opinion upon the sentiments 
of the Inhabitants of the Colony in General, relative to us, and I 
have not found occasion yet to alter it in any particular. It may 
be relied upon that we have very few friends in the Settlement. 
It is to be hoped that time may bring them to a more favourable 
way of thinking with respect to His Majesty's Government, but 
at this moment I am persuaded that we owe their obedience solely 
to their inability to resist the force here, and that it would cease, 
the instant a prospect was held up to them, of the protection of a 
greater force. 

Under this impression, I feel it to be my duty Sir, as much 
indeed as it is my inclination, to exert my best endeavours to 
conciliate individuals, and to direct the concerns of the Civil 
Government in the manner most likely to give general satisfaction 
to the community, and it gives me great concern that it should 
unfortunately be the duty of another department to counteract 
these efforts of mine in any shape. 

I have already Sir had occasion to mention to you, the light in 
which I considered the subject of trade, and the principles upon 
which I meant to act with respect to it, untill His Majesty's 
Instructions were received, since I had the honour of addressing 
you on the subject several American and foreign Vessells have 
put in here, and a variety of applications have been made to me 
for permission to land parts of their Cargoes upon various pretences, 
all of which I have resisted, except in the instance of a Dane from 
whom I permitted some articles of necessity to be landed which 
were purchased on board by Officers of the Garrison for their own 
immediate use and which could not therefore be considered as 
falling under the description of trade. A Danish ship having 
however put in here about three weeks ago, a Mr. Goetz, a man 
of considerable dealings and influence, applied to me for per- 

Records of the Cape Colony. 337 

mission to land a small part of her cargo, which he had ordered 
to be sent to him from Copenhagen, at a time when he could not 
possibly foresee, the change which has taken place in the Govern- 
ment of the Colony, or that that would become illegal, which was 
certainly not so, at the time he commenced it with the express 
concurrence of the former Government ; Mr. Goetz having accounts 
of this Ship being on the Coast by another Vessell, had previously 
taken every step, and had indeed given me the most satisfactory 
proofs that the Articles consigned to him had been shipped under 
the circumstances described and that they were bona fide on his 
account and at his Bisk, so that any loss which might ensue must 
fall upon him, under these circumstances, I did not hesitate to 
grant permission to land them, In which I considered myself as 
doing only an act of Justice, not of favour, for I should have 
looked upon it as a case which would have called for an exception 
to any express prohibition which I might have considered myself 
as bound to enforce. The matter has however appeared in another 
light to Commodore Blankett, who notwithstanding he was officially 
informed, that I had given the permission I have mentioned has 
conceived it to be his duty, to put a Guard on board the Ship, to 
prevent the Articles in question from being landed. Mr. Goetz 
is I understand in the country wither his business called him, and 
wither he went in the full confidence that no difficulty would 
exist on the occasion, so that I have not had any application from 
him upon the subject. It is the publick dissatisfaction and dis- 
content which this business has occasioned, which has brought it 
to my knowledge, for otherwise I should have been as ignorant 
of the matter as Mr. Goetz probably is. As I am not acquainted 
with the instructions under which the officers of His Majesty's 
Navy act in this respect, I cannot take upon me to determine, on 
the propriety which there would be, in relaxing a little in favour 
of what I am sure would be Justice at least, but I must lament 
exceedingly that they should in the present moment be such, as 
to call for what has made a stronger impression upon the public 
mind, than any one act of His Majesty's Government since the 
place has been in our possession. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

338 Records of the Cape Colony. 


Letter from General Craig to tlu Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Capk of Good Hope 8th March 1796. 

Sir, — In the letter relative to the Eevenue and Expenditure at 
this place, which I had the honour to write to you on the 
18th December, I observed, that I could not take upon me to 
present to you as perfect, the estimate of the latter which was 
enclosed. I did not however believe so considerable an omission 
could have taken place in it as I am very much concerned to say I 
have since discovered. 

It has been the custom here to condemn Slaves convicted of 
certain crimes to the public works in chains either for life or for 
a term of years in proportion to their offences. The expence 
attending them is very considerable, and is what has not been 
noticed in the return. The omission proceeded from my having 
directed the expences of the Slave-lodge to be defrayed by the 
Commissary General, and by mistake these people were supposed 
to be included with them, I have now ordered that it shall be paid 
out of the revenue. It amounts at present to about five thousand 
Dollars annually, but I think means may be found to lessen it 
considerably. These people are employed in the public works, 
and are now making a very essential road along the side of the 
Hill that overlooks the plain at the entrance of the Town. 

Another less considerable article of expence has arisen from the 
application which has been made to me on behalf of two super- 
annuated clergymen, for the continuance of their stipends which 
they enjoyed under the Dutch Government, a similar application 
has also been made by a widow of a civil officer who died in a 
high employment in the service of the Company in consequence of 
which she enjoyed a pension. As all these people are objects of 
real compassion, aged and would suffer extremely if they should 
loose what they have been accustomed to consider as their only 
support, and as the depriving them of it was likely to be laid hold 
of by the disaffected, as a subject on which to declaim in opposi- 
tion to His Majesty's Government, I have taken upon me to 
continue their several allowances till His Majesty's pleasure is 
known. I have the honour to enclose their names and allowances. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 339 

List of Pensioners of the Government of the Cape of Good Hope. 

P. Van der Spuy, superannuated clergyman 

a monthly allowance of Rds. 75-6 

R. Harders, superannuated clergyman a 

monthly allowance of . . . . 75-6 

Widow Hemmy a monthly allowance of . 16-0 

Rds. 167-4 

It appears that the following persons have likewise enjoyed 
pensions under the former Government, but as yet no application 
has been made for the continuance thereof 

Widow Kuys Rds. 14-0-4 

„ Apeldoorn .... 14-0-4 

Van Lier .... 14-0-4 

Rds. 42-2-0 

I have &c. 
(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

Letter from Commodore Blankett to Major-General Craig. 

America, Table Bay, %th March 1796. 

Sir, — In reply to the letter you honored me with some time 
since relative to the defence of this place, I beg to inform you that 
I ordered the principal points alluded to in your letter to be ex- 
amined and which I shall answer in the order they were put. 

1st. There is good anchoring off Green Point, Ships of a large 
draft of water may approach it within 500 yards, and may anchor 
likewise out of gun shot in good anchorage. When I speak of 
good anchorage I mean relatively so to other parts of the Bay, 
over the whole of which the best bottom is sand in some spots 
more soft, in others more hard. With the wind from the S.E. 

z 2 

340 Records of the Cape Colony. 

ships may anchor any where between Green Point and the Reef 
on Robin Island, consequently in any number. They will be 
somewhat more exposed than farther up in the Bay, as well as to 
accidental changes of wind. 

2nd. Ships can anchor at any distance from one side of the Bay 
to the other. 

3rd. Ships of the Line may come within 300 yards of the 
Mouille Battery, Frigates within 200. Ships of the Line may 
come within 400 yards of the Chavonne Battery, and within 700 
yards of the Amsterdam Battery, Frigates somewhat nearer. 

4th. Ships of the Line cannot approach the Castle in a line 
North nearer than 1300 yards and they will then be near abreast 
of the Amsterdam Battery. Ships of the Line cannot come within 
1700 yards of Fort Elizabeth or Fort Knock, Frigates within half 
that distance. 

5th. From Fort Knock to the Salt River Ships of the Line 
cannot approach nearer than 1600 yards, Frigates within half that 

6th. Ships may anchor with safety on the Eastern side of the 
Bay all along from Salt River to the Baye De Poissons. 

7th. Frigates may come near enough to cover a landing, particu- 
larly on that part of the Coast between Jan Brissons Craal and 
the Salt River. 

8th. Ships may anchor with safety off Robin's Island out of 
gun shot of the shore which is the best anchorage. 

9th. There is good anchorage between Robin's Island and the 
Main every where, but the surf on the Beach of the Baye de 
Poissons appears to be constant and the landing along that shore 

In the course of making this examination if any article of 
information shall appear to you to be necessary, I shall be very 
ready to comply with your wishes, and to give you my opinion on 
any other nautical subject you may desire. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. Blankett. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 341 



By James Henry Craig Esq. Major General & Colonel of His 
Majesty's 4&th Regiment, commanding at the Settlement of the 
Cape of Good Hope &c., &c, &c. 

Since the Settlement of the Cape of Good Hope has been in the 
possession of His Britannick Majesty, and that the Government 
has been vested in me, It has been my most assiduous care by 
every Act in my power to promote the Wellfare and Prosperity of 
the Inhabitants, All my views have been principally directed to 
this object, and it has been my earnest wish so to conduct the 
Civil Government that the Inhabitants should not even perceive 
much less have cause to regret the change which has taken place. 
These are truths which will be readily admitted by the candid and 
well disposed, and which the most malevolent cannot deny. 

Thus actuated and disposed, it cannot be but with the most 
sincere and heartfelt regret, that I have found, by undoubted 
intelligence from the Country, that evil minded persons have 
employed themselves in sowing discontent among the Peasants, 
and in exciting them to outrage, Rebellion and Civil War. 

Those having before their eyes the experience of other Countries, 
in the transactions which have taken place during the last six 
years, and desirous on any motive to extend the scene of Horrors 
which have there been exhibited, must be possessed with a 
Diabolical Disposition, upon which no Argument can have any 
Effect. It is not therefore in the hope of reclaiming them, or in 
the expectation of putting a stop to their machinations that this 
Proclamation is put forth. My view in it is to warn the 
Inhabitants and put them on their guard against the delusions 
and falsehoods practised to lead them from their duty, to call on 
all who are actuated by principles of Religion or Morality, to 
unite in their efforts for the maintenance of the public peace, and 
to declare my own determination to preserve it by the most 
vigorous and decisive measures, against all who attempt to dis- 
turb it. 

The views of the fomentors of Troubles, next to the gratification 
of that diabolical spirit, by which they are animated and which 

342 Records of the Cape Colony. 

delights in every mischief, can only be to profit from the con- 
fusion by the attainment of wealth and power. Stimulated by 
avarice and ambition, they consider the Slaughter of their fellow 
creatures, the misery of Families, the destruction of Countries, 
only as those Steps by which they are to attain their ends, and 
their abandoned and callous hearts receive no impression of pity 
or remorse from them. 

Delusion and Deceit, Misrepresentation and falsehood, are their 
usual Engines by which they too successfully work on Ignorance 
and Credulity. Against these therefore I earnestly entreat the 
Inhabitants of this Settlement, and the Peasants in particular to 
be upon their guard. Let me request that they will seriously 
weigh what they are told by these people and that they will 
require better grounds for their proceedings than the assertions or 
promises of men of abandoned principles and ruined fortune. 

Deluded and misled by the specious cry of liberty, the Dutch, 
instead of joining in a vigorous effort to repel the Enemy, admitted 
the French, who were to confer the blessing upon them, and sorely 
do they now repent the having done so. Plunder of their all, 
their best men forced to seek an asylum in another Country, 
without Trade, without Credit and without Money, with all the 
horrors of famine in their view, they groan under every oppression 
which can inflict wretchedness and poverty on an unfortunate 
Country. Such is the picture now exhibited by the once Eich and 
Happy Holland ! Such with misery aggravated tenfold is now the 
situation of France ; and such has invariably been the fate of every 
Country, in which the infatuation of the People has admitted the 
operations of French principle. But the strongest Instance which 
can be produced of the tendency & effects of these pernicious 
principles, and that which is the most applicable to the present 
purpose, offers itself in the most dreadful colours, in the West 
Indies, where the beautiful and rich Islands of St. Domingo, 
Martinique and Guadaloupe are now only one wide waste of Euin 
Blood, and Slaughter, in every horrid shape which the most 
wanton barbarity could suggest, produced by the General Decree 
of the Convention for the Emancipation of all Slaves. 

With those who are actuated by Duty, Religion or true 
Patriotism, I have no need to urge the necessity of Exertion to 
preserve the publick peace. These will feel it to be their duty 
equally as it is the Interest of those who have property of any 

Records of the Cape Colony. 343 

sort to lose, since Plunder has universally been & ever will be the 
main if not the sole object of the Professors of Jacobinism. I 
therefore call on all not only as bound in duty and allegiance to 
His Majesty, but as they tender their own welfare and that of 
their families, as they regard their property & future prosperity, 
to unite in every means of persuasion to the ignorant and un- 
informed, and of vigilance towards the ill disposed for the 
preservation of the internal tranquillity of the Settlement. 

Having thus accomplished the two first objects of this Proclama- 
tion, it remains only that I should declare my firm and decided 
Resolution to exert every power of Government with which I 
am vested, and to employ in the most energetick manner the 
strong military force under my command, to suppress upon it's 
first appearance any traitorous or seditious attempt, which may be 
made against the peace of the Settlement. The experience of all 
ages, confirmed by my own observations upon late Events, have 
strongly impressed upon my mind, that in case of publick 
commotion, Timely Severity is ultimate Mercy, and I announce 
this conviction that all may know and be aware of what they will 
have to expect, upon being guilty of the conduct alluded to. And 
I think it also my duty, thus early to make known, that upon the 
appearance of Disturbance in the Country, all suspected persons 
will be immediately secured, the Proceedings of the Civil Courts 
will be suspended, and the prompt and summary decisions of 
Martial Law will alone take place. And let not such of the 
Inhabitants of the Country as either from their own evil minded 
disposition, or misled by others, may be induced to commit Acts 
of Outrage or Kebellion, believe that they will derive the Impunity 
from their distance, which they will be told it will secure to them. 
Means are within my reach, and will be adopted if necessary, to 
convince them that the avenging justice of a powerful Government 
can overtake them at the farthest extremity of the Settlement. 

And as measures will be adopted for dispersing and giving to 
this Proclamation the greatest publicity, It is thought expedient 
to take the opportunity which it affords to observe, that as circum- 
stances may require the marching of Bodies of His Majesty's 
Troops into various parts of the Country, It is strongly recom- 
mended to all the Inhabitants, by whose Farms they may have 
occasion to pass, that they do not on any account absent themselves, 
but that they do remain quietly at home. The Troops shall be 

344 Records of the Cape Colony. 

enjoined to observe the strictest Discipline, everything they re- 
quire shall be paid for and no injury shall be done to any one, but 
in case of disturbance existing in any part of the Country, if any 
man is found absent from his Farm, and such Absence is not clearly 
accounted for, he will be considered as being concerned in the 
Disturbance, and his Farm will be instantly plundered and de- 

And whereas I have received accounts, that a seditious and 
treasonable paper is now circulating in the Country, with the 
express view of exciting the people to Opposition, which paper is 
dated the 10th of December last, and is signed as " the Vote of 
the patriotick people," I do hereby promise a Eeward of Five 
hundred Eixdollars to any person who within two months from 
the date hereof shall give me such Information as may lead to the 
Conviction of the Author or Authors thereof. And if the person 
so giving Information shall have been himself concerned in the 
writing or dispersing the said paper, he shall not only receive the 
above mentioned Eeward, but he shall also have a full and free 
pardon for the part which he may have acted in it. 

Given under my Hand & Seal, in the Castle of Good Hope, the 
14th March 1796. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig, Major General. 

Letter from Commodore Blankett to Major-General Craig. 

America, Table Bay, lQth March 1796. 

Sir, — I had the honor to receive your letter of the 12th, and in 
compliance with your desire, I will venture to give you my opinion 
in regard to some Nautical points that may be connected with 
your general plan of defence, begging at the same time to be 
understood as offering hints only which your better judgement 
may improve on or reject altogether. 

And 1st. In regard to Green Point, Ships may anchor out of 
Gun Shot in safety during the Summer Months, in which season 
the S.E. winds prevail. I should therefore think that heavy 
Guns and Mortars would be necessary round that point to prevent 
ships forming their preparations for a landing unless at a great 

Records of the Cape Colony. 345 

distance, which would very much increase the difficulty and 
with such Guns the covering of a landing would require a 
considerable force. 

2nd. In regard to Robin Island Ships may anchor out of Gun 
Shot in safety, but I do not know to what purpose. If they 
meant to establish an Hospital there for their Sick, it affords 
them no supply of water or vegetables in its present state, what 
water there is being in Tanks and Wells which may be easily 
destroyed. It is only accessible in one place and that liable to 
be interrupted by a great surf, so that the constant attention 
necessary to supply an Hospital with every article they would 
want would be more an impediment than an advantage. And it 
cannot be considered as commanding the entrance of the Bay as 
its distance is too great. 

3rd. In regard to the landing on the East side of the Bay. 
When I speak of landing as impracticable I do not mean that 
a single Boat watching its moment cannot land thro' the surf, 
but I mean to be understood of the landing of Troops in the face 
of resistance and the consequent communication that becomes 
necessary in such cases. Speaking generally I should determine 
a landing impracticable along the Eastern shore from the Baye 
de Poissons to more than half way towards Jean Brissons Craal, 
and the other half way very precarious, but the place most suited 
for a landing is between Jan Brissons Craal and the Salt River, 
Frigates can approach the shore within two hundred yards and 
the surf is much less there than on any part of the Eastern shore. 
This is the place I proposed to have communicated with our Troops, 
when I came round here previous to the Capitulation. I have 
great reason to think the depth of water on this part of the shore 
changes, the depth on the bar before the mouth of Salt River has 
varied since our arrival here, but I cannot determine on the 
causes, perhaps it is owing to the prevalence of the S.E. winds 
in the Summer blowing a great quantity of sand from the Isthmus 
into the Bay and forming a moveable surface on the bottom for 
a time. 

As it is to be presumed the attack of this Bay will never be 
attempted but in Summer, when the S.E. winds prevail and 
sometimes blow excessive hard, Ships drove from their anchors, 
or suffering any accidental damage, will be obliged to run for 
Saldanha Bay, as the only secure place to repair their damage, 

346 Records of the Cape Colony. 

which may make it necessary to mention that Bay altho' it 
cannot be comprized within the limits of the defence of Table 
Bay. It is the only place in which shelter and smooth water can 
be found on this Coast, and so far it will ever be an object of 
consideration but the positive want of fresh water renders it a 
very improper place to rendezvous a Fleet which has been for 
some time at Sea. 

I was inclined to think that the want of fresh water might have 
been obviated by the sinking of Wells in the sand, as is practised 
in many parts of the world, but having been there, I have changed 
my opinion. Salt water passing thro a Body of fine sand, becomes 
fresh, by depositing its salts in the sand, which serves as a strainer, 
but salt water passing thro Earth or other Porous Bodies, does 
not become fresh. The shores round Saldanha Bay are too much 
mixed either with Earth, Shells or Sand stones to become suffi- 
ciently solid and compact to serve as a strainer, which I take to 
be the reason that all their Wells are brackish, and if so, without 
remedy. The appearance all round the Bay is barren and desolate, 
the surface is dry and husky with very little verdure and indica- 
tions everywhere of a Salt nitrous soil. 

Ships therefore running for Saldanha Bay can expect to find 
nothing more than shelter and smooth water, and I think the 
Dutch were right in discouraging all communication with a place 
generally unfriendly to this Government by affording shelter to 
an Enemy in time of War and to Smugglers and contraband Trade 
in time of Peace. 

But to return to the defence of Table Bay, if you will allow me 
I shall say that Gun Boats are best calculated for its further 
defence, for as the anchorage is so extensive all round the Bay, 
wherever you place your Guns the Ships will take a different 
station, and by making pretended preparations to land, harrass 
the Troops extremely in defence of the different places of attack. 
Gun Boats are the only means I know of annoying the anchorage 
of a Fleet, and were they to avail themselves of the constant 
accidents that a Fleet of Ships of war and Transports would be 
exposed to in this Bay, from the frequent gusts and changes of 
wind, they could not fail of being employed to great advantage 
and would have more effect than is generally comprehended. 
Six Gun Boats at least may be sent out in Frame and set up 
here, and the best place for them would be to haul them up 

Records of the Cape Colony. 347 

Under Sheds in the Bay where the Whale fish company have 
erected their Buildings, which Bay with very little pains may 
be cleared for them and would admit of their being hauled up 
or launched in any weather in which they could be made useful. . 

These Gun Boats would likewise prevent an Enemy from 
throwing scattering Shot or Shells at Night into the Town, an 
annoyance I meant to have tried here. 

I submit these hints to your consideration, and beg you to 
excuse me, if in any instance I have strayed out of my way. I 
have &c. 

(Signed) J. Blankett. 


Instructions issued by Admiral Elphinstone. 

You are hereby required and directed, taking the Rattlesnake 
and Echo under your command, to proceed in His Majesty's Ship 
Stately off the Mauritius and Bourbon, and there to cruize two 
Calendar Months, unless relieved or necessitated to quit the 
Station, and unless I shall have quitted that Station, you are at 
the expiration of the appointed time to join me in False Bay, but 
if the Victorious arrives before you sail, deliver these Orders to 
the Captain of that Ship, and follow the Orders addressed to the 
Senior Officer at Madras. 

You are permitted to send Captures to this Eoad or to the Cape 
as you see most fit. 

Detain ships of all nations going into Port blockaded, or coming 
out with the produce of the Island, unless clearly neutral property, 
and govern yourself by the laws of nations in like cases. 

If any Cartel arrives you are to accommodate her, and corre- 
spond with the Government of the Island for the purposes set 
forth in the Admiralty Orders. 

Given under my hand on board His Majesty's Ship Monarch in 
Madras Koads the 21st March 1796. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

To Billy Douglas, Esqre., 

Captain of His Majesty's Ship Stately. 

348 Records of the Cape Colony. 


General State of Revenue and Expenditure at the Cape of Good 
Hope for six months from 1st October 1795 to 31st March 1796. 


The amount of sums actually received 

by the Receiver General . ' . . 46,888 2 2 
Remains due not yet paid in on account 

of Farms and Licenses . . . 14,545 2 4 

Duty on Vendues .... 2,130 1 

Total amount of revenue received and 

due to 31st March the particulars of 

which are in the annexed account No. 1 63,563 6 
The amount of Expenditure to the 31st 

of March consisting in Salaries, Main- 
tenance of Convicts Expences of Justice 

& all other contingent & extraordinary 

Expences paid by Warrant of Major 

General Craig, the particulars in the 

annexed Account No. 2 . . . 35,588 5 3 

The excess of the Revenue above the 
Expenditure 27,975 3 


The 14,545 2 4 due on Farms and Licenses is not the 
estimate of the produce of those Articles for six months, but only 
from the several periods from which the farms or licenses com- 
mence up to 31st March. The Wine House Licenses commence 
chiefly in November and the Lands and Salt pans which have 
been hired out do not commence till Febry. The Duty on 
Vendues is the remains of that Duty on Vendues which have 
taken place previous to 31st March, but as the Vendue Masters 
are allowed three Months to collect their payments, they are of 
course allowed the same period to pay in the Duty. 

To this excess of Revenue is to be added the profits of the Lom- 
bard Bank. They make up their Books to the last of February, 
but they are allowed Six Months for that purpose so that they 
do not pay the amount in to Government till the 31st August. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 


On the 28th February 179G the Amount of Interest in their 
Hands or due to them from the last of February 1795 is 
28,23^ rixdollars, but as His Majesty has been pleased to grant 
the treasures of the Dutch East India Company in common with 
their other Effects a prize to the Captors, that part of this Sum 
which was for Interest due on the day of the Capitulation and 
which should have been delivered up to us as part of the 
Company's Treasury must be deducted. As it will require a 
considerable calculation to ascertain this, it is not yet made 
out, but it will not probably be far from the proportions of the 
respective times for which the different sums are due, in which 
case the part to be carried to the Credit of Government will be 
about 10,500 Eixdollars. 

Since the foregoing statement was formed, the President and 
Members of the Lombard Bank have made up their Accounts, 
from which it appears that on the 16th of September, the sum 
of Rds. 16,513 1 2 was due to the Treasury of the Dutch 
East India Company and that on the 31st of August next the 
sum of Rds. 11,723 1 2 will be paid to His Majesty's Receiver 
General for the share of Interest reverting to Government from 
the 16th September 1795 to the end of February 1796. 

No. 1. — Amount of Revenue received and due on the 31s£ of 
March 1796. 

Duty on Import & Export 

Duty on Wine & Brandy 

Tythes of Grain 

Duty on sale of real Estates . 

Duty on sale of Property Lands 

Duty on sale of Buildings on Loan Lands 

Money for Lands granted in Property 

Rent of Lands granted in gratuity 

and in Quit Rent 
Rent of Loan Lands 
Duty on Public Vendues 
Farm or License Monies 
Stamped paper 

. Rds. 4,277 














ids 718 


rty 591 










Rds. 63,563 6 

350 Rewinds of the Cape Colony. 

The Duties on the above are what have actually been paid in 
the course of the period for which the Statement is made out, but 
the sums received for the different articles of Eents of Land 
under the various description of Loan Lands, Lands granted in 
Property &c. altho' they are the Sum actually received on those 
amounts must not be considered as the real produce of those 
Eents for Six months. The Farmers who come into Town from 
great distances pay their rents when it happens to be convenient 
for them to come in. The whole of the Rents on the Loan Lands 
amount to upwards of 40,000 Dollars for the year. On the other 
hand Wine being only permitted to be brought into the Cape from 
the month of October to that of February and the duty being paid 
on its entrance into the Town the 11,675 Dollars may be con- 
sidered as the produce of that Duty for the entire Year. 

No. 2. — Statement of Expenditure at the Cape of Good Hope, in 

Salaries and all oilier Expences as are issued by Warrants on 

the Receiver General of General Craig from the 1st October 

1795 to Slst March 1796. 

Rds. Sk. St. 

To Major General Craig . . . 6,700 

Mr. H. Eoss Secretary of the Colony 

Salary and all Expences of his office . 3,833 3 

Mr. Ehenius Eeceiver General for Self & 
Expences of his office . . . 1,411 5 2 

Mr. C. Brandt Collector of Eevenue arising 
from Import & Export for self & Ex- 
pences of office ..... 1,946 1 2 

Mr. Baumgardt Collector of Eevenue 
arising from Land do. . . . 1,274 1 2 

The Fiscal Eyneveld & Officers of his 

, Department 3,623 2 

The Secretary of the Court of Justice for 
himself and Expences of office . . 1,057 5 2 

Mr. Somerville Inspector of Public 
Buildings &c. . 

The Eeverend Parson Eemerus Harders . 
Do. do. Meent Borcherds. 

Do. do. E. Alingh . 

Do. do. Serrurier &c. &c. . 









Records of the Cape Colony. 


The Reverend Parson A. L. Kolver . 
Do. do. Van der Spuy 

Do. do. Vos . 

Do. do. Van der Spuy 

Sundry officers of the Drostdy of Stellen 

boseh ..... 
Sundry officers in the Orphan Chamber 

Do. in the Slave Lodge . 

To the Postholder in St. Helena Bay 

Do. Saldanha Bay J. Stofberg 

Do. Mossel Bay H. Abue 

Overseer of Convicts J. Bornman . 

Overseer of the Waterworks Christiaan Slegt 

Caspar Dekenaar for repairing the Piers 

4 Signal men .... 

The Porter of the Slave Lodge Oertel 

Widow of Revd. Parson H. Van Lier 

Do. do. Appeldoorn 

Do. do. Kuys 


Landrost of Graaf Reinet F. R. Bresler 

Do. Stellenbosch Van der Riet 

Do. Swellendan A. A. Faure 

The surveyor of lands Wernich 

Reverend Parson Manger 

Mr. Donald Trail Harbour Master . 

The overseer of Kirstenbosch G. Scheller 

Do. Plettenbergs Bay J. Meeding 

Do. the Witteboomen H. Nieman 

Do. the Slave lodge Hohne . 

Secretary Truter on account of Expences 

of criminal execution 

The blacksmith Job Spanner . 

Overseer of Grandfathers wood 

Commissary General Pringle restitution of 

payments made by him, for the Bandits 

subsistence ..... 





1 1 

450 6 
















































1,220 4 2 

Rds. 35,588 5 3 

352 Records of the Cape Colony. 


List of the arrival of Ships in Table Bay. 

Date of 

Name of Ship. 

Where from. 

Of what Nation. 


20 Nov. 

William & Henry 



21 „ 


St. Helena 

English E. I. Company. 

24 „ 

Marquis CornwcUlis 



24 „ 

Earl Howe 

St. Helena 

English E. I. Company. 

24 „ 

H.M.S. Sphynx 

St. Helena 

7 Dec. 




14 „ 

H.M.S. America 

Saldanha Bay 

14 „ 

Maria Louisa 

24 „ 



English E. I. Company. 

25 „ 

Ruth, schooner 



25 „ 

Columbia, brig 

New York 


31 „ 

Hope, brig 




4 Jan. 




5 „ 





Dane sold at the Cape. 

15 „ 

Two Brothers 



19 „ 




21 „ 





Dane sold at the Cape. 

24 „ 


Isle of France 


25 „ 




26 „ 




26 „ 

H.M.S. Princess 

Simon's Bay 

28 „ 



E. I. Co.'s Packet. 

29 „ 




7 Feb. 



English E. I. Company. 

8 „ 

Lady Louisa 



10 „ 



Country Ship. 

16 „ 

H.M.S. Star 

A Cruize 

17 „ 

Princess Fredrica 



18 „ 




18 „ 

Three Sisters 

St. Helena 


18 , 

Dankbaar Africana 

Sold at the Cape. 




Country Ship. 

7 „ 

John, schooner 


English Packet. 

9 „ 




9 „ 




9 „ 



Swede, run on shore. 

12 „ 

P. Christian Fredrice 



17 „ 

John Jay 



17 „ 

Rajah, schooner 



27 „ 




29 „ 




30 „ 




30 „ 


St. Helena 

English Packet. 

6 April 

Sophia Magdalena 



One Tuscan and one American arrived in Simon's Bay. 

Records of the Gape Colony. 353 


Letter from General Craig to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle of Good Hope, the \2th April 179G. 

Sir, — Shortly after the John schooner, by which I last had the 
honour of writing to you, had sailed, I received a letter from 
Mr. Bresler the Landrost of Graffe Reynett confirming in a great 
measure the accounts which 1 had previously had relative to the 
disposition of the people in that Colony. His letter is evidently 
written under the apprehension of it's being intercepted, and he 
is therefore not explicit, but by a short postscript in French, he 
seems not to be without fear of his life being in danger, and he 
concludes with assuring me that at every risk, he will honourably 
discharge his duty to His new Sovereign. Since then I have not 
had any account from those parts upon which I could rely, but 
I persuade myself that nothing very material has taken place, or 
the directors of the mischief here would undoubtedly have received 
some intimation of it, which would have got abroad, indeed 
I understand that the 22nd of the last month was the day fixed 
on for a public meeting, which, was to be decisive with respect to 
their future intentions, and of the result of any proceedings of that 
date, a sufficient time has not yet elapsed for me to have any 

In the mean time judging that some appearance of vigour on 
the part of Government here might have an effect on the 
principals, I issued a proclamation on the subject, a copy of 
which I have the honour to inclose, and Major King marched at 
the same time to Stellenbosch with the light Infantry. I have 
every reason to believe that both measures have produced the 
effect of encouraging the well disposed and intimidating those of 
a contrary disposition. 

From Swellendam the Landrost reports, that they have been 
attended with the very best consequences in both respects, and 
that he has now every prospect of conducting the business of his 
Colony without molestation, from another source of private in- 
formation, 1 know that at a meeting of the most violent of the 
popular leaders of that Colony, a submissive and obedient be- 
haviour was resolved on, by a majority of 14 to 7. 

2 A 

354 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Amongst the measures which I have been anxious to carry into 
effect for some time past has been that of collecting and arming 
a body of Hottentots. Nothing I know would intimidate the 
Boors of the Country more, and in case of an attack on the 
Colony, they might be of very great use, but exclusive of these 
objects, I have been much inclined to the measure as being the 
means of commencing a connexion with these people, and of 
attaching them to His Majesty's Government. As soon as my 
intention was known, every art was used to prevent its success. 
I have however collected between 40 and 50 who are now with 
Major King and I have assurance of near 200 who ought to have 
arrived some days ago, the great distance from which they come, 
may give rise to so many causes of delay that it is impossible as 
yet to know whether to attribute it, to any persuasions which I 
am certain will have been used, to prevent their coming. I 
have promised to arm and cloathe them, to give them rations, 
and sixpence per week, on condition of their engaging not to 
quit His Majesty's Service for a year. 

A few days ago arrived here three Caffres, who said their sole 
business was to see the new nation, which they understood was 
now come to the Cape, by what we could understand one of them 
was a Chief of a district, tho' he seemed to explain his situation 
as being subordinate to another Chief. One of the young men 
with him was his Brother, the other spoke a little Dutch and 
came as an interpreter. I did my utmost to conciliate their 
friendship, and sent them away loaded with presents. It is a 
great many years since a Caffre was at the Cape. I endeavoured 
to persuade him, that it would be proper, that the King himself 
should come here, that I would furnish him with everything he 
wanted, and wished much to be friends with him, but he replied 
seemingly with some indignation at the proposal, that the King 
would not leave his own country, but that he would get him to 
send some of his principal men here. As the opening of an inter- 
course with these people, may be productive of advantage, particu- 
larly as their country is known to abound with some articles, 
which might be of use in a commercial point of view, I was very 
glad of the opportunity of at least making an attempt for that 

This goes by a Swedish ship belonging to the East India 
Company, the Captain of which proposes stopping at the Downs. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 355 

On the 8th of March a very large ship belonging to the same 
Company, named the Gothenburg was stranded in this Bay as she 
was coming in, a very small part of her cargo has been saved, and 
as she is now full of water, it is not probable that much more will 
be got out of her. The Captain and Supercargo have applied to 
me for permission to sell the Wreck as it now stands, together 
with the part of the cargo and furniture of the ship which has 
been saved, this I have granted, as I understand she is insured in 
London, and I consider that the doing so is for the benefit of the 
Insurers, at the same time that I cannot help observing, that the 
ship has been lost under such circumstances as would warrant an 
investigation, at least on the part of the underwriters. 

No ship has as yet arrived from England since the Dart, nor 
have we any accounts from Europe of more than a few days later 
date than those which she brought, which were of the 7th of 

Permit me to observe to you Sir, that exclusive of the real 
distress which the Colony experiences from the total want of most 
European articles and the immoderate value which is set upon 
the few that are in the Settlement, the uncertain situation with 
respect to trade, is the source of much uneasiness to the Inhabit- 
ants, accustomed at all times, but most particularly during the 
War, to trade with foreign ships of all nations, they find them- 
selves now debarr'd from that source, without any other being 
substituted in the room of it. This has been a subject of repre- 
sentation to me to which I could only answer with my hopes, 
that a speedy arrival of ships from Britain would shortly put an 
end to the occasion of it. In the mean time Swedes, Danes, and 
Americans are continually arriving, loaded with the very articles 
of which we are so much in want. I have already done myself 
the honour of explaining on a former occasion the light in which 
I consider this subject, in the present situation of this settlement, 
and continuing of the same opinion, I feel myself called upon to 
restrain all foreign Trade as far as in my power, at the same time 
I am free to confess, that such is the very great inconvenience 
which we experience, that not looking upon myself as positively 
bound by any other consideration, than that of my desire to 
adhere to the spirit of our Laws in favour of our own Trade, 
I should feel myself called upon to give such permission, as 
would alleviate our wants, were it not that I know such per- 

2 a 2 

356 Records of the Cape Colony. 

mission would without answering the end proposed, only lay me 
under difficulties and expose me to a contest in a quarter, in which 
of all others I am desirous of avoiding it & in which this subject 
is viewed in another light from that in which I consider it. 

It cannot however Sir, but be a subject of most distressing 
regret that by this unfortunate delay of arrivals from Britain, 
from whatever cause it may proceed, I am put under the impossi- 
bility of sending home any of the vast quantities of Corn with 
which we abound and which I have reason to think would be so 
serviceable in Britain, it has not been possible for me to lay hold 
of any ship whatever, or I should gladly have chartered her for 
a purpose which I believe would be of such real utility to His 
Majesty's Government by forwarding the exertions which I under- 
stand they have been so strenuously making, to provide for the 
wants of the Country occasioned by the failure of the last 

In consequence of the extreme want of supplies to which I have 
alluded, I have given directions for the sale of several articles 
which were in the .Stores of the Dutch East India Company, and 
with which the Inhabitants had usually been furnished from those 
Stores. Some also of a perishable nature, and which were indeed 
mostly destroyed or nearly so, have been likewise directed to be 

An American Vessell came in a few days ago from New York 
the Master of which seemed inclined to claim the benefit of the 
new Treaty, but I informed him, that I had no official accounts of 
it. Indeed from the Copies which I have seen, it does not appear 
to me that the treaty extends to this place, which certainly could 
not be in the contemplation of the Ministers of either country 
when the Treaty was made, and which accidentally does not come 
under the description of any of the Ports or Harbours mentioned 
or alluded to in it. 

The Dart is returned from St. Helena and has proceeded on 
her voyage to the East Indies. Governor Brooke was not able to 
send us any money by her, so that we remain in that respect as 
we did when I had the honour to write to you last. 

I do myself the honour to inclose a duplicate of my last letter 
accompanied with copies of such proclamations as were issued at 
that time. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Crak;. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 357 

[Original, j 

Letter from Commodore Blankett to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

America, Cape op Good Hope, ltlth April 1796. 

Sir, — Major General Craig having written to me on the subject 
of the defence of this Bay, 1 have inclosed to you the opinion I 
have given him on the subject and a Chart of the Bay. I likewise 
inclose you a list of arrivals here for some time past, by which 
you will be enabled to judge of the extent to which the Commerce 
of this place may be extended and the order you may think 
necessary for its regulation in regard to Foreigners. 

The Whale Fishery on this Coast offers a valuable branch of 
Commerce and will require your directions likewise. The 
Americans have been much in the practice of frequenting these 
Coasts, but as I had the honour to address you on this subject in 
a former letter I shall wait to receive your prders. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. Blankett. 


Letter from General Craig to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle of Good Hope the 14th April 1796. 

Sir, — The season of the year being now arrived in which we 
must look to False Bay for the commencement of any operations, 
which an Enemy may attempt against us, it has of course claimed 
my attention of late, and I have commenced the few works which 
I have thought necessary to put it in a more compleat state of 
defence, than that, in which we found it. I do not look upon this 
opportunity, as sufficiently certain to enter into any reasoning or 
detail upon military subjects, I shall only beg you to be assured 
Sir, that I have nothing more at heart, than to avoid the possibility 
of meriting any reproach on the score of expence, in a line, in 
which it so frequently exceeds the expectation of those, whose 
duty it is to controul the public expenditure. Upon this principle 
nothing will be done, that I do not conceive to be essentially 

■ 358 Records of the Cape Colony. 

necessary for the security of the place, and in doing so, every 
possible degree of oeconomy shall be observed, hitherto we have 
been confined to the establishing of a post in Hout Bay, which I 
now consider as very secure, to the repair of the French Lines, and 
to the making of a road along the side of the Hill, which 
commands the Lines, to enable us to communicate readily with 
those points which it would be necessary to occupy in order to 
retain the sure possession of those important hights. This has 
been entirely compleated by the Convicts, and the Companies 
Slaves have been employed exclusively (except a few masons) on 
the Lines, to encourage these I have found myself obliged to allow 
them six pence every Saturday, paid in paper money, which 
depending upon the Engineers report of their attention during the 
week, has had a great effect in expediting it. With respect to 
Hout Bay, as it was necessary to construct a Stone block House, 
at a part, where there is no habitation, which occasioned the work 
to be both difficult and to require an arrangement and measures in 
which our total ignorance of every thing relating to the Country 
would expose us to infinite imposition, I thought it better to do it 
by contract which was for 4000 Eixdollars, some other expences 
relative to it have occurred since, which will rather increase 
this sum. 

The attention now necessary to False Bay has increased our 
posts and indispensable distant communications so much, that I 
have strained every endeavour to mount a few men, not only for 
this purpose, but to answer as far as so very limited a number can 
be supposed to do, the services which I have on a former occasion 
explained to you, and for which I have sollicited a small Body of 
Cavalry, in so much at least as these regard a public Enemy. I 
have bounded my views to 25 or at most 30, but hitherto I have 
not been able to procure the indispensable requisites of saddles 
and Bridles for more than eight, the Horses I am able to buy one 
with another on an average for under 100 Eixdollars paper money, 
about £16 stg. I persuade myself Sir, that the infinite utility of 
this establishment small as it is, will secure me from it's being 
disapproved. Having an opportunity lately I have written to 
Lord Hubbard and General Clarke to request that they will if 
possible send me a few accoutrements for this purpose from 

I have mentioned in my other letter my attempt to get a small 

Records of the Cape Colony. 359 

Body of Hottentots in which I am really actuated more by political 

than military views, I am however clearly of opinion that properly 

employed, and always supported by regular Troops, they may bo 

extremely useful in the latter point of view. 

I have great pleasure in informing you of the extreme healthy 

state of the Troops, our total return of sick is only 232 and that 

includes men of every denomination who are usually inserted in 

this Column. Those in the General Hospital are only 44 and of 

these by far the greater part are men whose real disorder is age. 

The Establishment of the General Hospital is considerable and 

expensive and I should presume might be dispensed with. Eegi- 

mental Hospitals with the usual allowance under the direction of 

a Physician and the Surgeon of the Garrison, would, I should hope 

suffice for every possible want of this Garrison. I mention a 

Physician Sir because no medical assistance is to be expected in 

any emergency from the Country. General Clarke before he left 

this mentioned the possibility of his making a requisition for 

assistance in this line, should it be necessary at any of the Dutch 

Settlements, which may have been taken possession of in His 

Majestys name, should such requisition come I shall immediately 

comply with it, otherwise I shall wait His Majesty's further orders 

on this Head. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

[Office Copy.] 
Letter from the War Office to Major-General Craig. 

Horse Guards, 15 April 1796. 

Sir, — My Dispatches by the Carysfort Frigate which sailed 
from Plymouth on the 23rd of February will have put you in 
possession of all the intelligence Government at that time had 
received of the preparations of the Enemy at Eochefort and in the 
Texel ; and of the suspicions then entertained that the Squadrons 
collected at each of those Ports were intended to proceed to the 
Cape or to the East Indies. 

With a view to defeat their designs in this respect, every pre- 
caution was taken to fall in with and intercept them before they 
left the Europoan Seas, but notwithstanding the great vigilance of 

360 Records of the Cape Colony. 

His Majesty's Fleets and Squadrons, it appears certain that three 

La Forte very large Frigates named in the Margin, 

La Seine with some smaller Ships of War, sailed from 

La Bege-nere-e. Eochefort on the 4th of March, said to be 

bound to the Mauritius, and that the Dutch Naval force, supposed 

to be destined to act in the Indian seas, left the Texel on the 

23rd of February. The former have not been seen since their 

departure, and the latter are known to have gone north about. 

The amount of the Dutch force, as well as several essential articles 

of Intelligence respecting the officers employed in both Squadrons, 

may be collected from the Papers of which copies are herewith 


The French Squadron, if it should not exceed the Force at 
which I have now stated it, is not sufficient to create any appre- 
hension for the safety of the very important Settlement under 
your command. 

The Sceptre and Crescent Men of War with their convoy having 
on Board the 78th Eegiment, sailed from Portsmouth with a very 
fair Wind, on the 6th of March, and will therefore probably reach 
the Cape before the Dutch force can make it's appearance, as there 
is reason to believe that near a month was consumed in their 
circuitous route round Ireland. This last mentioned important 
addition to your Garrison and to the Naval force on the Cape 
station, I trust will be sufficient to check any Enterprise of the 
French and Dutch against the Cape, or the Shipping there, even if 
their united efforts should be directed against this Settlement 

A large Convoy for the Cape and India, having on Board the 
28th light Dragoons and 80th Infantry for the former, and the 
25th light Dragoons and 33rd Infantry for the latter, sailed from 
Portsmouth a few days ago under the protection of His Majesty's 
ship Jupiter of 50 Guns. In case they should not reach the Cape 
as soon as this Dispatch they may be expected immediately after 
its arrival, and it is in order that every precaution may be taken 
to ensure their safe approach to this Settlement, and to put the 
Company's or other British ships which may touch there on their 
guard, as well as to give you the fullest and earliest information 
procured here of the Force and designs of the Enemy, as far as 
they are known, that I have thought it right to dispatch a fast 
Sailing Cutter to you with this Letter. She is ordered to use the 

Records of the Cape Colony. 361 

utmost diligence in proceeding from the Cape to India, and I must 
therefore request that every assistance may be given her for this 
purpose, and that you will take the earliest opportunity of 
furnishing the Governor of St. Helena with the substance of the 
Information herewith transmitted. 

I think it right to add that the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty have given me strong grounds to hope that they shall 
be able to detach two Ships of the Line from Portsmouth almost 
immediately. Should this arrangement be carried into effect, they 
will, if possible, be ordered to join and reinforce the Jupiter's 
Convoy, and if they should not overtake it, to push on to the Cape 
with the utmost expedition. I omitted to mention in my last 
Dispatch that all the King's Artillery now doing duty in India, 
amounting to at least 120 Rank. & file, are ordered to be removed 
to the Cape by the first opportunity. 

[Office Copy.] 
Letter from the War Office to General Craig. 

Hobse Guards, 15 April * 1796. 

Sir, — Major Paulett arrived on the 24th ultimo with your 
Dispatches of the Dates numbered in the Margin, which were 
immediately laid before the King. 

These Dispatches being now under the consideration of His 
Majesty's confidential Servants I shall take an early opportunity 
of writing to you in detail upon several important Points to which 
they relate ; but I cannot omit this opportunity of signifying to 
you His Majesty's entire approbation of the different provisional 
steps you have taken for the internal Government of the Cape. 
By relieving the Inhabitants from some of the most oppressive 
monopolies and vexatious regulations of the Dutch East India 
Company you have certainly acted in conformity to His Majesty's 
beneficent Intentions, and in a manner which, whilst it attaches 
them to His just and mild Government, will I trust be considered 
by all Descriptions of Persons as an earnest of the liberal arrange- 
ments which will soon be carried into effect, and cannot fail to 
promote in a high Degree the prosperity of that important Colony. 

* This letter must have becu written earlier.— G. M. T. 

362 Records of the Cape Colony. 

For the present I shall confine myself to assure you that His 
Majesty is perfectly satisfied that in appropriating to the support 
of your Establishment as His temporary representative in that 
Colony, the Emoluments enjoyed by the late Dutch Governor, you 
were actuated by no other motives than those stated in your 
Letter, and His Majesty is by no means disposed to consider it in 
any other light than as a moderate and fair allowance, which it is 
His Royal Pleasure you should continue to enjoy until you shall 
be relieved in your present situation. 

The 80th Eegiment of Infantry complete to its Establishment of 
1000 Rank & File, and the 28th Light Dragoons, will proceed with 
the Convoy by which this Letter will be conveyed to you ; but you 
will not dispatch the 78th Regiment to India until the arrival at 
the Cape of the 86th or some other Regiment from Europe, when 
it is to be sent forward by the first opportunity. 

The Scotch Brigade will also be sent from Gibraltar in the 
course of this Season to relieve the 80th which is then to proceed 
to the East Indies. The 86th will embark in the next Division of 
the Company's Ships destined to sail in the course of this month, 
and the Scotch Brigade will probably leave Gibraltar by the end 
of May. 

Letter from Captain Winthrop to Admiral Elphinstone. 

Allicobe, Funchal Bat Madeira April ISth 1796. 

Sir, — An American vessel is this moment arrived at this port 
from Mogadore. I have had the Captain attested by the American 
Consul. He fell in with a Dutch squadron of four sail of the line, 
three Frigates and a twenty Gun Ship on the 9th inst. in the 
Latitude 31, Long. 14. They told him they were bound to India, 
and were to water at Teneriffe, where he supposes they now are. 
Captain Tenant of the Coonberg Danish East Indiaman is so good 
as to take charge of this Letter, and should he have the oppor- 
tunity will do himself the Honour to deliver it to you. I have &c. 

(Signed) Rt. Winthrop. 

P.S. — Captain Essington of the Sceptre passed this port on the 
27th of March. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 3G3 


Letter from General Craig to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle of Good Hope IQth April 1796. 

Sir, — Yesterday evening 9 sail of Vessells from Bengal came to 
an anchor in this Bay, and by Captain Young of the Walsingham 
I received a letter from the Governor General and Supreme 
Council a Copy of which I do myself the honour to inclose. 

These Gentlemen having put the issue of their applications 
upon the event of my deeming a compliance to be consistent with 
my own security, the several letters I have done myself the 
honour of writing to you upon the subject of this place, will I 
persuade myself be a sufficient excuse for the hesitation, which I 
experience in my own mind relative to the answer to be returned 
to it. From their general tenor you will be well aware Sir, that 
I cannot deem it consistent with the safety of this place, to part 
with any portion of a force, which was expressly detained here, as 
being both in my opinion and that of General Clarke no more 
than adequate to it's security tho' it was at that time near 200 
men stronger than it is at present and when every circumstance 
relative to the disposition of the Inhabitants, which formed part of 
the grounds for the opinion which I then gave, and in which 
General Clarke concurred, is confirmed by a more intimate know- 
ledge of them and by the daily proofs of it which present them- 
selves to our observation. It would I am sure Sir, be needless to 
repeat, what I have already had the honour of offering to your 
consideration on this subject. As however I feel what I am now 
writing to be of the utmost importance towards my retaining any 
degree of favourable opinion which I may hope that you Sir, and 
the rest of His Majesty's Ministers may have formed of my 
anxiety to forward His Majesty's Service, I shall request per- 
mission only to observe, that the present situation of this Settle- 
ment, is entirely different from that of any other of His Majesty's 
foreign possessions, in which considerable help may be derived 
from the Militia, or in which there exists a fortress to be the 
object of defence, under either circumstance 2500 rank & file of 
which my present real effective force consists would certainly be 
thought sufficient, but it is here so far from being the case, that 

364 Records of the Cape Colony. 

the Inhabitants are generally well disposed to the Enemy and the 
only Fort which exists, is not tenable twenty-four hours. The 
line of defence which I must take up is 1200 yards in length, a 
chain of hights of 2500 yards must be occupied, and a Coast of 
near three miles in extent, accessible in almost every part, and all 
within my line of defence, must be guarded at the same time, to 
all this, I feel my force, considerable as it is, to be so far from 
adequate, that I have already observed to you Sir, I shall prefer 
the risk of a Battle, where the comparative numbers are such, as 
to give the most distant hope of success, to the bravery which I 
trust His Majesty's Troops would display, to preserve a conquest 
which they have had the good fortune to obtain for Him. 

At the same time Sir that these considerations weigh strongly 
with me, I cannot but feel most forcibly the importance to the 
Interest of Great Britain of the object for the service of which, the 
application for a part of my force is made, and had the Gentlemen 
stated the existence of any immediate apprehension of danger to 
it, I should have sought the most ready means of contributing 
every thing in my power to it's security, trusting this less im- 
portant object, to the fortune which attends every military 
operation, or to the still more desirable chance of it's not being 
attacked; but no such grounds are stated for the application. 
From a foreign Enemy I apprehend they must be perfectly secure, 
and I have enquired particularly of Mr. Owen an officer who came 
in the Walsingham, who assures me that there was not the 
smallest appearance of dispute with any of the native powers. 
Should ever such occur, which might be likely to terminate in 
Hostilities, I should hope, that there might be sufficient time 
before they actually took place to renew the requisition to me. 
Whatever difficulties I may feel Sir, on this occasion, I earnestly 
request that you will be persuaded, that they proceed only from 
the nearly equal impression which is made on my mind, by the 
consideration which the shortness of the time will permit my 
having given to both sides of the question. No opportunity 
however exists or possibility of procuring one by which I could 
send a regiment to Bengal, and it is pretty evident to me, that the 
first which will occur, will be by the arrival of some Indiamen 
from Europe, who may touch here on their way to India. 

As you will have known Sir at the time of such having sailed, 
that it has been thought necessary to keep here the whole .force 

Records of Ijie Cape Colony. 365 

which camo under General Clarke and myself, instead of sending 
forward a part, as was intimated in His Majesty's instructions, to 
be the expectation of His Majesty's Ministers, that we should be 
able to do, you will therefore have been able to judge of the expe- 
diency or necessity of supplying the deficiency which has been 
thus occasioned in the Indian Force, by those means which you 
may think proper, and if they should relate to any part of what is 
now here, I shall by the same opportunity be honored with your 
instructions for the purpose. I trust that the arrival of some such 
vessel cannot now be long delayed. In the mean time, if I have 
any opportunity, I shall write to the Governor General and 
Council, in the same terms, as I now have the honour of doing 
to you, requesting that should any situation of immediate danger 
occur, which in their opinion overbalances the attention requisite 
to the security of this place, they will send here vessells sufficient 
to transport the six Companies of the 78th Regiment as the best 
chance of their receiving them in time to be of any use. 

By a letter which I received lately from Governor Brooke, I 
find that he has in the Island of St. Helena near double the usual 
Garrison, It would therefore be of great service to the Bengal 
Presidency if the overplus of his numbers could be transported 
there, and as Captain Young informs me, that he has dispatches 
for him, I make no doubt that they are to that purpose. I shall 
write to Governor Brooke, that if no immediate opportunity occurs 
and he should have any small vessells at the Island which would 
be sufficient to bring any number of men to this place tho' not to 
carry them so long a voyage as to India and if he thinks that by 
coming here they will have a better chance of a speedy convey- 
ance to Bengal I will very readily take care of them till some ship 
arrive, by which they can be forwarded. 

Lieut. Owen who I have mentioned above, is come here assisted 
by another officer in the hope of procuring some more recruits for 
the India Service from the men of the disbanded Corps of the late 
Garrison, they have already got about 400 part at Bengal, part at 
Madras and some to St. Helena, I doubt very much of their 
success being considerable, however they shall have my most 
cordial assistance in every point in my power. I have &c, 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

366 Records of the Cape Colony. 



By James Henry Craig, Esquire, Major General, Colonel of Eis 
Majesty's 46 Regiment of Foot and Commanding at the Cape 
of Good Hope and its dependencies &c., &c., &c. 

Whereas the Burgherraad or Court of Magistracy have by their 
letter of the 23rd March represented that the utmost inconvenience 
is experienced by the Inhabitants & great loss apprehended by 
them from the worn out & defaced State of the lower denomination 
of the paper money current in the Settlement & for these reasons 
have requested that the necessary exchange of new pieces for such 
worn out or defaced pieces may take place as has been heretofore 
practised during the government of the Dutch East India Company 
and whereas for the purpose of such exchange it is necessary that 
a quantity of new paper of various denominations should be 
stamped and signed so as to be current, in doing which it is 
highly expedient that such precautions should be adopted as may 
tend to the security of the public and of His Majesty's Govern- 
ment. These are therefore to require and direct that the Secretary 
of the Court of Justice do on the 22nd of the present month of 
April attend at the Castle where on application to His Majesty's 
Commanding Officer (in whose custody they are) He will receive 
the Stamps together with the number of pieces of card necessary 
for the purpose, and that He do in the presence of the Fiscal and 
two Members of the Court of Justice, who are hereby required to 
attend at the time aforesaid, at the usual place and in the usual 
manner cause the number of pieces mentioned in the margin to be 
2,500 of One Rixdollar stamped, which pieces when so stamped 
2,500 of Four SchellingB are to be delivered by the Fiscal & 
5,000 of Two Schellings Members of the Court of Justice afore- 
10,000 of One Schelling ^ tQ ^ ^ Commanding Qfficer ^ 

whom the Secretary is also at the same time to return the Stamps, 
which Stamps being replaced in the box in which they are usually 
kept the box shall be sealed with the seal of the Commanding 
Officer aforesaid and with that of the Court of Justice so to 
remain untill further wanted, of all which the Fiscal and Members 
of the Court of Justice are to make a public act of certification in 

Records of the Cape Colony. 307 

the presence of the Court on the next Court day to be registered 
in the records of the Court. 

And it is further directed that such Stamped pieces being 
delivered to the custody of Jacobus de Wit, It shall be the 
business of the said Jacobus de Wit to prepare the same by 
marking the value of each piece in plain characters on the top of 
the Card, together with the day of the date of this warrant under- 
neath, after which the Board of Revenue is required to concert 
with the Commissaries of the Lombard Bank so that all the pieces 
of the value of One Rixdollar as well as those of Four Skillings 
shall be signed respectively by a member of either office & the 
pieces of two and one Skillings value shall be signed by the 
Secretary of each Office respectively. In all which the several 
officers constituting the Board of Revenue as well as the Com- 
missaries of the Lombard Bank & the Secretaries thereof are 
required to use all possible expedition. 

And it is further directed that such money so Stamped and 
Signed do remain in the Revenue Office in the charge of His 
Majesty's Receiver General untill report being made of its being 
finished when further directions shall be given for the exchange 
thereof, of the mode of which as well as of the time when such 
exchange can begin public notice shall be given. 

And for these several matters here mentioned this the original 
of which is lodged in the records of the Court of Justice shall be 
to all concerned a full and sufficient warrant, and for the Public 
information & satisfaction it is further directed that it be published 
& affixed in the manner usual with all other proclamations. 

Given under my Hand & Seal in the Castle of Good Hope the 
20th April 1796. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig, Major General. 

By Command of Major General Craig. 

(Signed) H. Ross, Secretary. 

368 Records of the Cape Colony. 


Letter from General Craig to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle of Good Hope 21«< April 1796. 

Sir, — The delay of the ships by contrary winds, furnishes me 
with the opportunity of informing you, that the day before 
yesterday, Mr. Bresler arrived here, having been obliged to make 
his escape from the people of Graffe Keynet who are at present 
in open insurrection against His Majesty's Government, or to 
speak "more properly, against any Government except what they 
have themselves formed, upon the Idea which they have conceived 
of that which exists in France, in imitation of which model, they 
have already proceeded to dispossess several Inhabitants of their 
property, which has been given to their own adherents. 

I have already had the honour to observe to you Sir, that I 
do not think that any real danger to the Government is to be 
apprehended from this insurrection, whatever extent it may arise 
to. I am however extremely fearful, least it should spread to the 
neighbouring Colony of Swellendam, by this, it would become more 
general in a very populous part of the Country, at a less distance 
from us, and the leaders might obtain influence or power enough 
to carry into effect their resolution, to stop the transport of Cattle 
to the Cape, this has been already ordered, but hitherto, without 
effect, should their Government obtain such a degree of energy, or 
influence, as to be able to enforce it, it would embarrass us 

By a ship under Danish Colours, which arrived from the 
Mauritius three days ago, I learn, that the people in that Island, 
are in the utmost distress for provisions, so much so, that Bread is 
served out to them at a daily allowance. In this situation it is 
very probable that they may amongst other expedients to procure 
Corn, attempt a communication with this Settlement, by means of 
some of the Bays on the Eastern Coast, and in that event, there is 
no doubt, that the present disposition of the people would receive 
the utmost encouragement, and it is not even impossible, but that 
the French might conceive themselves sufficiently interested in it, 
to induce them to afford such assistance of ammunition, or perhaps 
a few men, as might lead the people to every extremity; 

Records of the Cape Colony. 369 

Commodore Blankett is at present at sea on his passage round 
to False Bay, as soon as I hear of his arrival I shall communicate 
with him on this Idea altho' I know that it is already his intention 
to send the Star brig along that coast, this vessell is indeed much 
too small for the purpose which I have in view, but the Commo- 
dore has no other under his command except the Princess which I 
fear is not fit for it. 

By the report which Mr. Bresler has made me of his proceedings 
while up the country, he appears to have conducted himself with 
great spirit, resolution and discretion, such as induce me to mention 
him to you Sir with confidence as meriting any future favour which 
His Majesty's Government may bestow upon him. He has laid 
before me some letters, which he with much difficulty and danger 
intercepted, and which plainly confirm the Idea, which was before 
pretty well established, that the mischief originated here. The 
principal writer of these letters has I fear escaped, as he is in the 
country now, and will most probably keep out of the reach of being 
made an example of, I shall however send out of the settlement 
another person, whose letter, tho'.not expressed in such criminal 
terms as that of the former person, to whom I have alluded, is 
nevertheless plainly written with the express view of fomenting 
and encouraging the peasants in their rebellious proceedings. 

Altho' I have observed Sir, that the Force under my command is 
too considerable to be under any apprehension from any internal 
enemy, yet I cannot but feel, that it would be imprudent to lessen 
it at present, and thereby to encourage the disposition, which if 
suffered' to proceed to extremities, might end in the ruin of the 
settlement, and which will at any rate give additional strength to 
any attack which may be made by external enemies ; I therefore 
most sincerely hope that the Governor General and Council of 
Bengal, will give particular attention to the state, which I shall by 
the first opportunity lay before them, of the affairs of this settle- 
ment, and not call for any addition of strength from this place, 
unless the danger existing in Bengal, and which induces them to 
do so, is greater than that to which they will expose us by it. 

It appears Sir, by reports from the country, that a ship believed 
to be Portuguese has been wrecked on the coast between the 
Swartkops and Bosjesmans rivers, three white men and the same 
number of Blacks escaped and arrived in the Caffres Country, 
who treated them with every possible degree of hospitality and 

2 b 

370 Records of tlie Cape Colony. 

conveyed them to the nearest of our settlements, they are now 
on their way to this place, where on their arrival I shall take 
proper care of them. This wreck has furnished an opportunity 
to the people of Graffe Eeynet, to put in practice the principles 
of Plunder and massacre which if the model which they have 
adopted be closely followed, must form the foundation of their 
new Government, for it appears, that almost the whole Inhabitants 
of a district called Bruintjeshoogte, which is the nearest to the 
spot where the misfortune has happened, are gone with their 
waggons and horses to plunder the wreck, and the first party 
who arrived there, finding a man who out of humanity had come 
with his waggon and the people who had escaped, to endeavour 
to save something for them, they immediately put him to death, 
for daring to touch, what they said belonged to them and to the 
Convention. I have &c, 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 


Extract from a Letter from Bear- Admiral Thomas Pringle 
to Evan Nepean, Esqre. 

Tremendous, Spithead, 23rd April 1796. 

Sir, — I have to acknowledge that upon my arrival here I found 
an order from the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to 
proceed with the Tremendous and Trident to the Cape of Good 
Hope, and there put myself under the command of Sir George 
Keith Elphinstone &c. ; also an order in case I should fall in 
with His Majesty's Ship Jupiter and convoy, to take her and 
them under my command and protection to the Cape. . . . 

(Signed) T. Pringle. 

Letter from Major-General Craig to the Burgher Councillors. 

Castle, 25th April 1796. 

Gentlemen, — By His Majesty's Frigate The Carysfmt which 
arrived here two days ago, I have received answers from His 

Records of the Cape Colony. 371 

Majesty's Ministers to the first and second dispatches which were 
transmitted from this place, after the capitulation of it, and upon 
attentively perusing them I find a part which so materially 
concerns the Public Interest of the Settlement, that I cannot 
refrain from sending you an extract of a letter from The Eight 
Honourable Mr. Secretary Dundas dated the 16th Jany. 1796, 
in the confidence that you will give it as much publicity as may 
be in your power, and in the firm persuasion that it will impress 
on the Public mind a conviction of the favourable sentiments 
which actuate His Majesty's Government towards this Settlement. 

Extract of the Secretary of State's letter : 

" The provisional arrangements which have been made for the 
Civil and Military Government of the Colony, and for the ad- 
ministration of the public revenue, have met with His Majesty's 
full approbation, these and several other points of the utmost 
importance with a view to a permanent establishment are now 
under the consideration of His Majesty's confidential servants, 
and altho no decision has hitherto been taken thereupon, you 
may without reserve assure the Inhabitants of the Colony, that 
the new regulations which may be adopted for the Government 
of that Colony either Civil, Military, or Commercial, will be 
made as liberal and advantageous as possible, under the rela- 
tive circumstances of the two Countries and such as cannot fail 
materially to promote the prosperity and happiness, and thereby 
firmly to attach them to His Majesty's mild and paternal 

In another part of his letter His Majesty's Secretary of State 
recommends a particular line of conduct during the very short period 
which must elapse before Instructions can be prepared and sent out 
for the definitive arrangement of the Colony. I add these words in 
order to shew that His Majesty's Ministers are anxious to shorten 
the state of suspence in which the minds of the public must natur- 
ally be held here, and that full instructions upon every point 
interesting to the Colony may be expected as speedily as the con- 
sideration necessary on so important an occasion will permit. I 

am, Gentlemen, &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig, Major General. 

2 B 2 

372 Records of the Cape Colony. 

[Copy of Translation.] 
Letter from the Burghek Councillors to General Craig. 

Honourable Sir, — In your letter of the 25th instant is inserted 
an Extract of a Letter from the Eight Honble. Mr. Secretary 
Dundas, from which we learn with infinite satisfaction the bene- 
ficial arrangements which will be made with respect to the Colony, 
by His Britannick Majesty's Ministers, and we cannot but 
acknowledge our sense of the kind attention with which Your 
Excellency has been pleased to give us the said communication, to 
which we will with much pleasure endeavour to give the most 
possible publicity. 

In the mean while we assure Your Excellency, with the greatest 
sincerity, that we are very sensible of the paternal intention of 
His said Majesty, of His Ministers, and of Your Excellency 
towards this Colony, and of which we hope in due time to enjoy 
the most salutary effects. 

We have the honour of recommending Your Excellency in 
the holy protection of the Almighty and to be with the highest 
esteem &c. 

(Signed) Johannes Smuts, 
H. J. de Wet, 
Abraham Fleck, 
H. A. Truter, 
P. H. Warnecke, 
A. Berrange. 
In our Assembly 27 April 1796. 

A true copy of the translation. 

(Signed) H. Ross, Secretary. 


Letter from General Craig to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle Cape of Good Hope 28ta April 1796. 

Sir, — The Carysfort arrived here the 23rd Instant and delivered 
me your several dispatches of the 16th and 22nd Jany and 
14th Feby. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 373 

His Majesty's approbation of my conduct during the operations 
at this place, as you have done me the Honor of transmitting it to 
me ; at the same time that it conveys the most sensible gratifica- 
tion that I am capable of receiving, cannot but impress me most 
forcibly with the obligation of continuing to merit His lloyal 
favour by every exertion in my power for His service. 

The intimation of His Majesty's gracious disposal of the Effects 
seized at this Place on the 16th September in favour of His Forces 
employed on this service has been received by that part of it 
which is under my command with the most greatfull sense of His 
Majesty's Goodness. 

Thinking that a publick communication of the favourable 
sentiments towards this Colony which actuate His Majesty and 
His Ministers in the consideration which they are now giving to 
the regulations necessary for its future Government could not but 
be productive of the best effect I transmitted an extract of such 
part of your dispatch of the 16th Jany as relates to that subject 
to the Burgher Senate as the most likely means of their being 
generally diffused. I do myself the Honor to inclose a copie of 
my letter and of the answer which I have just received. I have 
the pleasure to hear from other quarters that this communication 
has given great satisfaction. 

It gives me the highest pleasure to observe Sir that in the 
general principles upon which I have regulated my conduct 
hitherto, I have anticipated the instruction with which you have 
concluded that dispatch. Permit me Sir to pride myself at finding 
my own Idea of the impolicy of enforcing provisional measures in 
opposition to the views or prejudices of the Inhabitants, during 
the period necessary to prepare a permanent System of regulation 
and Government, confirmed by an opinion founded on experience 
and such superior abilities ; I have felt the force of it so much, 
that I have cautiously avoided making any change whatever, in 
regard to the Civil Government, since the departure of General 
Clarke and Admiral Elphinstone, the very few which took place 
while they were here, were only such as tended to abolish some 
oppressive monopolies, and have I am sure met with universal 
approbation, except perhaps, the Individuals who enjoyed the 
profit of them. The only measure which I have attempted has 
been the abolition of the mode of execution by breaking on the 
wheel, and even in this Instance, I made the attempt only by a 

374 Records of the Cape Colony. 

private proposal to the Court of Justice. My Idea was not that I 
should abolish it as an Act of Government, but that they in whose 
breasts much is left as to their Sentences, should gradually dis- 
continue the practice. A correspondence ensued between us (of 
which I will do myself the Honor to inclose a copy if it can be 
prepared in time) by which I found the Idea likely to create so 
much alarm, on the score of encouragement which would be given 
by it to the Slaves, who are numerous, unprincipled in the extreme, 
and capable of the most atrocious actions, in the gratification of 
their passions, — that, however reluctantly, I felt myself obliged to 
abandon it, and to suffer an instance of the mode of execution 
which I have alluded to, to be actually put in practice upon a 
villain, who had committed a deliberate murder, without one 
motive to induce him to it, but a reward of two dollars. 

I must however add an alteration which has been made in the 
Magistracy of the Cape Town at the express desire of the People 
themselves, to which I consented, as it consisted only in con- 
solidating two Colleges or boards, formed exactly of the same 
persons, into one, and as I found that the only reason for their 
being seperate formerly, was on account of the distinction between 
the Companys Servants and Burghers, a distinction which no 
longer exists. It has simplified the business of the Town much, 
but was so very immaterial in other respects, that I did not think 
it necessary to report it to you at the time. 

Mr. Pringle shall receive every assistance in my power in the 
Commission given him by the India Company for the purchase of 
Corn. We have now here actually in store about 100,000 bushells, 
which will nearly load half the ships which bring the Troops, and 
no difficulty will exist in procuring the remainder, the greatest 
difficulty will arise from the season of the year being so unfavour- 
able for loading the ships, and from the unfortunate circumstance 
of all the craft fit for that purpose, except one, being gone round 
to False bay. 

I have not received any accounts from the Country since I had 
the Honor of writing to you last, except by a letter from the 
Landrost of Schwellendam who intercepted and forwarded to me 
the papers sent by the leaders of the business at Graff Reynet to 
that Colony, with the view to excite them to join in the insurrec- 
tion, hitherto I have no reason to apprehend that they will be 
successfull, except from my knowing that the general disposition 

Records of the Cape Colony. 375 

of the people tends very much that way. As however they think 
themselves within my reach, I am in hopes that their fears will 
prove more powerfull than any arguments which can be used 
towards them. 1 have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

Letter from Rear-Admiral Pringle to Evan Nepean, Esqre. 

TbEMENDOUS, SPITHEAD, 28th April 1796. 

Sir, — I have to acknowledge the Eeceipt of a Copy of a Paper 
from you, containing Intelligence of the Destination of a Fleet of 
Dutch Ships of War, which sailed some time past from the Texel ; 
also your letter of yesterday's date, communicating the Directions 
of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, that I should order 
Captain Osborne of His Majesty's Ship the Trident, to proceed to 
the Cape of Good Hope with seven India Ships, which it is under- 
stood will be ready to leave Spithead on the 1st of next month. 
You will be pleased to acquaint Their Lordships, I have given 
orders to Captain Osborne accordingly, and that I have only been 
prevented sailing these two days past by contrary winds, and the 
payment of several of the Men's Wages and Bounty money. I 
have &c. 

(Signed) T. Pringle. 


Letter from General Craig to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle op Good Hope 30th April 1796. 

Sir, — By the Carysfort which arrived here the 23rd, I had the 
honour of your dispatch of the 14th February. I persuade myself, 
that it is unnecessary, that I should request of you, to do me and 
my Brother Soldiers here the honour most humbly to lay at His 
Majesty's feet an assurance, that His Majesty shall not be dis- 
appointed in any reliance he may be pleased to place on our 

376' Records of the Cape Colony. 

exertion in His Service in case of any attempt on this Settlement 
by His Enemies. 

On my part Sir, feeling myself to be seconded by men, who 
however inexperienced, are actuated by the warmest attachment to 
His Majesty's Service, I will not despair of preserving for His 
Majesty this Valuable Colony, in which they as well as myself 
will feel an additional incitement in the flattering consideration of 
having been the instruments of obtaining it for him. At the same 
time Sir, I shall flatter myself, that if it should hereafter appear, 
that we have made every exertion which our duty calls for, it will 
not be imputed to us as a fault, if we fall before superior numbers, 
or circumstances so unfavourable to those exertions as to render 
them unavailing. 

In the several letters which I have already done myself the 
honour of writing you, I have had such frequent opportunity of 
alluding to the situation of this place from a Military point of 
View, that I persuade myself my opinion on it is perfectly under- 
stood. We have no fortress that is tenable for two days, and no 
position, but what is attended by defects of infinite importance, 
such as it is, we have been employed in making those repairs 
which will at least give us every advantage of which it is 
capable, it is to be regretted, that what I proposed doing is not 
finished, but so much is compleated as has mended the situation 

Under this idea Sir it has always been my determination, to 
fight, rather than wait the attack of an enemy in a position which 
I consider as bad, but you must be sensible, that that determina- 
tion can only be carried into effect, in so far, as the numbers of the 
enemy is such as not to preclude the possibility of success. If the 
reinforcement which from your letters Sir I have to suppose on it's 
way is fortunate enough to anticipate the Enemy in its arrival, 
and if the attack should take place while the 78th is here, I shall 
hope, that no armament which the French and Dutch can at 
present fit out, can be such as to debar me from meeting them in 
the field. On the other hand, if the enemy should appear before 
the reinforcement, I can only promise to act in the manner which 
shall appear best at the moment on a due consideration of all the 
circumstances of our situation. 

It unfortunately happens that I am so situated, that pressing as 
the occasion is, I dare not take a single step of precaution which 

Jit'corils of the Cape Colony. 377 

would give the slightest room for the people of the Country to 
suppose that I had reason to expect an enemy. 

The consequences of even the suspicion would be most distressing 
to us, — not only every soul would immediately quit the Town, but 
not a man would come near us from the Country, and we should 
be instantly deprived of our usual supply of meat, with a view to 
the possibility of such an event, I have lost no opportunity of 
purchasing all the salt provisions which we could procure, but the 
amount is not more than sufficient for six weeks ; by lessening 
the allowance and adding some peas and caravances which I have 
carefully preserved, we might extend it to something further, but 
this is calculated for our present numbers and not for the rein- 
forcement. I always understood General Clarke, that he had 
mentioned in his letter to you Sir, the expediency of having a 
constant supply here, if he has not, permit me to enforce the 
necessity of it. 

In viewing the probable event of the threatened attack on this 
Settlement, I beg, that it may always enter into the consideration, 
that the country will to a certainty join the Enemy. This will 
not only give an additional advantage to him, but must in every 
respect so materially influence my operations that I am earnest in 
my endeavour that it may always be kept in view. 

The present situation of affairs must occasion some additional 
expence, I have hitherto relied on the chance of procuring Horses 
from the Inhabitants at the moment of alarm, but I have found 
reason to think, that, that mode would be so extremely precarious 
and it is so ill adapted to our present circumstances occasioned by 
the season of the year when our attention is called to a very great 
range of coast and in which we must be ready to move to one of a 
variety of posts at a moment's notice, that I can no longer rely on 
it, I have therefore given directions to the Commissary, to purchase 
as many as may be found necessary, they will be employed in 
those uses for which we at present hire waggons at a most 
exorbitant rate and will be always at hand for service at a 
moments warning ; luckily I had begun this measure before the 
arrival of the Carygfort so that it creates no suspicion. 

1 had also before her arrival recalled the Light Infantry from 
Stellenbosch, and they are now encamped at Wynberg. The 
Grenadier Battalion is at Muizenberg and the 78th at Simon's 

378 Recvrds of the Cape Colony. 

Commodore Blankett with the America, Ruby, Princess and Star, 
is at anchor in Simons Bay. I have been so much occupied since 
the arrival of your dispatch, that it has not been in my power to 
confer with him, otherwise than by letter. I have no doubt Sir, 
that if we are called on to unite our endeavours in His Majesty's 
Service it will be with the same cordial cooperation which so 
happily distinguished this expedition on a former occasion. I 
have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 


Letter from General Craig to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle of Good Hope 12th May 1796. 

Sir, — By Captain Eibolau of the Navy, who sailed on the 
3rd Inst, on Board of a Danish ship, I had the honour to acknow- 
ledge receipt of your several dispatches by the Carysfort Frigate, 
which arrived here on the 23rd Ultimo. As no British passenger 
is going on Board of the Swedish Vessell which carries this, I do 
not think the opportunity affords sufficient security against the 
chance of my letters falling into the hands of the Enemy, for me 
to send duplicates of those with which Captain Bibelau is charged, 
I only therefore do myself the honour to write, as thinking that 
you will wish to hear from me by every opportunity which may 
present itself. 

I have great pleasure in acquainting you, that the assurances 
which your, dispatches have enabled me to give, to the better sort 
of the Inhabitants here, of the important light in which this 
Colony is viewed by His Majesty's Government, has produced a 
visible effect on the minds of the people; corroborated by the 
circumstance of the reinforcement of Troops which is on it's way, 
they now conceive it to be His Majesty's Intention to retain 
possession of the Colony ; this Idea, which I have not scrupled to 
encourage, has given confidence to those who are really well 
inclined to us, and has proportionally weighed to a contrary 
tendency with those who are otherwise disposed, while with all 
it has had the effect of giving them an Idea of security, which 

Records of the Cape Colony. 379 

has led them to resume their buildings and other operations of 
oeconomy, which they had before suspended. 

It is with concern that I have to contradict the report which 
I made in my last, of the Vessell which was lost on the coast 
between Swartskop & Bosjesmans Eivers being Portuguese, she 
turns out to be the Ann and Eliza, a ship loaded with Pace and 
Arrack for this place from Bengal, which I mentioned in my letter 
of the 14th of February as supposing her to have been taken & 
carried into the Mauritius. The survivors of the unfortunate 
crew, consisting of two mates, Englishmen, a Spaniard, and three 
Lascars, are arrived here safe, having experienced every good 
treatment from the people of the Country through which they 
passed, after they quitted that part of it, the Inhabitants of which 
were employed in plundering the remains of the wreck. The 
Captain whose name was Haldane perished with the remainder 
of the Crew, all Lascars, to the number of thirty five, there were 
no passengers on board. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Chaig. 

[Copy of Translation.] 
Letter from the Burgher Senate to General Chaig. 

May 13th 1796. 

Honourable Silt, — Whereas the Burgherraden, among many 
other functions, are also charged with the care of the Windmills 
and of the Conduits to the Public Pumps, they agreeable to their 
resolution of the 22nd of March last, beg leave to represent to 
Your Excellency that as they are informed that no Sufficient 
Stores of Materials fit for repairing the defects which may occur 
to the said Mills and Conduits do exist in this Colony they request 
most respectfully, Your Excellency will according to the practice 
of the former Government be pleased at the first opportunity, to 
petition on the account of the Colony's Treasury the following 
necessaries, viz., 

Six Mill Stones, five foot in diameter and one and a half foot 
thick, Ehineland Measure, 

Two perpendicular Mill Axle Trees of Oak thirty-five feet in 
length and one and a half thick, Ehineland Measure, 

380 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Two horizontal Mill Axle Trees of Oak thirty foot in length 
and three and a half foot thick, Ehineland Measure, 

One Hundred bored Pipes of Tiek Wood or for want of these 
Two Hundred Water Pipes of Lead. 

In expectation of which they have the honour to be &c. 

(Signed) J. Smuts, 

H. J. de Wet, 
A. Fleck, 
H. A. Truter, 
H. P. Warnecke, 
A. BerrangiL 


Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Peter Rainier, Esqre., 
Bear Admiral of the Blue. 

His Majfsty's Ship Monarch 

Simon's Bay Cape of Good Hope 
the 3Ut May 1796. 

Sir, — I arrived here in His Majesty's Ship Monarch on the 
23rd instant, and the Sphynx which sailed with me from Madras 
came in on the 27th having been chased on the 25th by four 
French Frigates nine leagues to the eastward of Cape Falso ; the 
Sphynx was left with orders to Captain Brisac to take under his 
convoy an American ship, the Eliza, laden with Dutch property 
from Batavia, and to proceed to the Cape, she was however re- 
captured by the French Frigates, and the Sphynx fortunately 
escaped the same fate. 

I have the honor to inclose for your guidance sundry letters 
from Evan Nepean Esquire, containing serious information respect- 
ing an inimical force composed of Dutch and French Ships being 
destined for this Colony and the East, it will therefore be essen- 
tially important that the most circumspect attention should be 
given to this circumstance, and particularly so as I have intelli- 
gence that the Dutch Fleet were actually at sea in February last, 
but the French Fleet are supposed to have received damage in the 
Bay of Biscay during the tempestuous season which happened 
about that period. 

I have been reinforced by the Sceptre of 64 Guns and the 

Records of the Cape Colony. 381 

Crescent Frigate, and the Garrison is strengthened by an acquisi- 
tion of 1200 Men ; I therefore apprehend no danger from any 
attack the Enemy may be induced to make upon this settlement, 
and think the bulk of the inhabitants have too much sense and 
regard for their own interests to be disinclined towards us. I 
daily expect further reinforcements, as you will learn particularly 
from the inclosures. 

It is highly probable that the enemy will not make any attempt 
on this place, but proceed to the Mauritius for refreshment, and 
from thence, if they do not undertake some expedition against 
Columbo or the Portuguese Settlement of Goa, they may proceed 
to Batavia for the security of that possession, with further expecta- 
tion of recovering those they have been deprived of; under the 
latter circumstances the China Trade is of such importance that 
I recommend it particularly to your consideration, with the protec- 
tion of Malacca and Prince of Wales Island. 

Situated as we now are, I think it better that you should send 
no more Ships to cruize off the Mauritius until further orders ; 
those already detached upon that service shall be immediately 
ordered to return on their arrival ; and when I am more fully 
informed of the enemy's design, I shall endeavour to keep the 
French Islands in check by detachments from the Naval Force 
here ; they are now extremely in want of all kinds of Provisions, 
although Vessels are continually arriving there from America and 
many from India, under the colors of various Eastern Country 
powers and other disguised pretensions 

The Commissioners of the Navy have advised me, in consequence 
of my letter to them, that they have shipped a large assortment 
of naval stores on board the Alliance Storeship, of which I shall 
forward to you such part as may be necessary, and you will also 
send hither any Articles or Stores now in the East, which may 
appear superfluous to remain there, and of probable utility or 
demand here ; upon this subject however you shall receive such 
further information in detail as future occasion may afford ; it will 
be indispensably necessary however to cause to be transported 
here by the earliest opportunity a good stock of gunny Bags for 
Bread, at least Three Thousand, those I ordered to be sent hither 
in the Princess Royal not having come to hand, and that ship 
being supposed to have passed by from want of orders to call here 
as was intended 

382 Eecords of the Cape Colony. 

This Settlement is in extreme want of Timber and Plank of all 
denomination. Inclosed is copy of a letter to the Naval Store- 
keeper at Madras to freight a vessel of about 200 tons, with Wood 
from Pigou, to supply the demands here. On this subject you 
will be pleased to give the necessary directions for its speedy 
execution, consistent with safety from inimical interception. 

Wheat still continues to be very scarce in Europe, so much so 
that the Honble East India Company have directed as much as 
can be procured to be sent home from thence, several ships are 
arrived for that purpose and will return laden. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 


Information obtained from David Laing and Robert Morrow, two 
English Sailors saved from the Lord Hawkesbury Whaler 
wrecked on the Coast of Africa near the Cape of Good Hope the 
26th May 1796. 

That they belonged to the Lord KawJcesbury Whaler, and 
were on a voyage from Eio Janeiro towards Walviss Bay on the 
West Coast of Africa. That on the 15th day of May they were 
captured by four French Frigates in the Latitude of 31 degrees 
South and 8 degrees of Longitude East of London. That they 
were stripped and pillaged of all they had. That all the English- 
men were taken out except themselves and a boy, the ship being 
manned with thirteen Frenchmen and an officer. The Frigates 
left them with orders to go to the Isle of France, and that on the 
26th of the same month, being near the East Coast of Africa, 
Morrow being at the helm and the Frenchmen off their guard, 
they seized the opportunity to run the ship ashore at Soetendahl 
Valley, where the ship went to pieces. 

The French officer that was sent on board spoke English, and 
from his conversation they learned that the Frigates had left 
France the loth March in company with one line of Battle Ship 
and a Frigate, which they understood were bound to the West 
Indies ; a second line of Battle Ship and a Frigate they had left 
cruizing off Bio Janeiro, whilst the Four Frigates were to cruize 
between the Cape and St. Helena for Indiamen. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 383 

Three of the Frigates carried 40 Guns, the fourth was called 
La Forte, carried 46 Guns, 24 Pounders, an Eighty Gun Ship cut 

The ships had between four and five hundred men on board 
each, but mostly Soldiers, very few Seamen and very bad. 

The above information the men could only draw from such 
people as could speak English, as they never were on board the 
Ships of War themselves. They say the above Ships touched 
nowhere on their outward passage. That they cannot recollect 
where they were to water, and that they left the French officer 
and his men in custody of the Boers about seven days journey 
from the Cape Town, and arrived here on the 4th of June them- 


Information obtained from a French Ojfieer saved front the Lord 
Hawkesbury Whaler, wrecked on the Coast of Africa near tfie 
Cape of Good Hope the 20th May 1796. 

The Prize Master is fourth officer of La Vcrtu, which sailed 
from Piochfort on the 19th March to join the other three Frigates 
of the Squadron at Pal ma. On this side of Madeira they saw 
a fleet of ten sail outward bound, but being strictly ordered 
to proceed to the place of liendezvous without delay, they 
did not examine them closely ; however after their arrival at 
Palma it was reported that an English Fleet of Transports had 
arrived at Santa Cruz, supposed to be the same which had been 
seen near Madeira. The French Squadron is commanded by 
General Serse, a naval officer under the old Government, much 
respected for his talents ; each Ship has eight months Provisions 
and Water. The number of Troops does not exceed the ordinary 
complement. The object of the Squadron is to cruize between 
the Cape and St. Helena for Whalers and Indiamen, they are 
positively forbid to go to the Isle of France ; in case of want of 
water they touch at the Western Coast of Africa ; after the Pro- 
visions are exhausted they return to France. When the Prize was 
taken, the officer, who is a native of the Isle of France, knowing 
that the Frigates were not to proceed thither, requested of General 

384 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Serse to send him as Prize Master. Discipline and subordination 
are now maintained as in former times. The capture of the Cape 
was much talked of in France, and Sluysken greatly abused by all 


Information obtained from four Frenchmen saved from the Lord 
Hawkesbury Whaler, wrecked on the Coast of Africa near the 
Cape of Good Hope 26th May 1796. 

Names of the Frigates : La Forte, thirty 24 Pounders on one 
Deck, Guns on Lower Deck and Forecastle make in all 50 Guns. 
La Vertu and La Seine, same size, each forty or forty-two Guns 
18 pounders on Main Deck. La Regeneree, thirty-six Guns 12 
Pounders on Main Deck. 

Under the command of a Eear Admiral whose name none of the 
prisoners know. Sailed from Eochfort about three months ago. 
La Vertu sailed thirteen days after the others, and joined them at 
Palma, to replace La Concorde originally one of the Squadron, but 
lost at the Isle of Aix. A small Frigate or Corvette sailed in 
company, but being dismasted in a gale of wind, put back. The 
Ships are miserably manned in point of Seamen, none having 
above 150, except La Forte, which is however very deficient ; 
there are from 150 to 250 Troops on board each, but appear to be 
destined merely to supply the want of Seamen. The prisoners 
always understood that they were bound for the Mauritius. There 
are two Commissioners of the Convention on board La Forte, and 
several private persons passengers for the Isle of France. One of 
the prisoners, a sharp fellow, says he understood that after being 
at the Mauritius they were to go somewhere 1800 leagues further. 
They have taken only one prize besides the Lord Hawkesbury, a Brig 
bound to Martinico. The prisoners heard nothing of a Dutch 
Fleet, or of any design of joining them, they left only two ships at 
Eochfort, but at l'Orient about five months ago there were about 
Twelve Sail of the Line and some Frigates. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 385, 

[Office Copy.] 
Letter from the War Office to Major-General Craig. 

Parliament Street, 8 June 179G. 

Sir, — Your Letters of the 8th and 10th of March last have been 
received and laid before the King. 

His Majesty's intention to send out very shortly to the Cape of 
Good Hope a person vested with full powers to administer the 
Government of that Settlement, who will be furnished with ample 
Instructions for the direction of his conduct in every particular, 
renders it unnecessary for me at the present moment to enter fully 
upon the different points mentioned in your Letters. 

The Regulation of the Trade of the Settlement, and the conduct 
to be observed with respect to neutral vessels which may arrive at 
the Cape, will become subjects of particular attention in framing 
the Instructions under which the person who may be appointed 
to the Government will be directed to act, and in the mean time 
it seems expedient that you should exercise the power of granting 
permission for the landing of such Articles as the Settlement may 
stand in need of from Vessels of the above description, and His 
Majesty is therefore pleased to allow that in all such cases you 
should be at liberty to act according to your discretion. 

[Office Copy.] 
Letter from the War Office to Major-General Cijaio. 

Parliament Street, 18 June HOG. 

Sir, — I transmit to you herewith a copy of a Letter which I 
received yesterday from the Deputy Chairman of the East India 
Company, and which in the absence of Mr. Dundas I laid before 
the Duke of Portland, and I am directed by His Grace to desire 
that you will on the arrival of the Company's Ships at the Cape 
of Good Hope having on board the Troops and Stores destined for 
that Settlement, use the greatest dispatch in landing them in 
order that the Ships may proceed on their respective voyages with 
the least possible delay, as it appears from the Chairman's state- 

2 c 

386 Records of the Cape Colony. 

ment to be of the utmost consequence to the Commercial Interests 
of the Company that these Ships should proceed on to their 
respective destinations according to their several appointments by 
the Court of Directors without a moment's loss of time. 


Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

His Majesty's Ship Monarch 

Simon's Bay, Cape of Good Hope 
the 18th June 1796. 

Sir, — I have the honour to inform you that from Eeports which 
prevailed at Madras of an expectation that the Enemy would 
concert hostile measures against our Forces at the Cape, and 
being sensible of the value which would be affixed to our retaining 
possession of that desirable Colony, I resolved to arrange the Ships 
of the Squadron under my command for such services as appeared 
most convenient and eligible, and to proceed myself without loss 
of time to the Cape. 

The Victorious had not returned from Penang, and the Arro- 
gant had proceeded from Colombo in consequence of information 
received there from the Governor of Bombay to pursue two 
French Frigates, which had attacked the Portuguese Settlement 
of Diu on the Coast of Guzarat, from which however they were 
repulsed by Her Most Faithful Majesty's Forces, and I fear the 
Arrogant will not have been fortunate enough to effect any 
success against the objects of her pursuit, but Captain Lucas 
considered it indispensably requisite to put to sea in consequence 
of the intelligence received, and had not time or opportunity 
first to communicate with me on its expediency. 

In consequence of my resolution to proceed to the Cape, I 
ordered the Stately, or Victorious in preference if she arrived in 
time, to proceed with the two Sloops Echo and Rattlesnake off the 
Mauritius to cruize a reasonable time and then to continue their 
voyage to the Cape 

In consequence of these arrangements I sailed from Madras in 
the Monarch accompanied by the Sphynx on the 23rd of March, 

Records of the Cape Colony. 387 

at which time the Victorious, Centurion, and Sicift were hourly 
expected from Penang. 

On the 23rd of April off the Island of Eodrigue we fell in with 
the Eliza, an American ship from Batavia bound for Amsterdam, 
laden with Dutch property. . . . 

I arrived at this Bay on the 23rd of May in the Monarch, and 

the Sphynx, which I had left off Eodrigue to escort the detained 

ship Eliza, came in here on the 27th of May ; she had been chased 

on the preceding day by four French Frigates nine leagues to the 

eastward of Cape Falso and very narrowly escaped the fate of the 

Eliza under her convoy, which was retaken by them. These 

La Forte 50 French Frigates, named in the margin, sailed 

La Vertu 40 from Rochefort about the 19th March under 

La Snne 40 command of General Sersey, a French officer 

9em of their old naval establishment, agreeable to 

the intelligence enclosed which was obtained from the crew of the 

captured English Whaler the Lard Hawkcsbury run ashore the 

2Gth May about 150 leagues to the eastward of this Bay designedly 

by two English Seamen on board her. General Sersey's orders 

direct him to cruize off St. Helena and this Colony to intercept 

our India Ships and those employed in the Whalefishery. 

The information by the several Persons saved from the wreck 
of the Lord Hawkcsbury does not afford a certainty of the present 
track of the Frigates, or I should have dispatched some of His 
Majesty's Ships in pursuit of them, and the very tempestuous 
weather prevailing has tended also to prevent the attempt ; but 
I shall use every endeavour to counteract their designs, and if 
they remain in these parts I hope to be able to transmit welcome 
accounts of them. 

I must not omit to notice the good conduct of the two British 
seamen David Laing and Robert Morrow, by whose contrivance 
the Lord Hawkesbury was intentionally run ashore while Morrow 
was at the wheel, notwithstanding there were thirteen Frenchmen 
on board. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

2 c 2 

388 Records of the Cape Colony. 


Letter from the Reverend Samuel Cole, chaplain of the Monarch, 
to Admiral Elphinstone. 

Monarch, Simon's Bay, June 18/A 1796. 

Sir, — I have the Honor to acknowledge the Eeceipt of your 
Letter of the 30th Ultimo, inclosing the Copy of a Letter from 
Capt. Henry Edwin Stanhope late of H.M. Ship Ruby to Evan 
Nepean Esq. Secretary to the Admiralty relative to the Circum- 
stance of his having baptized a Child at the Cape Town in October 
last. Before I did myself the Honor of answering your Letter I 
thought it necessary to write to the Dutch Clergy resident at the 
Cape, and to the Chaplain of the Garrison on the Subject, and I 
have the Honor to enclose their Answers, from which it is very 
evident that Capt. Stanhope's Conduct on that Occasion is very 
highly disapproved of by all Descriptions of People at the Cape. 

With respect to the positive Matter of Fact which Capt. 
Stanhope in his Letter professes to detail with all the Conciseness 
and Precision in his Power, it becomes necessary for me to say 
that his Statement of it is a very incorrect one. That Part of his 
Letter in which he speaks of the Child's Indisposition is clearly 
proved to be false by the Depositions on Oath of its Parents. 
But the Part which most surprizes me is the one which imme- 
diately follows, and which I shall beg Leave to give in his 
own Words. " Wherefore as a Chaplain for whose assistance I 
endeavoured was not then procurable, and as the established 
Church at the Cape was Calvinist and Lutheran, I was induced 
to officiate on the Morning of the 14th of October." In answer 
to which I feel it a Duty incumbent on me to state that as I had 
been in the Habit of officiating on shore from the first arrival of 
the Fleet in Simon's Bay, whenever the assistance of a Clergyman 
was t required, Capt. Stanhope could have had no Doubt of my 
Eeadiness to attend, either on board the Ruby or on shore, on that 
Occasion had I been applied to, and I can with Confidence answer 
for the other Chaplains of H.M. Ships, three of whom happened 
to be on the Spot with myself at the Time, that they would have 
been equally happy to have attended on that or any other occasion, 
had an application been made to them. Is it then probable that 

Records of the Cape Colony. 389 

Capt. Stanhope could have endeavoured for the assistance of a. 
Clergyman when four were on the Spot and neither of them 
applied to ? There cannot remain a Doubt but that he meant by 
this Circumstance to insult the Clergy then at the Cape and thro' 
them the Commander in Chief. 

The Letters which I have the Honor to enclose will refute 
•another Part of Captain Stanhope's Letter in which he says that 
he believes that his Conduct was generally acceptable to the 
Clergy at the Cape. His general Conduct I shall say nothing 
of, but with Pespect to the particular Part of it relative to the 
Baptism, I shall ever consider it as an Infringement on the sacred 
Kites of the Church and a Breach of all Law both human and 
divine. I have &c. 

(Signed) Samuel Cole. 

(A number of letters from the Clergymen in Capetown and 
Depositions of parties present on the occasion are attached, but 
need not be given, as the substance is in the above. — G. M. T.) 


Letter from General Craig to the Burgher Senate and the 


Castle of Good Hope, 2lst June 179G. 

GENTLEMEN, — I have received intelligence which I believe 
pretty certain, that a Squadron of Dutch Ships of War has been 
seen in such a direction as to give reason to think it is destined 
for the Indian Seas. It consists of four ships of two decks from 
74 to 54 guns three frigates and a ship carrying 20 guns but 
supposed to be a Victualler. The force of the Squadron and the 
circumstance of its being unaccompanied by any transports 
carrying Troops points out very clearly that an Attack upon this 
Colony cannot be in their contemplation. Nevertheless I have 
thought it incumbent on me to give you this authentic informa- 
tion to enable you to counteract the efforts which it is extremely 
probable that ill designing men may make, to take advantage of 
the circumstance and by misrepresentation and falsehood to excite 

390 Records of the Cape Colony. 

troubles in the country. A little reflection would convince every 
man of common discernment that no force that could be landed 
from the above number of Ships would be of the smallest avail 
against that which I command nor could it afford protection to any 
set of People who might suffer themselves to be deluded to forget 
their Duty and to join them in hostility against us. I am ex- 
tremely anxious that you should exert every endeavour in your 
power to impress the truth strongly upon the minds of the people 
about you. Let them be assured my principal and indeed only 
view in this letter is their good. All I desire of them is to remain 
quiet and not to allow themselves to be led to any step which may 
oblige me to exercise a severity towards them which is as foreign 
to my nature as it is to my wish. Notwithstanding what designing 
and evil minded men for the furtherance of their own black 
projects may tell them believe me when I most solemnly assure 
them that I have not an idea that the Dutch Squadron is destined 
for this place, where it could only meet ruin and destruction since 
Admiral Sir George Elphinstone has at this moment a superior 
force in False Bay and is in the daily expectation of it's being 
doubled but even if it should turn out contrary to my present 
conviction, that misled by false representations of our Strength 
here the Dutch Squadron should shew itself on the Coast let me 
earnestly exhort you to use every endeavour in your power to 
convince every one how much it is their interest — setting their 
duty aside — to remain quiet. I repeat that no force that can be 
contained in the number of Ships that compose the Squadron even 
joined to all the disaffected of the Colony could be of any avail 
against us nor could the latter in the event of their shewing the 
disposition which actuates them have the smallest hope of pro- 
tection from the punishment which they will inevitably bring on 
themselves, and which however I may regret it I shall think it my 
indispensable duty to inflict in the most exemplary manner. I 
am Gentlemen &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 391 


Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to tlie Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

His Majesty's Ship Monarch 

Simon's Bay, Capk ok Good Hors 
the 2ith June 1796. 

Sir, — I have the honour to inform you that on my arrival here 

on the 23rd ultimo in the Monarch 1 found His Majesty's ships 

America 64 named in the margin lying here under 

Ruby 64 the command of Commodore Blankett, by 

Princeu 26 whom I was informed that His Majesty's 

Hope late Star Sloop ,. ~ , , . ,, .., 1V , , 

^ ship Carysfort arrived here with Dispatches 

on the 23rd of April, and sailed to join me at Madras on the first 

day of May with the Letters addressed to me. 

Commodore Blankett communicated to me the intelligence 
made known to him in Mr. Nepean's letter of the 13th February 
1796, advising of the measures concerting between the combined 
Enemies to dispatch eleven Dutch ships of war with others from a 
French Port ; in consequence thereof every preparation has been 
made for counteracting any hostile designs directed against this 
Colony, and the Squadron has been accordingly, and still continues 
to be, kept in readiness for expeditiously embracing any oppor- 
tunity which might offer for its service. 

Captain Essington arrived here in the Sceptre on the 28th of 
May with the Crescent and six Transports, and the Georgiana came 
in on the 25th of May. 

By these conveyances and the perusal of the Dispatches ad- 
dressed to General Craig by the Carysfort I am enabled to form 
a reasonable conclusion and conjecture on the contents of my 
Dispatches by the Carysfort which have proceeded unopened to 
Madras, and am happy to observe there is no reason to trouble at 
the approach of an Enemy to this place, our Force being sufficiently 
adequate to allow the most satisfactory termination to any attempt 
the Enemy may be induced to make against this Settlement, and I 
beg your excuse for presuming to notice the well judged reinforce- 
ment which has lately been afforded to the Military and Naval 
Establishment on this station by the arrival of the Sceptre's 
convoy; it reflects the highest honour on those who dispatched 
them, and I hope to be still further strengthened in a short time 

392 Records of the Cape Colony. 

by the arrival of two Ships of the Line and two Sloops from 

My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty have communicated 
their intention of separating the naval command in India from 
that on this station, and have been pleased to express their idea of 
my seeing the propriety of this separation, and observe that the 
person on the spot will be most competent to judge, but it appears 
to me that this measure will be productive of great Inconvenience 
and Disadvantage to the British interest and defeat the general 
utility of the naval force in these parts, unless one is kept on each 
of the stations equal to the Enemy. I should therefore feel remiss 
in my duty and not obedient to Their Lordships' inclination, did I 
omit offering my sentiments freely on that intention; yet I 
acknowledge my reluctance in adopting the indulgence I have 
been honoured with to express a contrary opinion, though with the 
greatest submission to Their Lordships' superior information and 

Should the conjoined Force of France and Holland design to 
attempt this Settlement, they will quickly perceive the im- 
practicability of such an undertaking and will consequently after 
watering at the Isle of France proceed eastward to attack Trin- 
comalee or with a view of becoming masters of the Portuguese 
Settlement of Goa, an acquisition which would prove highly 
beneficial to them, and from its consequences and the easy channel 
of intercourse with the Indian Native Powers might ultimately 
operate seriously to the Euin of our Interests and Settlements in 
India. Should however these objects escape their attention, or be 
suspended for future employment, the Force would move on to 
Batavia and rescue that Establishment from its present deplorable 
and wretched situation, parading without opposition the Eastern 
and Indian Seas, and pursuing other objects of enterprize, the 
repossession of such places as may have been wrested from their 
subjection, the general annoyance of our Trade, with a variety of 
other views which would naturally present themselves in those 
parts for their further uninterrupted operations. 

In these events, should the British Naval Force remain attached 
to this Station and the Officer in command not be at liberty to 
depart himself or to detach a Force for encountering their designs, 
our distant Settlements of Prince of Wales Island, Bencoolen, 
Malacca with other Possessions to the Eastward, which may have 

Bccords of the Cape Colony. 393 

been acquired by Eear Admiral Eeinier, would naturally become 
an easy conquest, being all incapable of substantial defence unless 
aided by a covering Fleet, and the China trade itself, which I have 
at all times considered as a most important object for protection, 
will be totally interrupted. 

Under all these circumstances I beg leave to submit to the 
consideration of my Superiors, whether it would not be eligible to 
unite the Naval Commands of this Station and the Indian Seas, 
and to make the Cape the common rendezvous for the superior 
commander. This was the arrangement I had formed for my 
proceedings, and had determined to follow the Enemy's Force as 
closely as possible with a sufficient number of Ships, leaving a 
Strength here for all probable services, to which and the Protection 
of this Bay I consider four Ships of the Line perfectly adequate, 
well supported by the Land forces from the Batteries. 

I beg however it may not be considered that motives of emolu- 
ment have influenced my opinion, although the Officer stationed 
here would lose the Company's gratuity of £3,000 per annum ; 
but as the objects of the Expedition entrusted to my conduct have 
been accomplished my only wish is now to return to Britain, and 
on the continuance of hostilities to be employed in my former 
station under the command of Earl Howe. 1 have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Right Honourable 


His Majesty's Ship Monarch 

Simon's Bay Cape of Good Hope 
the 25th June 1796. 

Sir, — I have the honour to inform you that on the 25th ultimo 
His Majesty's Ship Sphynx was chased about 9 leagues to the 
Eastward of Cape Falso by four French Frigates, which recaptured 
the American Ship Eliza I had left to be convoyed to the Cape 
by the Sphynx, being very anxious to proceed to this Bay in the 
Monarch with all possible dispatch; in consequence of the arrival 
of the Sphynx and the Letter from Captain Brisac, a copy of which 
is enclosed, I directed Commodore Blankett to put to sea with the 

394 Records of the Cape Colony. 

America, Ruby, Crescent and Sphynx in pursuit of the French 
Frigates ; but the sudden appearance of several sail in the offing 
on the same day, which proved to be the Sceptre's convoy, obliged 
me to counterorder the Commodore's pursuit, and to order all the 
ships to be moored in line and prepared to receive the Enemy in 
the event of the sails seen proving hostile. It appears that these 
Frigates have twelve Land Officers on board, two Commissioners, 
Travelling Forges but no Field Artillery, and about 150 Troops in 
each above the ship's complement, very few Seamen. 

The Enemy have now eight large Frigates and two Corvettes in 
these seas, besides one Frigate at Batavia, and will probably be 
joined soon by a respectable Dutch Force, as it appears by a 
Letter from Captain Winthrop that on the 9th of April in Lati- 
tude 31 deg. an American ship fell in with a Dutch squadron of 
four Sail of the Line, three Frigates, and a twenty Gun Ship 
bound to India. So strong a squadron and such a number of 
Frigates for cruizing will require every vigilance, and render it 
necessary to employ an equivalent cruizing Force of Fifty Gun 
Ships or stout Frigates, should the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty be pleased to order an additional Force of such ships 
upon this station, in which case they should be continually 
employed in cruizing off the Mauritius attended by whatever 
escorts of Ships of the Line that could be spared for that purpose ; 
this arrangement appears the most certain plan for meeting the 
Enemy's cruizers and covering our Indian commerce. 

The weather has been very tempestuous, which must have 
prevented the French Frigates continuing to cruize off this Coast ; 
the America and Sceptre were damaged by Lightning ; the former 
and the Hope Brig drove from their anchorage, and an American 
Brig was lost in this Bay ; but as she is easily reparable and could 
not be put in a condition for Sea except by the Carpenters and 
Artificers of the Squadron, I have consequently purchased her, 
and commissioned her under the name of the Euphrosyne; she 
will be extremely useful, measuring one hundred and twenty-five 
tons, and will be immediately employed in navigating from 
Simon's Bay to Table Bay, for which service I have been greatly 
in want of such Sloops, and I hope Their Lordships will be 
pleased to order three at least with all dispatch, agreeable to the 
suggestions in my former Letters ; it will be indispensably neces- 
sary to have them well coppered, as the worm is wonderfully 

Records of the Cape Colony. 395 

destructive in these seas. The expence of Land Carriage here is 
immense, the charge of conveying a Leager of Wine or 16 Bags 
of Bread from one Bay to the other being 16 Rixdollars, and of 
all other articles proportionally expensive. 

We are greatly at a loss for a Court of Admiralty, and I trust 
you will see the necessity for establishing here one soon, as the 
want of it creates great delay, and often prevents the seizing of 
vessels and that attending to similar occurrences, which is the 
duty of His Majesty's Officers, but who may feel the risk and 
expence of detention in these cases, frequently baffling their efforts 
to contribute to the British Commerce and Interests, and particu- 
larly those of the Honble. English East India Company. I can 
with great reason assure you that had there been a Court of 
Admiralty here, prepared to proceed on causes appropriated to its 
Jurisdiction, I should have been enabled considerably to have 
purified the Indian commerce, a great portion of which is now 
carried on in ships under false Foreign Colours, often commanded 
by Britons, which are continually arriving here, daring and defying 
the vigilance of Justice, and under disguise and deception wresting 
advantages of legal commerce from the support of British Bights 
to the Emolument of contraband and illicit Traders, sometimes 
perhaps conducted by Foreigners for the Benefit of Foreign 
Nations, but too frequently I fear carried on by British Merchants 
to the Destruction of their Country's Interests. 

Commodore Blankett informs me he has sent home a corres- 
pondence which passed between him and General Craig regarding 
the house in Simon's Bay formerly the residence of the Dutch 
Resident charged with their Stores. I lived in it at the time of 
the Capitulation, and held my office there, as you must imagine 
that the cabin of a ship is not convenient nor sufficient for carrying 
on the official department of an extensive command like this. I 
had this house in my custody, and plans of it were transmitted to 
England at the departure of General Clarke ; yet since my leaving 
the Cape it has been taken possession of by order of General Craig, 
and on my arrival here in May I found it appropriated as a mess 
for the Military at the Bay, and I was under the necessity of 
remaining on board the Monarch for three weeks, though exceed- 
ingly ill after our long voyage ; and as I understand His Majesty 
has been pleased to signify his approbation of the arrangements 
Viade by General Clarke and myself, I regret to notice this altera- 

396 Records of the Cape Colony. 

tion, because without this house or one similar the Naval Service 
cannot go on. It served for the Storekeeper and Master Attend- 
ant's residence and office, and I had allotted a part for my own 
office and accommodation. I found my health so impaired that I 
was under the necessity of going on shore, and indeed it was 
requisite to have a situation for the office and to quit the ship for 
repairing the poop deck and getting out the main mast, which is 
very badly sprung, so that I am now unavoidably at Cape Town, 
twenty-two miles from the Fleet. But I find the distance very 
inconvenient and detrimental to the Service. 

I am sorry to be informed the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty have refused to confirm Air. Alexander Farquhar in 
his situation of Naval Storekeeper at the Cape, as the Service 
would be extremely impeded and at a great loss, should Mr. Far- 
quhar relinquish this uncertain appointment, I therefore beg to 
recommend him to Their Lordships' notice, and also the Master 
Attendant Mr. Donald Trail, both very active, attentive and able 
in their respective Departments. 

Commodore Blankett informs me there was a Letter by the 
Carysfort addressed to me from Mr. Nepean signifying Their 
Lordships directions for me to discontinue corresponding with the 
Eight Honble. Secretary of State; but not having received this 
order and being uninformed of the particulars, I have judged it 
most expedient to address both Departments as hitherto, until 
Their Lordships commands are received, or those from yourself. 

I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elpiiinstone. 


Letter from Genekal Craig to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle of Good Hope, 5th July 1796. 

Sir, — By a letter which I have had the Honor of receiving from 
His Eoyal Highness the Duke of York, I am informed that His 
Eoyal Highness, actuated by his usual goodness to me, and 
finding that it was the intention of His Majesty's Ministers that a 
Civil Governor should be sent to this Colony, had offered to your 

Records of the Cape Colony. 397 

consideration, to propose to His Majesty to remove me from my 
present situation to the Staff at Bengal, and that you had been 
pleased Sir, to accede to it in terms with respect to me, which as 
well as the appointment itself, call for my warmest acknowledge- 
ments. I persuade myself therefore Sir, that you will excuse my 
taking the liberty of offering to you my humble, but very sincere 
thanks for both ; and I trust that you will do me the Justice to 
believe, that I shall ever retain the most grateful sense of the 
obligations I am under to you. 

The decision of His Majesty's Ministers, that it is expedient to 
place the Government of this Colony in the hands of a Civil 
Governor, has put an end to every hope which I hail formed, & 
which I confess Sir were principally founded on your goodness, 
that I might be allowed to remain here in that station myself. 
The country appears to me, to be so open to improvement, that it 
will furnish in time of peace, exactly that species of employment, 
which is of all others the most congenial to my mind, at the same 
time that the necessity of adopting some permanent system of 
works for its defence, would have afforded me an opportunity of 
professional activity, which would have been peculiarly gratifying 
to me. As it is Sir, I can only hope, that in resigning the reins of 
Government into the Hands which shall be appointed to receive 
them, it will be with the a] (probation of His Majesty and His 
Ministers, of my conduct in the discharge of the trust which has 
been reposed in me. Permit me to assure you Sir, that this has 
not been without its difficulties. I am confident that I have kept 
a spirit of turbulence & disaffection in subjection, without losing 
sight of the utility of conciliating the minds of the King's new 
subjects. With the necessity of a strict vigilance ever in my view, 
I have exerted it with only two instances of rigor, and in the 
execution of these, tho' necessarily upon military principles, yet I 
have called to my aid the civil magistrate, so far as was recpuisite 
to shew that they were necessary as well as just, whilst they have 
been carried no farther than confinement, till I could send the 
objects of them out of the Colony : and let me add, that without 
assistance of any sort, and with very little experience or knowledge 
of the subjects, I have had upon my hands the total management 
of the Revenue, the complicated System of Taxation in this 
country, and the still more embarrassing subject of Trade. The 
two latter I have endeavoured to get over to the best of my 

398 Records of the Cape Colony. 

abilities, and to the satisfaction of the Settlement, as far as 
appeared to me to be compatible with what I have conceived to be 
my Duty. Without the possibility of obtaining a book to consult, 
and without one man to advize with, who was not as ignorant and 
as inexperienced as myself, if I have erred in any instance, I trust 
I shall meet with indulgence. With respect to the Revenue, I 
hope the very plain and simple arrangement of the accounts, in so 
far as I am concerned, will shield me from the possibility of 
imputation, and with regard to private property, I should hold it 
beneath me to make any allusion to it, did it not furnish me with 
the opportunity of observing that the Inhabitants themselves 
admit, that it has been more secure since the 16th September than 
they held it to be previous to that day. One only instance has 
occurred, in which it was involved, and in which I have been 
obliged to take a part. This has been from a claim, advanced by a 
member of the former Government, upon a part of the property, 
which, as publick property, His Majesty has been pleased to grant 
to the Captors. I have referred the claim to three Commissioners 
two of which are Dutch, and tho' they have not yet reported upon 
it, yet I understand from them, that, from what has hitherto 
appeared, they consider it as ill founded. 

I have only to add Sir, that being taught to believe, that I shall 
carry with me the general regret of the Inhabitants, I shall wait 
in the humble hope of being found to have merited the higher 
gratification of the approval of my Sovereign. This Sir, will ever 
be to me, the highest reward of which I am ambitious ; and in 
proportion to the Value which I set on it, is the extreme anxiety, 
which I cannot but feel on this occasion, that the World should 
not have cause, from the circumstance to suppose that I have not 
obtained it. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 399 


Letter from General Craig to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle op Good Hope 6 July 1796. 

Sir, — Tho' I consider the present opportunity, which is by a 
small merchant Vessell belonging to this place, as very insecure, 
yet I would not miss doing myself the honour of writing a few 
lines by it. 

I have great satisfaction in reporting the safe arrival of the 
Septr's Convoy on the 28th of May. The Troops which were on 
Board landed here without comparatively speaking a sick man, 
and the two Battalions of the 78th regiment, now incorporated 
form a very fine regiment, ready for the further prosecution of His 
Majesty's instructions, as I have been honoured with them from 

The Cutter General Small arrived also a few days ago, and by her 
I had the honour of receiving your secret dispatches of the 15 th 
April, as well as the duplicate of that of the 5th of the same 

No circumstances have occurred since I had the honour of 
writing to you last (which was on the 12th May) to render any 
particular reply necessary by this opportunity. The Georgiana 
packet also arrived safe the 25th May, and delivered to me the 
originals of your dispatches, the duplicates of which I had already 
received by the Carysfort. 

It could not but be with great satisfaction, that I saw again my 
old colleague Sir George Elphinstone, who arrived here with part 
of his Squadron the 23rd May from Madras. 

The Colony remains in the most perfect tranquility. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

400 Records of the Cape Colon]/. 


Letter from Genekal Ceaig to the Eight Honoukable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle of Good Hope 8 July 179G. 

Sir, — I did myself the honor of writing to you the '5th instant, 
but the opportunity was thought too precarious on every account 
to permit me to do it otherwise than in the cautiously worded 
general terms, which you will perceive by the Duplicate which I 
have the honor to inclose. This goes by the Lady Shore a private 
ship chartered by the India Company, which I have this instant 
only learnt is to sail to-morrow for St. Helena, and I shall inclose 
it to Governor Brooke. 

By a variety of accidental channels and circumstances, we have 
been able to collect a pretty distinct account of both the arma- 
ments which have been the subjects of the several dispatches with 
which I have been honored from you. The original force of that 
from Eochefort was four frigates, the Corvette Le Bon Citoyen 
which has I find been taken by one of His Majesty's Ships, and 
a brig. The two last put back on account of damage received, 
and it was on her return that the Corvette was captured. The 
Cocarde which was intended to accompany the three frigates, 
mentioned in your despatch of the loth April, was lost on the 
road off the Isle of Aix and La Vertu was dispatched to replace 
her, she joined the other three at St. Jago where they watered, and 
from whence they proceeded this way. On the Coast of Brazil 
they took the Lord ITawkesbury whaler, on the 22nd or 23rd May 
they were seen by the Georgiana packet to the Southward of the 
Cape, and the next day chased the Sphynx to within 9 leagues of 
Cape False, took a valuable Portuguese ship which was under her 
convoy and retook an American vessel which had been stopped by 
the Monarch as having Dutch property on board; since this they 
have not been heard of, but as several vessels have come in here 
both from the East and the Westward without seeing them, it 
appears that they are not cruizing off this, and it is reasonable to 
suppose that they are gone to the Mauritius. The Lord Hawkes- 
bury had been directed to proceed to that place, but two English 
seamen, who with a boy were left on board to assist thirteen French 
sailors in navigating her, being entrusted with the helm, and pre- 

Records of the Cape Colony. 401 

ferring the chance of drowning to the certainty of a French Prison, 
contrived to run her ashore a little to the Eastward of Cape False, 
they were all saved, and from them I have collected these 
particulars. The Squadron is commanded by Monsieur Serre, an 
officer who belonged to the Navy under the old Government, there 
are two Commissioners or persons in some public capacity on board 
La Forte, there is also an Officer of Bank and about a dozen others 
of the Land service but none of the Prisoners know any of their 
names, altho' two of them belonged to La Forte. One of the 
prisoners says, that one of the Commissioners belongs to the Isle 
of France, and the other was formerly Mayor of Nantes. All the 
sailors prisoners agree, that it was understood that they were to go 
to the Mauritius, and they all likewise say they were to land some- 
where, one of them says he heard that the place they were going 
to was a great way, indeed his expression was 1800 leagues beyond 
the Isle of France, the officer however says they were not to go to 
the Isle of France but were only to cruize between this and 
St. Helena, to intercept our homeward bound India men, but the 
account of the seamen appears the most probable. The frigates 
are miserably manned in pcint of seamen, both as to number and 
quality, the latter is confirmed by the appearance of those here, 
who are all boys, there are not above 150 sailors on board any one 
except La Forte, but the deficiency is made up by Troops of which 
however there does not appear to be more than are necessary for 
that purpose, one of the men belonging to La Vcrtu is very exact 
that they had 346 men on board that vessel in all, which is not 
more than the number which the French usually put on board 
Frigates of that size, they have travelling forges on board but none 
of the Prisoners have any knowledge of there being any artillery 
or artillery men. 

All we know with respect to the Dutch armament is, what 1 
imagine Sir, you must have already been acquainted with, that 
they were met reduced to seven sail, by an American ship which 
afterwards put into Madeira from whence the account was forwarded 
to us, since then we have heard nothing of them, but as that was 
on the 9th April and as they told the American that they were to 
water at Teneriffe, where it was imagined they would arrive about 
the 17th or 18th we cannot but be extremely anxious for the 
safety of the Jupiter's convoy. The General Small cutter brings 
the account of their having passed Madeira the 28th and as the 

2 D 

402 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Dutch Squadron might employ ten or twelve days in watering, it 
is much to be apprehended that they will have been about leaving 
Teneriffe nearly at the time when our convoy would be passing 
that Island. 

Contrary to my wish the circumstance of the sailing of the 
Dutch fleet and its supposed destination came here by too many 
channels for it to be possible that it should not be publicly known. 
I took pains by a letter which I wrote to the Burgher Senate and 
to the Landrosts in the country districts, to obviate any incon- 
venience which might attend the expectation of such an event, 
and I believe my doing so has been attended with a good effect, 
tho' every possible report has been circulated on the occasion, 
everything here about however remaining perfectly quiet indeed 
the accounts which have been lately received here in a variety of 
letters from Holland have had a very sensible influence on the 
public mind, the wretchedness and poverty which they universally 
describe as the present lot of that once flourishing country, has 
raised a pretty general spirit against the causes of the calamity 
and has produced its effect amongst some of those who before did 
not scruple to avow their attachment to French principles. 
Unfortunately this is confined to the people at the Cape Town and 
even there, there still remains a sufficient number of abandoned 
Men of ruined fortune, profligate principles who employ themselves 
in keeping up the delusion among the peasantry of the country. 
I have heard nothing lately from Graaff Eeynet, indeed in the 
impracticability of taking any effectual step for reducing them to 
obedience in the present juncture, I am desirous of letting the 
business remain as quiet as possible. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 


Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

His Majesty's Ship Monarch, 

Simon's Bay, Cape op Good Hope, 
the 8th July 1796. 

Sir ( — I have the honour to inform you that the General Small, 
cutter, commanded by Lieutenant Pressland, arrived here on the 

Records of the Cape Colony. 403 

25th June with Dispatches containing Letters and Intelligence 
from Evan Nepean, Esquire, Secretary to my Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty, communicating an Expedition undertaken from 
France under the Direction of Messrs. Mangalon and Mainville 
intended for the East Indies. 

I accordingly prepared copies of all the Particulars and have 
forwarded them to Hear Admiral Reinier at Madras by Lieutenant 
Hartley of the 36th, a passenger in the Croneberg, which sailed from 
hence for that Presidency on the 2nd instant ; by the same convey- 
ance I also wrote to His Excellency the Governor of Goa a Letter 
of which the translation is inclosed. 

On the arrival of the General Small, cutter, I immediately 
ordered Commodore Blankett to put to sea and cruize a week off 
this Colony, with the America, Ruby, Crescent, and Sphynx, to look 
out for our convoys expected from England. The Commodore 
sailed, and is not yet returned. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 


Letter from General Craig to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle op Good Hope, 
mh July 1796. 

Sir, — My own determination, confirmed by the Instructions 1 
which I have since had the Honor of receiving from you, to make 
as little alteration as is possible in regard to the internal and civil 
concerns of this Colony during the period which must necessarily 
elapse before those regulations can be prepared, which the wisdom 
of His Majesty's Ministers may think expedient for its future 
Government, necessarily contracts my reports to the ordinary 
occurrences in which little has happened of late to merit your 
particular attention. 

In my letter of the 27 December last, I took occasion to advert 
to the necessity which would shortly become indispensable, of 
stamping a quantity of paper money in order to exchange it for 
and renew the worn out and defaced currency of the lower species, 
as had been constantly the practice of the former Government. 

2 d 2 

404 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Extremely unwilling to enter upon a business of this nature, I 
deferred it as long as the publick exigency would permit, but 
having received a representation from the Burgher Senate on the 
Subject, and finding that real and essential inconveniences existed 
for the want of such renewal, I have at length given the necessary 
direction for stamping and signing the quantity of money, which 
upon a reference to the officers employed in the management of 
the Revenue, they gave me their opinion was requisite for the 
purpose ; I do myself the Honor to enclose a copy of the warrant 
which I issued on this occasion and which for the publick informa- 
tion and satisfaction I thought advisable to have put up at the 
usual places and in the usual form of Proclamation. I trust that 
the Principles upon which I have conducted this business, will not 
be disapproved of, they are in general nearly those upon which it 
was done under the Dutch Government, with a few alterations 
which appeared to me to be for the advantage of the publick 
security, the pieces are not yet all signed, but it is reported to me 
that they will be finished in a few days, when I shall give the 
necessary publick notice for the exchange of it for old and worn 
out money, and will take care that what is brought in, shall be 
burnt in the most publick manner, and in such way as shall afford 
the most correct voucher of the quantity destroyed. 

I do myself the Honor to inclose you a Statement of the revenue 
and expenditure from the 1st October 1795 to 31st March 1796 
accompanied with two accounts of the particulars of both — the 
amount of the salaries and all regular expences are precisely 
ascertained for the Six Months, the extraordinary and contingent 
expences are what have occurred during the Six Months, but of 
course as they must vary according to circumstances and frequently 
to a considerable amount, while the Government remains charge- 
able with all the expence which fell on the Dutch Company — 
they can afford little ground for a calculation as to their future 

With regard to the Lombard Bank, altho' the produce is at 
present considerable, yet it appears to me that no dependance can 
be placed on it as an Article of Revenue. It will probably 
decrease very fast in proportion as the paper money becomes of 
less value and it is not supposed that it will be thought expedient 
to continue it on the part of His Majesty's Government with Cash. 
The Capital at present at interest but little exceeds 600,000 

Records of the Cape Colony. 405 

Dollars and this can only be encreased by a further capital of 
about 36,000 Dollars, which is at present in the hands of the 
Bank, being so much paid off to it, and so far I shall permit it to 
go on in its operation, but there are no means of extending it 
further even if the public wants should require it except by 
stamping more paper money which no consideration will induce 
me to consent to. 

The Dutch Company having been in the habit of sending here 
some articles for the publick Service, which are indispensable, and 
the Magistrates not knowing immediately how to procure them of 
themselves they will be subject to very great and essential incon- 
veniences unless His Majesty's Government, will have the goodness 
to take some steps to insure their being supplied at least for the 
present year. I have received a letter from the Burgher Senate 
on this subject, a translation of which I do myself the Honor to 
inclose — the articles they require will be paid for as they are wanted 
but it is an object of importance to insure that they may be to 
be had. 

It has been the practice here to take an annual account of all 
the Inhabitants, their Slaves, Cattle, horses and the produce of 
their farms, and I have directed it to be continued, — the account 
for the present year is not yet finished and indeed will at any rate 
I fear be very deficient on account of the State of Graaffe Reynet, 
but having extracted the general account of the last year from the 
books in the Secretary's Office I do myself the Honor to inclose it 
altho' I must at the same time observe that it can not be relied on 
as very accurate. I am informed that for several years past it has 
been taken in rather a careless manner. It may however serve to 
give a general Idea of the State of the Colony. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 


Letter from General Craig to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle op Good Hope, 
10th July 1796. 

Sir, — By the State of Cash given in to me this day by the 
Deputy Pay Master General, it appears, that he has in hand the 

406 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Sum of £6,459-1-6 and altho' he is able sometimes to procure 
money for his bills, yet this mode of supply is too precarious, 
and comes in too slowly not to make me apprehensive of being 
shortly again in want, which might expose us to real and great 
inconvenience ; I am therefore led to offer to your consideration 
the expediency of taking the earliest opportunity of sending here 
a further supply. 

The Commissary General continues by my direction to make 
all his payments which will admit of it, in paper money, which 
the Paymaster General procures for his bills at 25 per cent 
advance, but he is still under the necessity in some instances 
of using hard cash, this with the subsistence of the Eegiments 
and other ordinary expences require considerable sums and I 
submit it to you Sir whether it would not be proper to send us 
as far as £30,000. 

Being in daily expectation of the arrival of the 28th Dragoons, 
and extremely anxious that they should be mounted and rendered 
fit for service as speedily as possible, I have directed the Com- 
missary General to contract with a man here to furnish 200 
horses for the purpose. "We pay him 80 Eixdollars for each 
horse in paper currency which deducting the 25 per cent is 
about £12 per horse ; those which I have bought here for the 
small body now actually mounted and doing duty under command 
of Lieut. McNab of the 98th have rather cost more, but they were 
purchased in the Town and are superior in quality to what we 
shall get from the Country, however their price on an average 
will not exceed £15 : — the difficulty of procuring appointments 
has prevented my mounting more than an Officer, Sergt, Corporal 
and 24 Privates — but even this Corps small as it is, is of infinite 
use to me — the road is now laid as far as Saldanha Bay, from 
whence I can receive a report in about 14 hours and from Simon's 
bay in less than three. I have &c, 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 407 


Letter from General Craig to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle of Good Hope, 
\Qtii July 1796 

Sir,— Since I had the honor of writing to you on the 8th & 
10th inst. I have had it in my power to procure some further 
account of the destination of the four French frigates, which I 
think it my duty to transmit to you. 

The French officer who had been put on board the Lord 
Hawkesbury, and who was wrecked in her, arrived here so ex- 
tremely ill, that he was sent to the General Hospital, where he 
had a room given him, and where every care that was possible 
was taken of him, he is now perfectly recovered from a State in 
which his life was in danger several days, but being still very weak 
I have given him leave to go into the Country upon his parole. 
Finding that he was entirely destitute of Cloaths, a subscription 
was proposed for him in a Company of Officers, in consequence 
of which, I sent him yesterday morning 150 Dollars, when after 
some other conversation expressive of his gratitude for the favors 
he had received, he told the Gentleman whom I sent to him, that 
he felt himself under such obligations for the treatment he had 
experienced, and the care which had been taken of him, that he 
could not help reproaching himself with having deceived me 
in the account which he had before given of the destination of 
the Frigates, — that they were bound directly for the Isle of France. 
It was an expedition which had been in agitation these two years 
past but which the unsettled State of the French Government 
would never permit to be put in execution — the intention is to 
enforce the decree for the emancipation of the Slaves, the names 
of the Commissioners are Burnel and Baco, and that of the 
General who commands the Troops is Magalon. The Troops are 
in number 800 and they have forges on board, they expect to 
meet with opposition and propose to land in the evening and 
announce the decree immediately before the people can be 

The officer added, that he does not himself think that the 
Frigates will be allowed to enter the Harbour as he is sure the 
people are aware of their mission, he belongs to the Island himself, 

408 Records of the Cape Colony. 

and has five brothers there all men of opulence but whose riches 
consist entirely in Slaves, he is therefore or supposes himself well 
acquainted with the Sentiments of the Inhabitants, some time 
ago a frigate was sent out for the purpose of announcing the 
decree but on the Captain presenting himself to the Governor 
and informing him of the purport of his mission, the latter 
immediately told him that he advised him to return to his ship 
with all expedition for if the People became acquainted with 
his business, he would be hanged in an hour, he accordingly 
did go on board and sailed immediately for Batavia. 

The Lady Shore being detained by the circumstances of some 
of her men running away, furnishes me with the opportunity of 
adding this to my other letters. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

Letter from, Messrs. Fehrszen & Co. to General Craig. 

Cap de bonne Espebance le JuiUet 1796. 

Monsieur le General, — Les soussignes Oloff Godlieb de "Wet, 
Christoffel Brand, Jan Arnold Voltelen, Petrus Johannes Truter, 
Jurriaan de Vries et Hendrik Johannes Fehrszen, tous habitans de 
cette Ville, prennent la liberte de donner connoissance a Votre 
Excellence par la presente, comme en quoi etant associes sous la 
raison de Fehrszen et Compe. ils ont frete et expedie au mois de 
May de Tan passe 1795, lorsque cette Colonie se trouvait encore 
sous la domination de la noble Compe. des Indes Holl., un vaisseau 
a trois mats, nomme de Hersteller, sous le commandement du Cap. 
Eoeloff de Koe et charge d'huile de Baleine, de Spermacete et 
d'autres denrees de ce pays, lesquelles a l'exception de quelques 
articles, charges a fret par d'autres Colons, egalement que le navire 
meme appartenaient en propriete et a juste titre aux dits soussignes, 
sans que personne, qui que ce soit, ni sous aucune fa?on quelconque, 
put y avoir droit ou pretention. 

La destination du dit Navire etait pour Amsterdam, ou sa Car- 
gaison devait se rendre, afin de pouvoir rapporter ici en retour de 
telles marchandises, qui auraient ete convenables pour cette 

Records of the Cape Colony. 409 

Colonie, et dont la defaite avantageuse aurait mis les armateurs en 
etat, de continuer avec succes, autant pour rencouragement de 
leurs Concitoyens que pour leurs propres Interets, un commerce 
naissant, dont la liberte n'a ete accordee aux habitants de cette 
Colonie que depuis peu de terns. Mais les soussignes se virent 
malheureusement frustres dans leur attente, par la funeste rupture 
que a eu lieu entre la Grande Bretagne et la Republique des Sept 
Provinces Unies, dont la suite etait, que vers le 28 Aout de l'annee 
passee le navire en question fut saisi en route par the Sea Horse 
and Diana, Fregatte de Sa Majeste Britannique qui le mena a 
Berguen en Norwege ; toutefois, sans que les soussignes soient 
jusqu'a present instruits par leurs Correspondants en Angleterre, 
quel a ete ou sera dans la suite le fruit de leurs peines, qu'ils se 
sont donnes ou se donneront encore. 

Or, il est naturel que cette incertitude met les Associes dans un 
embarras, d'autant plus grand que par la mauvaise reussite de 
cette expedition ils se voyent non seulement prives des avantages 
qu'ils esperaient en cueillir, mais meine hors d'etat de pouvoir 
reparer la perte d'un autre navire, qu'ils avaient envoye auparavant 
avec une riche cargaison dans l'lnde pour d£but de leur commerce, 
sans pouvoir trouver des assurances ni pour l'un ni pour l'autre a 
cause des circonstances critiques du terns. 

Les suites funestes qui en resulteraient pour les soussignes en 
cas que les demarches de leurs Correspondants resteraient sans 
effet, les ont fait songer, comme de raison, a tous les moyens qui 
pourraient les faciliter, pour detourner s'il etait possible, le coup 
fatal. C'est pourquoi les soussignes croyent surtout devoir 
s'adresser tres respectueusement a Votre Excellence pour lui 
demander la grace, qu'elle veuille bien appuyer par ses bons 
offices toutes les raisons justes, qui peuvent etre alleguees en 
favour du dit vaisseau. 

Les soussignes aiment a se persuader, que Votre Excellence n'y 
fera aucune difficulte, du moment qu'il Lui plaira de considerer, 
que le vaisseau en question ainsi que la Cargaison n'appartenaient 
qu'a des Habitants de cette Colonie, et que par consequent il ne 
peut etre gueres regarde" comme un batiment ennemi ; puisque du 
terns de son arrestation (laquelle est arrivee le 28 Aout 1795) la 
malheureuse rupture entre la grande Bretagne et les sept Provinces 
Unies n'a pas encore eu lieu : aussi l'arrestation de tous les biens, 
appartenant a des Sujets de la Republique, ne fut ordonnee par sa 

410 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Majeste Britannique que provisoirement, afin d'en pouvoir disposer 
dans la suite selon que les evenements s'exigeraient. La preuve en 
est, puisque tous les vaisseaux Hollandais, arretes dans ce tems-la, 
dans les differents Ports de la grande Bretagne, ne furent confisques 
et declares pour bonnes prises, qu'apres le commencement de la 
guerre. De sorte que les soussignes croyent avoir lieu a supposer, 
qu'en cas que la republique eut repris sa constitution, sans 
s'embarquer dans cette funeste guerre, les dits vaisseaux de la 
Hollande n'auraient jamais ete confisques et declare's pour bonnes 
prises par sa Majeste, a moins qu'ils ne l'eussent merites par des 
raisons, qui autorisent meme la confiscation des vaisseaux neutres. 
Outre cela les soussignes fondent leur espoir sur les promesses 
gracieuses, que sa Majeste a bien voulu donner aux Habitants de 
cette Colonie, pour la faire prosperer et fleurer autant qu'il 
dependra de sa sagesse et de sa bienveillance. Et cette persuasion 
les fait esperer, que la generosite de leur nouveau Souverain les 
preservera d'une perte ruineuse, que non seulement les mettrait 
hors d'etat de continuer leur commerce naissant, mais que repan- 
drait necessairement un decouragement general parmi les habitants 
de cette Colonie, et empocherait par consequent les vues salutaires 
de Sa Majeste. 

Aussi etant persuades que Votre Excellence ne desire rien de si 
fort, que de contribuer selon les vues de Sa Majeste au bonheur et 
a la prosperite de cette Colonie, les soussignes osent prendre leur 
recours a Votre Excellence, en La suppliant tres humblement, de 
bien vouloir les munir de lettres de recommandation, par lesquelles 
ils puissent appuyer les demarches de leurs Correspondants a 
Londres ; afin d'obtenir une disposition favorable de la part de Sa 
Majeste a 1'egard de leur vaisseau et de la Cargaison qu'il contient. 
Ils s'en rapportent au reste pour les restrictions, que les loix 
Britanniques pourraient par hazard exiger en pareil cas, a la 
sagesse de leur Souverain, qui parait ne vouloir que le bien de ses 
nouveaux Sujets. Nous avons &c. 



G. de Wet, 






J. Truter, 




J. Fehrszen. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 411 


Letter from General Craig to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle of Good Hope the 28th July 1796. 

Sir, — I do myself the honour to inclose a memorial which was 
delivered to me a few days ago, the subject is so fully set forth 
in it, that it has left me little to add but to inform you, that the 
memorialists are formed into a Company here for conducting a 
Whale Fishery and seem to me to require but little encourage- 
ment to carry it to a considerable extent. As this Company is as 
yet but in its infancy, the loss it has sustained and which is the 
object of the memorial will fall heavy on it. They are Gentlemen 
of the first respectability and character here and from their conduct 
since I have had the charge of the Colony, merit that I should 
solicit for them every favour which His Majesty's Ministers can 
shew to the prayer of their memorial. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

[Duplicate unsigned.] 

Letter from General Craig to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Cabtle of Good Hope 29th July 1796. 

Sir, — I have the pleasure to report to you the safe arrival of 
His Majesty's Ship Jupiter with all the ships under her convoy 
except the Taunton Castle, which is missing but it is hoped that 
she is gone on to Bombay, she has a Company of the 33rd 
Regiment on board. 

I had very great satisfaction in the very high order in which 
the 80th Regiment landed and marched into this place on Tuesday. 
The 28th Light Dragoons marched in the next day, but I was 
then, and have been since so busy, that it has not yet been in my 
power to see them. The two Regiments together have not above 
a score sick. The 25th Light Dragoons and 33rd Infantry are on 
board their Ships at Simon's Town equally healthy except one 
Ship, on board which is a part of the latter Regiment. They have 

412 Records of the Cape Colony. 

a slight degree of fever amongst them, which however does not 
appear to be of any consequence. I have furnished such con- 
veniences as I had in my power and have given directions for 
landing the men in order that the Captain may have an oppor- 
tunity of whitewashing the Ship which he has promised to do. 

I have had the honour of writing to you lately Sir, by two 
opportunities but have been unsuccessful in both, one was by a 
small brig belonging to this place, which after being out five or 
six days, put back so much damaged that she is under the 
necessity of unloading. The other opportunity was by the 
Lady Shore, a private ship from India. This Ship before she 
had got ten leagues from the entrance of false bay, was obliged to 
throw her Letters over board and submit to the French National 
Corvette the Moineau, the crew of which plundered her to a 
considerable amount and then dismissed and suffered her to 
return here. Capt. Brisac of the Navy was on board the Lady 
Shore and was carried on board the Moineau, where he remained 
a night and part of two days. He learnt from them, that the 
conjecture of the French Officer who is Prisoner here, and which 
I have had the honor of giving you in another letter, had been 
perfectly verified — the french commissioners who had been sent 
to enforce the decree of the Convention for the Emancipation of 
the Slaves, had not been permitted to land on the Island but after 
being three days in the Harbour, were then actually on board the 
Moineau on their return to France. The four frigates were in 
the Harbour. 

Admiral Pringle in the Tremendous arrived here the 21st the 
same day as the Jupiter and her convoy. I have, &c. 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Evan Nepean, Esquire. 

His Majesty's Ship Monarch, 

Simon's Bat, Cape of Good Hope, 
the 30*A July 1796. 

Sir, — I have the honor to inform you. that the accumulated 
military and naval strength already arrived at this Colony and the 
augmentation daily expected have induced Major General Craig 

Records of the Cape Colony. 413 

commanding the Troops and myself to turn our attention to some 
object wherein the Force may be employed advantageously. 

Upon this consideration the Isles of Mauritius offer themselves 
as most conveniently situated for our operations and the Major 
General having expressed his ability to furnish 5,000 Men for the 
purpose, with every other requisite appendage and the necessary 
implements, I have consequently determined in concert with the 
Major General that no time should be lost in preparing to under- 
take an attack against those French Isles, and every exertion is 
now making for this desirable attempt and I hope little doubt is 
to be entertained for success should it be put in execution. 

The Mauritius is the only place in these parts in the possession 
of the French, its present utility to them is therefore considerable, 
and affords every refuge and shelter to their Cruizers in these Seas, 
by which the British Commerce is greatly annoyed ; upon these 
grounds the subduction of it becomes an important value to His 
Majesty's Service, but whether the retaining it in the British 
Possession, on the event of Success, will be deemed indispensible, 
I am not enabled to determine and must submit that point to the 
consideration or representation of my Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty whose commands you will be pleased to communicate 
by the earliest opportunity. 

But altho this proceeding has been thought advisable, and 
engages my most sanguine wishes, I have counciled with the 
Major General on the indispensible duty incumbent on us to 
suffer no dazzling expectation of conquest to relax our using 
every endeavour for the certain security of our possession ob- 
tained upon this Colony, to which every other consideration must 
yield, and nothing be attempted which could probably afford a 
distant hazard of its being attacked by the Enemy. With this 
view the assault against Mauritius now meditated is to be subject 
to our being able to leave an ample garrison here and at least four 
ships of the line, the latter will be in my power on the arrival of 
the Trident and the ships from India & the Major General ex- 
presses his ability to leave the requisite military force and still to 
have a strength of Five thousand men for the Mauritius, without 
any inconvenience resulting from their being employed as pro- 
posed, altho a temporary delay will arise to their proceeding to 
India as destined, this however is a circumstance totally depend- 
ant upon and appertaining to the Major General's Department and 

414 Records of the Cape Colony. 

official Information ; it is also agreed not to proceed against the 
Mauritius until some accounts are received of the Dutch Naval 
Force which from information obtained by Captain Brisac, a 
passenger in the ship Lady Shore captured by the Moineau, are 
reported to be gone to the Mauritius, for the purpose of concerting 
measures with the French against this Colony. 

Their Lordships will be pleased to observe that we have not yet 
ultimately decided upon our proceeding against the French Isles, 
and that our plans are at present only directed to a preparation, in 
order to be ready should expected arrivals & events prove it ex- 
pedient. We have written to the Governor of St. Helena for all 
the aid he can bestow on the Expedition in Men or otherwise and 
Transports will be dispatched to that Island immediately to return 
with such assistance as the Governor may be able to spare, his 
zealous exertions are so universally known, and have been already 
so well experienced by us, in the expedition against this Colony, 
that every reliance may be placed on his strenuous support. 

It will be impossible to proceed before the beginning of 
September, and should the intention be necessarily delayed after 
that time, a material circumstance will occur for consideration, the 
great expence which will be occasioned by the detention of the 
Company's ships & Transports, which will be considerably in- 
creased by the loss of a Season. 

I beg however you will be pleased to assure my Lords Com- 
missioners of the Admiralty of my zealous inclination and effort 
to render every practicable benefit and advantage to the British 
Interests, and no opportunity shall be neglected to embrace every 
possible occasion which shall offer a desirable undertaking for so 
important a duty, and it will be superfluous to add my reliance on 
the zealous spirit and military talents & experience of Major 
General Craig whose cordial cooperation with the Officers of His 
Majesty's Naval Forces are entitled to our sincere acknowledg- 
ments. I have, &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 415 


Letter from General Craig to the Eight Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle of Good Hope 30th July 1796. 
Sir, — The accidental accumulation of a considerable Force at 
this Place, from circumstances which could not be foreseen, has 
appeared to Vice Admiral Sir G. K. Elphinstone and myself, to 
present an opportunity of rendering an essential service, and has 
therefore claimed and had our most serious attention. 

The French possessing no other harbour of refuge or Equipment 
in these Seas, but the Isle of France ; and their allies the Dutch 
not having it in their power to afford them either, but at Batavia, 
where it is believed, that the known unhealthiness of the place, 
would counterballance every advantage, which they might receive 
from it, It has appeared to us that, exclusive of every considera- 
tion of the intrinsic value of the Island, or of the benefit which 
might be derived from the possession of it by Britain ; The 
depriving the Enemy of the use of it, or, the putting it in that 
State, that it cannot be of any essential service to them, during 
the continuance of the war, are alone objects of the first import- 
ance, and from which every good consequence may be expected. 
This has therefore led us to consider the propriety of embracing the 
opportunity, which appears to offer itself, for making an attempt, 
the success of which will put it in possession of His Majesty's arms. 
In the very serious consideration which I have given to this 
Subject, I have been well aware, Sir, of the necessity of attending 
to the two very material objects, of not exposing this Place, and 
that no essential inconvenience may be experienced in India by 
the temporary delay of the arrival of the Troops destined for it. 
"With respect to the latter, from all the accounts which I have 
lately received of the state of affairs in that Country, I am not 
aware of any risk which can be occasioned by the delay of the 
arrival of the Troops, which can in any shape enter into competi- 
tion with the advantages to be procured, by their being employed 
in the way proposed. 

I shall have occasion hereafter to advert to the other object of 
the security of this Place. 

The fleet under convoy of the Jupiter being all arrived safe, 
except the Taunton Castle, which has on board 73 rank & file of 


Records of the Cape Colony. 

the 33rd Eegiment, we have here at this moment, landed & on 
board the Ships, the following Eegiments 

33rd exclusive of those on board the Taunton Castle 800 

1 ''til • • • • • 


• • . IJMI 

. 800 


. 800 


, 700 


. 700 

25th Light Dragoons 

. 400 

28th Do. 

. 400 


On board the Fleet expected under convoy of the 
Trident are the 

12th 800 

19th 800 

27th Light Dragoons . . .400 

Sent for to St. Helena & which by letters from 
Governor Brooke is the least we may expect . 600 


By the letters which I have been honored with from You Sir, 
and His Eoyal Highness the Duke of York, I am led to expect 
that the 86th Eegiment will also be in the fleet with the 12th and 
19th. As however, by accounts which I have received from some 
of the officers just arrived, there appears to be some doubt whether 
they will really come in that fleet or wait till the next, I have 
omitted them. The Scotch brigade is also mentioned in your 
dispatches as coming here, and that it may be expected to sail 
from Gibraltar for that purpose about the end of May. We may 
therefore reasonably expect their arrival by the end of August, 
which will be sooner than the St. Helena Troops can come. I am 
at present ignorant of the Establishment of this Corps, but I take 
for granted, that it will not be less than 1000 which added to the 
above number, make 94:00 Eank and file, exclusive of artillery. 
And it is to be observed, first, that we are extremely healthy — 

Records of the Cape Colony. 


secondly, that in the round numbers in which I have given the 
strength of the different Corps I am in every case under their real 
strength, except in that of the 95th which is only 691 Bank and 
file, whilst the 84th is 829 strong, & lastly, that I have put the 
12th and 19th only at 800 men each, because the 80th but little 
exceeds that number, altho, their Establishment being 1000, it is 
very possible that they may really exceed what I have calculated 
them at, by 400 men. 

With regard to this place, we are pretty certain that nothing 
exists in these Seas, capable of attempting the attack of it. The 
Equipment of an armament from Europe, of such a magnitude as 
that must be, which probably would be destined for the purpose, 
as the Enemy must of course be well aware of the reinforcements, 
which have lately been sent to these parts, can scarcely escape the 
Vigilance of His Majesty's Ministers ; & the decided superiority 
of our Naval Strength in Europe, would make the sailing of so 
large a fleet of Transport and Store Vessels, so extremely hazard- 
ous, that I cannot think it will be attempted during the summer 
months, and if it were, I should have every hope that it would 
never reach its destination. As to the encouragement which 
might be supposed to be given to the Idea of attacking this place, 
by any detachment being made from hence, It must be considered 
that the Enemy can have no account of any such detachment 
being made, so soon as His Majesty's Ministers will receive it, the 
deficiency may therefore to a certainty be made good, before any 
advantage can be taken of it. But altho the quality of the Troops 
destined for the defence of this Settlement, will be in some sort 
altered by the intended measure, yet it is not proposed to lessen 
their number in any degree likely to be of material consequence 
in any event. The Eegiments at present destined for this Colony, 
with their numbers taken as I have calculated them before, are the 


. 800 


. 700 


. 700 


. 1000 

Scotch Brigade 

. 1000 

28th Light Dragoons 

. 400 


2 E 

418 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Taking therefore 5000 men for the proposed Expedition from 
the 9400 of which, our force actually here and expected will 
consist, it will leave at this place 4400. The alteration therefore 
will be only 200 men, but there will be 800 dismounted Dragoons 
instead of the same number of Infantry. The 86th are not in- 
cluded in this calculation ; should they arrive with the 12th and 
19th they will furnish an augmentation to be disposed of as may 
appear best at the moment, from any future intelligence which 
we may be able to procure ; should they not be on board that fleet, 
as it is understood that they will sail with the following Division 
of the Companies Ships in the middle of June, they together with 
another Eegiment of Light Dragoons, in all 1400 men, will form a 
further reinforcement here, till the fate of our attempt is decided, 
or an equal number of men may be immediately forwarded to 
India, if no circumstance appears, to warrant their detention at 
this place. 

The number of artillery must indeed necessarily be reduced, 
but I have written particularly to Governor Brooke to request 
that he will send as large a proportion here as he can possibly 
spare ; and, the men of the 84th, 95th & 98th have all been trained 
to the Great Guns for these several months past, that tho they 
never can supply a deficiency of that valuable Corps, yet there is 
not I believe a man who cannot render very material assistance in 
any battery in which he may be placed. 

With regard to India, altho' I am in hopes that no inconvenience 
can be experienced by the delay which will be occasioned in the 
arrival of the Troops destined for that service, yet in the selecting 
the Troops for the Expedition, as well as in the directions which 
shall be left here, the utmost attention shall be paid, to the 
forwarding them as fast as the circumstances will admit of. 
Whatever number of men may be found necessary for the defence 
of the Island, should it be thought proper to keep it, yet at first it 
appears, that that number which is sufficient to keep the people 
in order, is all that will be requisite. No attempt can be made 
to retake it, but from Europe, and as it is to be hoped that His 
Majesty's Government will be in possession of the first intelligence 
of our success, and will be prepared for the Event, they will always 
be able to send out the number of Troops necessary for its preserva- 
tion, before the Enemy can be ready. 

From the best accounts which I have been able to get of 

Records of the Cape Colony. 419 

the Strength of the French at the Isle of France, it stands 

The Eegiments of Pondicherry & Isle de France 

together do not exceed 500 

National Guards, including Free Blacks 2500 


To which is to be added the chance of the Troops on board the 
4 frigates lately arrived, & which amount to 800. Artillery very 
few, except a Company of National Guards, formed into a Corps 
of flying Artillery & consisting of about 260 men, included in the 
2500 above mentioned. 

There exists no Fortress or fortified hold on the Island, so that 
when a landing is effected, the fate of the Island must be decided 
by an action, in which the Invaders have this advantage, that they 
can bring their whole force to the attack, while the necessity 
of guarding distant points will always produce a considerable 
diminution of that of the defenders. I am silently preparing 20 
pieces of field artillery. I have horses ready for them. We can 
make out I hope Camp Equipage, and we have an Hospital Staff 
with every necessary supply in that department. 

It may be proper to add to this exposition of the Strength of the 
Island, that, the French Government at home, having attempted 
to enforce the decree for the Emancipation of the Slaves, & the 
Islanders having resisted so far, as to send away the Commissioners 
without permitting them to land, they may be deemed to be, to a 
certain degree, in a state of Eebellion. A great ferment & Division 
is known to reign among them on the subject, which it is reason- 
able to suppose may be considerably to our advantage, and if it 
does not lessen the force which we shall have to act against, it 
will at least considerably tend to decrease its energy and vigor. 

I leave every consideration with respect to shipping to the Vice 
Admiral, whose zeal for the King's service will, I am sure, be 
tempered by that judgment necessary to lay all the consequences 
of the proposed measure before him. At present he agrees with 
me most perfectly as to the expediency of not suffering the 
opportunity to pass of rendering so essential a service to our 
Country. At the same time Sir we cannot but be aware, that 
many circumstances may arise, between this and the moment of 

2 e 2 

420 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Execution to render that inexpedient, which at present does not 
appear to be so. 

If no circumstance intervenes to prevent the attempt which we 
propose, and if we should have the good fortune to succeed in it, 
there will still remain to be decided the Question of Preserving 
or Evacuating the Island, after destroying such Stores & Publick 
works as may effectually prevent the Enemy reaping any advantage 
from their repossessing it during the present War. This it will of 
course be with the wisdom of His Majesty's Ministers to determine. 
It will be our part to retain the possession till that determination 
be made known to us, and untill then, a considerable part at least 
of the Troops destined for India must be delayed. With so little 
local information as I at present possess, it would be wrong to 
attempt to form an opinion as to the number of men which it 
would require to keep it, but I am rather fearful that it must be 
considerable, it being somewhat similarly situated with this place 
where, having no Fortress of Defence, and little assistance to 
expect from the Country, the force to ensure the security of the 
Island, must be such as to enable us to meet the Enemy in the 

It will not be possible for us to sail at any rate till towards the 
middle, more probably the latter end of September. Whatever 
good fortune may attend us, it is reasonable to hope, that we shall 
not be long in possession of the Island before we are honored with 
His Majesty's Instructions for our future proceedings. 

Major General Doyle being here, & necessarily detained with 
the Ships, I shall leave him in the command at this place. He 
will have all the time necessary to make himself perfectly 
acquainted with it before I leave him, & I trust His Majesty will 
not disapprove of my preferring in my own person the certainty of 
active exertion in his service to the chance of it only, which offers 
itself here. Major General Doyle's zeal & abilities are too well 
known to permit a doubt that my absence can occasion any 
detriment, should they be called to exertion by any attempt of the 
Enemy whilst it lasts. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 421 

Letter from General Craig to Admiral Elphinstone. 

Castle of Good Hope 1st August 1796. 

Sir, — Having been under a necessity of apprehending two 
men here : one for exciting the People in the back part of the 
Province to insurrection, and the other for opposing the Landdrost 
of Graaf Bynet and for joining in, and encouraging the insur- 
rection which prevails in that Province, I am extremely desirous 
of sending them out of this Colony, and am therefore to request, 
that you will have the Goodness to direct, that they may be 
received on board any of His Majesty's Ships bound for Britain, 
and that on their arrival they may be reported to His Majesty's 
Secretary of State (to whom I shall send an account of them) to 
be further dealt with as may appear proper. 

There is also a Frenchman here lately landed from on board 
a Neutral Ship, and who appears to have come from the Isle of 
France. This man's Language and Conduct has been exceedingly 
improper, and as he is a Sailor and is come here without passport, 
or Paper of any authority, I consider him in the light of a Prisoner 
of War, and shall be very glad, that he be sent home by the same 
opportunity to be delivered to any Prison, in which Prisoners of 
that description are kept. I have &c. 

(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

[Office Copy.] 
Letter from the War Office to Major-General Francis Dundas. 

Parliament Street, 3 August 1796. 

Sir, — I have received the King's commands to signify to you 
His Majesty's pleasure that you are to proceed immediately to 
the Cape of Good Hope, and, on your arrival there, to put your- 
self under the command of Major General Craig, who is at present 
vested with the Government and Command of that Settlement. 
I am, at the same time, to signify to you His Majesty's pleasure 
that in the case of any event by which the chief command at the 
( ape of Good Hope should cease to be exercised by Major General 

422 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Craig, previous to the arrival of a Governor in chief, whom it is 
intended to send shortly from this Country, you are then to take 
upon yourself the administration of the affairs of the Settlement, 
under the same authority, and in the same manner, in which it 
is now vested in Major General Craig. 

[Office Copy.] 
Letter from the War Office to Major-General Craig. 

Parliament Street, 3 August 1796. 

Sir, — Major General Francis Dundas having received His 
Majesty's commands to proceed to the Cape of Good Hope with 
the reinforcement now on the point of sailing for that Settlement, 
I inclose to you a copy of my Letter directing him on his arrival 
to place himself under your orders. I am, at the same time, 
commanded to signify to you His Majesty's pleasure that you 
should not proceed to the station to which His Majesty has been 
graciously pleased to appoint you on the Staff in India, until the 
arrival at the Cape of a Governor, who will proceed from England 
with full Instructions on every point relative to the new and 
liberal arrangement for the administration of the Colony, which 
is now under the consideration of His Majesty's Confidential 
Servants, and which, I have no doubt, will give great and 
general Satisfaction to the Inhabitants, not only by the imme- 
diate advantages they will derive from it, but also from the 
certain prospect of progressive improvement which cannot fail 
to be the result of the beneficent system of amelioration adopted 
by His Majesty, with a view to the prosperity of that very im- 
portant Colony. Governed by these motives, it is His Majesty's 
earnest wish that the new administration should be established 
as soon as possible ; but as the person who has been selected by 
His Majesty for this important trust will not be able to leave 
England before October, I cannot encourage an expectation of 
its taking place sooner than the end of the present year. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 423 

[Office Copy.] 
Letter from the War Office to Major-General Craig. 

Parliament Street, 3 August 1796. 

Sir, — It having been judged expedient to detain in India all 
of the Eegiments at present stationed in that quarter, I think 
it right to acquaint you that directions have been given by this 
opportunity to Major General Clarke to detach to the Cape of 
Good Hope the Royal Artillery only, and to detain the 71st & 
75th Regiments, previously destined to be placed under your 


Letter from General Craig to the Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas. 

Castle of Good Hope 3rd Aug. 179G. 

Sir, — Capt. Bower late of the 84th Regiment sailed yesterday 
in the Friendship Corn ship, having charge of several letters, of 
which I have the Honor of sending duplicates by the present 
opportunity of Commodore Blankett. 

Yesterday afternoon just as the Friendship was out of sight, 
the Trident came to an anchor in Simon's bay, with the Alfred 
Ocean and Castor. I understand that five Indiamen parted 
company two days before, and proceeded to India. I have not 
yet received any regular report of what Troops are on board the 
ships which are come in, but I hear that there are part or the 
whole of the 27th Light Dragoons, a small part of the 19th 
Infantry and a few recruits for the 75th. The immediate sailing 
of the America puts it out of my power to be more particular. 

An American came in at the same time with the Trident, and 
reports that on the 9th of June the Dutch fleet was still at 
Teneriffe. Combining this with the account which was brought 
by Captain Brisbane of the Moselle, that seven sail of French 
Ships of the Line were in the harbour of Cadiz, loading with 
provisions, the Admiral and I concur in thinking it most probable 
that the Dutch are waiting till a junction with these seven ships, 

424 Records of the Cape Colony. 

to take place at Teneriffe, enables them to proceed this way in 
formidable strength. 

The very great probability of this circumstance, together with 
the loss of so considerable a part of the force on which we 
depended, as the 19th Eegiment, and the great uncertainty which 
there seems now to be as to the arrival of the remainder, has 
appeared to the Admiral and myself to occasion so considerable 
a change in the situation upon which we had founded our in- 
tention of making an attempt upon the Mauritius, that we neither 
of us think that it would be expedient to detain the Indiamen, 
when the chance of our being able to carry it into effect is so 
little, and we are therefore — tho with regret — obliged to give up 
all thoughts of it, at least for the present. Additional considera- 
tions have concurred to press this determination upon us. The 
great Naval Strength which the Enemy will possess would make 
the attempt extremely hazardous, and should they pass this, and 
proceed to India, our new acquired possessions in those parts 
might be hazarded by the detention of the Troops destined to 
enforce their Garrisons, or at least to enable the Government 
to reinforce them by other Troops, while their loss would not 
be compensated by the capture of the Isle of France. The 33rd 
and 25th Light Dragoons will therefore proceed in a few days 
with the Troops which arrived in the Trident's convoy. 

If the junction which we apprehend takes place I think it not 
improbable that the Enemy may turn their views to an attack 
upon us here. I have nothing Sir to add to what I have already 
had the Honor of saying upon the probability of such an Event, 
the late reinforcements which have arrived give me additional 
hopes that it will turn to the Honor of His Majesty's arms. 

I have &c. 
(Signed) J. H. Ckaig. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 425 

* [Original.] 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to Evan Nepean, Esqre. 

H.M.S. Monarch, Simon's Bay, 

Cape of Good Hope the 3rd August 1796. 

Sir, — I have the honor to inform you that Bear Admiral Pringle 
in His Majesty's Ship Tremendous arrived here on the 21st ultimo, 
and on the same day also came in His Majesty's Ship Jupiter, with 
all the ships of her convoy except the Taunton Castle. ... I am 
further to communicate the arrival on the 21st ultimo of His 
Majesty's Ship Moselle, commanded by Captain Brisbane, from 
Madeira, originally from the Mediterranean, and I must beg leave 
to offer my acknowledgment to the zeal, perseverance, and good 
intention of Captain Brisbane, who pushed with all expedition for 
this Colony to inform me that prior to making Madeira he fell in 
with a Dutch Fleet of four ships of the Line, three frigates and 
a large Sloop all apparently steering a course for the East ; the 
Moselle had not a week's provision on board on her arrival. 

The Lady Shore belonging to the East India Company returned 
here on the 21st July, having been captured & pillaged and 
afterwards released by the French ship Moineau a few leagues to 
the westward of this Bay, on board the Moineau are two Repre- 
sentatives of the French National Convention, Messrs. Baco and 
Burnell, and their Adjutant General Monsieur Delamer, the 
Moineau was under great dispatch for Europe. . . . 

His Majesty's Ship Trident arrived this day with three Ships, 
but the principal part of her convoy departed on the 31st July for 
India, without touching here. 

. . . The America will sail tomorrow for St. Helena to proceed 
from thence for England on the 25th August with the India 
Company's Ships and Southern "Whalers agreeable to their Lord- 
ships commands. ... I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

426 Records of the Cape Colony. 

Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to General Craig. 

Cape Town 3rd August 1796. 

Sir,— His Majesty's Ship America is now under sailing orders 
for Britain, you will therefore be pleased to direct the Frenchman 
you mention to be conducted on board the America and orders 
will be given to his being received and delivered as you desire. 
The two men likewise mentioned in your letter shall be accommo- 
dated with a passage in the America, but cannot be received as 
Prisoners not being convicted of a crime. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

Letter from General Craig to William Huskisson, Esqre. 

Castle op Good Hope 3rd Aug. 1796. 

Dear Sir, — By the opportunity of the America I have sent out 
of this province two men whose practices have put me under a 
necessity of securing their persons until an occasion should offer 
by which I could get rid of them. One of them is a fellow of no 
sort of consequence and my conduct towards him has been more 
intended as a warning to others than as a measure of precaution 
against any danger from him, his name is Johannes Khonkul. 
The other stands in a very different light, being a fellow of some 
talents and most dangerous principles, his name is Hubert Dirk 

This fellow was one of the leaders of the Jacobin party in 
Commissary Sluysken's time, to whom he on some occasions 
behaved with great insolence, continuing in the same principles 
since we came into possession of the place, he was early pointed 
out to me as one against whose practices it was necessary to be on 
my guard, as however it has been my constant wish to avoid any 
occasion of severity until it became indispensably necessary, I did 
not take any notice of him untill the vigilance of Mr. Bresler the 
Landrost of Graafe Eeinet intercepted a Letter of his to the people 
there full of the most scandalous falsehoods and misrepresentations 

Records of the Cape Colony. 427 

inciting them to the insurrection which has since taken place, in 
consequence of this I had him taken up and his papers seized, 
amongst them we found a Journal of every transaction since our 
arrival in which any Inhabitants of the Country had taken a part 
with us, every Proclamation affixed by the Fiscal is particularly 
noticed, and one article is — " this day Vander Eiet came to Town 
to celebrate the Prince of Orange's birthday with the English." 

I have requested that the arrival of these people may be reported 
to Mr. Dundas before they are permitted to land, as to the first it 
is of no consequence what becomes of him, but if means could be 
found to prevent Campagne from going to Holland during the 
continuance of the War I should think it would be expedient. 

I am &c., 
(Signed) J. H. Craig. 

Letter from Admiral Elphin stone to Evan Nepean, Esqre. 

H.M.S. Monarch, Simon's Bay, 

Capb op Good Hops, the ith August 1796. 

Sir, — I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
of the 12th February relative to the ceremony of baptism performed 
by Captain Stanhope at the Cape, and I now inclose sundry papers 
relative to that subject ; the distance however of Cape Town and 
the expence attendant on conveying the Persons from thence to 
this bay, authorised to administer Affidavits, have occasioned the 
declaration of some of the parties to be made before Bear Admiral 

My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty will observe from 
the inclosures, that it was Captain Stanhope's proposal to baptize 
the Child, and not the request of the Parents, and that the Child 
was in perfect health. 

I forbear further observations, but beg leave to remark that my 
conduct towards Captain Stanhope so long as he was under my 
command deserved a better return as a Man and more respect as 
an Officer. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

428 Records of the Cape Colony. 

[Office Copy.] 
Letter from, the War Office to Major-General Craig. 

Parliament Street 8 Augt. 1796. 

Sir, — It having been judged advisable to make some addition 
to the Strength of the Garrison of the Cape of Good Hope, it has 
appeared to me that a Eegiment of Cavalry would form the most 
useful reinforcement in the present state of the interior of the 
Colony under your command. Orders have therefore been given 
for the 8th Eegiment of Light Dragoons now embarked at Ports- 
mouth, intended for service in the East Indies, to land at the 
Cape, and to remain there until further orders, instead of pro- 
ceeding to their former destination. 


Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to His Excellency the 
Admiral or the Officer commanding the Ships of the United 
States now lying in Soldanha Bay. 

Sir, — It is unnecessary for me to detail the force I have the 
honor to command, because it is in your view, and speaks for 
itself, but it is for you to consider the efficacy of a Eesistance with 
the force under your command. 

Humanity is an incumbent duty on all men, therefore to spare 
an effusion of blood, I request a Surrender of the Ships under 
your command, otherwise it will be my duty to embrace the 
earliest moment of making a serious attack on them, the issue of 
which is not difficult for you to guess. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

His Britannick Majesty's Ship Monarch 
Soldanha Bay 16th August 1796. 

Records of the Cape Colony. 429 


Letter from Admiral Elphinstone to His Excellency the Bear- 
Admiral Commander in Chief of the Dutch Ships in Soldanha 

Sir, — I am this instant honored with your verbal answer to my 
letter of this date, as delivered to me by Lieutenant Coffin of the 
Monarch, if I understand him right, it is, that a Flag of Truce 
subsists between Your Excellency on the part of the States 
General, and myself on behalf of His Britannick Majesty, and 
as was demonstrated by my displaying a Flag of Truce before 
I dispatched the first Letter delivered to you by Lieutenant 
Coffin, and which Truce is to continue until daylight in the 
morning, it is therefore my duty to require a positive assurance 
that no damage shall be done to any of the Ships or Vessels of 
War, public stores, or effects, that may be placed under your 
command, otherwise I shall not consider myself in duty bound 
to restrain an immediate attack or to treat such Prisoners as may 
fall into my hands, in a manner suitable to my general inclination, 
or His Majesty's Orders in similar cases. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

His Britannick Majesty's Ship Monarch, 
Soldanha Bay the 16th August 1796. 

[Copy of Translation.] 
Letter from Admiral Lucas to Admiral Elphinstone. 

Excellency, — The two letters delivered to me by your 
Officer, from want of an Interpreter have taken a long time to 

Your Excellency may rest assured of receiving a positive 
answer tomorrow morning, and that during this time no damage 
whatever shall be done to the Vessels of my Squadron, which 
I promise you upon my honor. 

This time is necessary to call to my aid, the Captains of the 
Frigates detached at the bottom of the Bay, in order to hold 

430 Records of the Cape Colony. 

a Council of War, whom I am obliged to assemble on account of 
responsibility. I have &c. 

(Signed) Engelbertus Lucas. 

On board the Dortrecht, the 

16th August 1796. 

A true Translation. 

(Signed) John Jackson. 

[Copy of Translation.] 
Letter from Admiral Lucas to Admiral Elphinstone. 

Excellency, — Agreeable to my promise I send you Copy of 
Terms of Capitulation, which I doubt not you will grant. In this 
hope I am &c. 

(Signed) Engelbertus Lucas. 

Dortrecht at anchor in Soldanha Bay the 
17th August 1796, second Year of the 
Batavian Eepublican liberty. 

A true translation. 

(Signed) John Jackson. 

Letter from, Admiral Elphinstone to Admiral Lucas. 

Sir, — I have had the honor to receive your letter with the 
proposals of Capitulation, and I have now the honor to inclose 
you my letters and answers thereunto which I hope will be 
acceptable ; I have mentioned to Captain Claris my inclination 
to accommodate Your Excellency, and the other Officers inclined 
to return to Europe upon their parole, with the Maria Storeship, 
or in British Vessels, of which there are many at the Cape, but 
any of the public Armed Ships I dare not presume to permit to 

Your Excellency may rest assured of every good office within 

Records of the Cape Colony. 


my reach. . Should the inclosed Articles not meet with your 
approbation, you will be pleased to order the Flag of Truce to 
be hauled down, as a Signal, that either party may commence 
hostilities. I have &c. 

(Signed) G. K. Elphinstone. 

His Britannick Majesty's Ship Monarch, 
Saldanha Bay 17th August 1796. 

[Copy of Translation.] 

Articles of Capitulation agreed upon in Saldanha Bay this 17th of 
August 1796, between His Excellency Bear Admiral Engelbcrtns 
Lucas, Commander in CJiief of the Squadron of Ships of the 
United States, now lying in Saldanha Bay, and the Horible. Sir 
George Keith Elphinstone Knight of the most Honourable and 
Military Order of the Bath, Vice Admiral of the Blue and 
Commander in Chief of His Britannick Majesty's Ships and 
Vessels in the Indian Seas, at the Cape of Good Hope, and of 
those lying in Saldanha Bay. 


The Vice Admiral is actuated by 
principles of humanity, to prevent the 
effusion of human blood and considers 
the surrender of the Dutch Squadron 
as a matter of necessity, and not of 


Rear Admiral Lucas will deliver 
up to Vice Admiral Elphinstone the 
Squadron under his command upon 
Conditions of the Capitulation under- 


The British Admiral shall appoint 
two Ships as Cartels, the Frigates the 
Brave and Sireene, in which the Rear 
Admiral his Officers, and Midshipmen, 
and Ships Crews shall be permitted to 
proceed without hindrance to Holland, 
and the Officers shall keep their Side 

2nd Answer. 

Inadmissible by reason that the 
Cartel Ships sent from Toulon and 
various other places under similar 
circumstances have been detained, and 
their Crews imprisoned, contrary to 
the laws and usage of War, and the 
general good faith of nations; but 
Officers becoming Prisoners shall be 
allowed to keep and wear their 
Swords and Side Arms, so long as 
they behave with becoming propriety, 
and shall be treated with the respect 
due to their Ranks. 


Records of the Cape Colony. 


The Dutch Admiral, his Officers and 
Crew shall retain their Private Property 
without being searched, and the re- 
mainder of the Crew who cannot be 
received on board the two Frigates are 
to be sent to Holland in such manner 
as the British Admiral shall judge 


They shall be provided with such 
quantities of Provision as may be 
necessary for those who embark on 
board the two Frigates, and to be so 
provided from the Dutch Ships. 


These Cartel Ships on their arrival 
in Holland shall be sent to England, 
and there delivered to His Britannick 

The Crew shall be permitted to go 
on shore for refreshment after their 
long voyage. 

3rd Answer. 

Private Property of every denomina- 
tion must be secured to the Proprietors 
to the fullest extent, in consequence of 
British Acts of Parliament and His 
Britannick Majesty's positive orders, 
as well as from the general known 
disposition of British Officers to treat 
with the utmost liberality those who 
become their Prisoners. 

4th Answer. 
Answered by Article No. 6. 

5th Answer. 
Already answered by Article No. 2. 

6th Answer. 

This must depend on the Major 
General commanding the Troops 
ashore, but the Commander in Chief 
will use his utmost exertions to render 
the situation of every individual as 
comfortable as possible, as to Victual- 
ling, Lodging, and every accommoda- 
tion, either on board or on shore as 
can be procured, or reasonably ex-